Sec. 52-550. Statute of frauds; written agreement or memorandum. (a) No civil action may be maintained in the following cases unless the agreement, or a memorandum of the agreement, is made in writing and signed by the party, or the agent of the party, to be charged: (1) Upon any agreement to charge any executor or administrator, upon a special promise to answer damages out of his own property; (2) against any person upon any special promise to answer for the debt, default or miscarriage of another; (3) upon any agreement made upon consideration of marriage; (4) upon any agreement for the sale of real property or any interest in or concerning real property; (5) upon any agreement that is not to be performed within one year from the making thereof; or (6) upon any agreement for a loan in an amount which exceeds fifty thousand dollars.
(b) This section shall not apply to parol agreements for hiring or leasing real property, or any interest therein, for one year or less, in pursuance of which the leased premises have been or are actually occupied by the lessee, or any person claiming under him, during any part of the term.
(1949 Rev., S. 8293; P.A. 82-160, S. 218; P.A. 89-338, S. 3; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11, S. 39, 70.)
History: P.A. 82-160 replaced “estate” with “property”, rephrased the section and inserted Subsec. indicators; P.A. 89-338 added Subsec. (a)(6) re an agreement for a loan in an amount which exceeds $50,000; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11 made a technical change in Subsec. (a).
In general. The contract, if within statute, is not void, but the remedy only is denied. 23 C. 17; 36 C. 45; 81 C. 438; 110 C. 395. Advantage can be taken of statute under general denial; Practice Book, Sec. 116; 121 C. 403; but not upon demurrer. 2 R. 146. Demurrer permissible when from pleadings it appears impossible to offer competent evidence of necessary memorandum. 83 C. 120; 114 C. 542. Fraud will take case out of statute. 2 R. 163; 50 C. 491. A beneficial statute and not to be narrowed by rigid construction. 15 C. 403. Consideration is necessary whether promise is within statute or not. 22 C. 321; 31 C. 102. But consideration need not be expressed in the writing. 6 C. 87; 8 C. 10. A contract within statute, while executory, is of no legal effect. 25 C. 191. “Special promise” is actual, not one implied by law. 1 R. 150; 6 C. 85. Oral acceptance of bill of exchange is not a “special promise.” 46 C. 91. Parol proof of special contract of endorser of nonnegotiable note is admissible; but not to prove a mere collateral suretyship. 16 C. 234. If executed on one side, contract is thereby taken out of statute. 7 C. 226. Buildings, crops and earth itself, sold as separate from land, are personal property. 19 C. 165; 88 C. 3. Right to erect building upon land is an “interest” therein. 25 C. 240. The contracting vendor, as well as the vendee, is entitled to specific performance. 58 C. 21. Statute does not extend to trusts arising by operation of law. 59 C. 196. Plaintiff cannot rectify writing by oral testimony and then enforce the contract as thus rectified; but defendant may stand upon the writing simply in defense. 19 C. 73. There can be no recovery at law for the breach of a contract within statute. 18 C. 231. In equity, plaintiff may prove the oral agreement to show fraud, actual or constructive. 60 C. 54. Contract in statute cannot be used in defense. 80 C. 267, but see 83 C. 37. It may be used to show that services performed were not intended to be gratuitous. 83 C. 37; 101 C. 58. Memo may be typewritten and signed with rubber stamp. 73 C. 346. Letter saying that lease referred to is “all right” sufficient. 75 C. 679. Several writings may be connected by mutual reference. 76 C. 229. Record of vote of corporation signed by secretary held sufficient. 72 C. 66. Oral evidence is admissible to explain words or identify papers referred to; memo need not be intended for other party. 83 C. 120; 87 C. 90. If agreement is made with agent, subject to principal's approval, approval must be shown in writing. 83 C. 120. Modifications of contract must be in writing. 82 C. 297. Statute regards promises, not their consideration. 83 C. 688. Letter referring to prior oral agreement and agreement to be construed together. 85 C. 421. Use of contract as evidence, not as basis of action. 87 C. 80. Printed signature may suffice; its position on the paper does not matter. 91 C. 29. When demurrer lies to complaint setting out written memo. 83 C. 120. Memo must show all terms of agreement; 81 C. 575; and be signed by all concerned. 83 C. 120. Action for damages does not lie on contract within statute. 91 C. 29; 92 C. 416. Estoppel to set up statute. Id.; 124 C. 512. Equity cannot reform contract and then enforce it. 95 C. 211; 103 C. 297. But where defendant induces plaintiff to spend money in reliance on former's promise of parol lease, plaintiff may recover for amount so spent even though lease was within statute. 97 C. 533. Whether agreement restricting use of land creates an interest in land. 106 C. 246. One who has rendered services under an unenforceable agreement to receive compensation by devise of land may sue for the services rendered. 116 C. 111. Statute does not prevent proof of oral agreement modifying written contract when fully performed. 121 C. 186. Later oral contract, modifying instrument within statute, is not enforceable unless a complete contract and not within statute. 129 C. 682. Parol evidence admissible to prove inducement to enter into contract by misrepresentation of material facts. 145 C. 694. Defense of statute of frauds may be raised by demurrer. 148 C. 153. Need not be specially pleaded. 150 C. 8. Cited. 150 C. 481. Even if enforcement is precluded by statute, recovery can be had under quasi-contract. Id., 680. Unless there existed written memorandum satisfying requirements of statute of frauds, evidence indicating agreement is not legally sufficient to support court's conclusion that such agreement did exist. 159 C. 453. Oral agreements concerning interest in land are unenforceable. 164 C. 56. Conveyance of property held to be full performance by one party to contract so as to take that contract out of state of frauds regarding individual liability of party conveying property. 169 C. 389; 172 C. 210; 174 C. 535; 176 C. 442; 177 C. 22. A description of property in a listing agreement need not be as definite as in a contract for sale of land since contract employing a broker to sell land is not within statute of frauds. Id., 515. Cited. Id., 569; 178 C. 1; Id., 215; 179 C. 704. Lower court in error in allowing possible impact of unessential terms to invalidate a written memorandum that states essential terms with reasonable certainty. 181 C. 434. Cited. 182 C. 193; Id., 448; 184 C. 228; 185 C. 47; Id., 328; Id., 463; 186 C. 86; 188 C. 1; 190 C. 481; 197 C. 101; 200 C. 713; 201 C. 570; 202 C. 190; Id., 566; 204 C. 303; 207 C. 555; 208 C. 352; 214 C. 641; 215 C. 316; 216 C. 509; 218 C. 512; 232 C. 294; 237 C. 123. Trial court improperly instructed jury on statute of frauds when it instructed jury that it could find that an exception to statute of frauds applied if it found that plaintiffs had proved either part performance of contract or detrimental reliance induced by defendant; although this court has occasionally used the terms interchangeably, it never intended that doctrines of equitable estoppel and of part performance operate as independent exceptions to statute of frauds; part performance is an essential element of the estoppel exception to statute of frauds. 274 C. 33. Statute of frauds, which governs disputes between parties to a contract, not applicable to case involving oral lease agreement because it did not involve a “contractual dispute”. 278 C. 660. Re action for specific performance on option to purchase real property where no written agreement existed for purchase price because cost of environmental remediation had not been determined, part performance of parties did not remove option from statute of frauds and did not provide remedy for specific performance. 293 C. 287.
Cited. 1 CA 566; Id., 634; 3 CA 34; 4 CA 46; 5 CA 358; Id., 394; 6 CA 595; 11 CA 375; Id., 439; 13 CA 677; 16 CA 240; 18 CA 581; 20 CA 58; 23 CA 522; 26 CA 305; 28 CA 739; 33 CA 662; 35 CA 31; 38 CA 420; Id., 772; 40 CA 261; 42 CA 413; Id., 712; 44 CA 402. Court rejected argument that partial payment of contract price is an act of part performance making contract enforceable regardless of statute of frauds; trial court's finding that contract satisfied statute of frauds was not clearly erroneous where trial court found that description of the land had been made sufficiently definite through reference to two contracts, a map attached to the contract, other maps and descriptions, plus testimony placed in evidence at trial. 49 CA 751. Statute of frauds requires that any modification to the note and mortgage be in writing. 62 CA 138.
Contract for sale of land not specific as to subsequent lien, void. 30 CS 30. Cited. 34 CS 107; Id., 620; 35 CS 24; 37 CS 27; Id., 579; Id., 698; 39 CS 95. Compliance with statute of frauds discussed. 41 CS 545.
In oral contract for sale of two building lots, plaintiff buyer could recover money held in escrow by attorney upon basis it would be unjust enrichment if defendant could retain it when conditions of escrow were not met. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 687. Statute of frauds is not good defense if promise was an original undertaking. 6 Conn. Cir. Ct. 112, 117. Oral contract for $1,000 to induce third person to sell land is not within statute of frauds, since subject matter of contract is not land or any interest therein. Id., 488.
Nature and requisites of memorandum. Advertisement of terms of sale, etc., held sufficient as against vendor. K. 15. Letter explaining purpose of deed, held sufficient memo of contract. 1 R. 171. Consideration need not be expressed in writing. 6 C. 87; 8 C. 10. Must contain subject matter, terms and names of parties. 10 C. 198; 108 C. 687. Must disclose name of vendor. 10 C. 199; 56 C. 105. What description of subject matter is sufficient. 10 C. 199. Written vote of corporation, held a sufficient memorandum. 26 C. 109; 72 C. 66. Assumption of firm debts by succeeding corporation, held valid. 26 C. 109. Whether the acceptance of a deed poll may not be a sufficient compliance with statute, quaere. 36 C. 55; 42 C. 254. Oral negotiation followed by written offer and answer “to proceed” sufficient. 40 C. 522. Memorandum signed and dated back by repudiated agent insufficient. Id., 455. Signature of auctioneer is a sufficient signing. 56 C. 105. Plaintiff may enforce contract against signers though he himself failed to sign. 58 C. 18; 102 C. 479. Description of real estate held sufficiently definite. 58 C. 19. Special case; facts held not to show a sufficient signature by defendant. 63 C. 118, 119. General description of the land held too indefinite to comply with statute. Id., 118; 105 C. 413. Whether such description could be applied to the land intended, by extrinsic evidence, quaere. 63 C. 118. All terms of contract must be stated; 90 C. 193; time of delivery. 81 C. 575. Two papers may be read together. 75 C. 679; 101 C. 329. What constitutes signature. 91 C. 29. Making certain its terms by parol evidence. 92 C. 636. Memo of sale of goods which names parties, subject matter, price and place of delivery is sufficient. 93 C. 211. Requisites of memo for sale of real estate; sufficient to describe city property by street and number alone; parol proof may explain but not supplement its terms. 96 C. 541; 105 C. 413. Part of memorandum may be below signature. 101 C. 330. Defendant's signature under word “accepted” on nonnegotiable bill of exchange sufficient. 102 C. 558. “All my property, one house and two lots 100 x 100” held insufficient. 105 C. 413. Memorandum not naming nor describing purchaser insufficient. 99 C. 542. Memorandum held insufficient for failure to give details of mortgage; Id.; so where duration of purchase money mortgage is not disclosed. 101 C. 166; 105 C. 636. Map incorporated by reference in mutual deeds held a sufficient memorandum. 108 C. 540. Requisites of memorandum for sale of real estate; memorandum held insufficient in stating time of completion and payment. Id., 688. Power of attorney to A to convey land is not sufficient memorandum of agreement that A was to be owner. 114 C. 539. Memorandum not specifying how balance of purchase price of land was to be paid is not sufficient. 115 C. 721. “$8500 net” is sufficiently definite statement of price of real estate. 131 C. 290, 291. Exclusive agency contract by defendant with brokers is not memorandum for sale to plaintiff. 133 C. 573. Total purchase price and amount of purchase money mortgage indefinite; agreement held not sufficient; requisites of memorandum. 145 C. 669.
Agreement to answer for the debt, default or miscarriage of another. Rule stated for determining whether a given promise is within statute or not. 60 C. 76; 83 C. 686; 93 C. 265; 99 C. 163; 107 C. 51; 112 C. 389. If promise is merely collateral to the original debt, it must be in writing, whatever the consideration. 60 C. 81. Statute is just as binding in courts of equity as in courts of law. Id., 53. A contract void under statute is void for all purposes. Id., 367. Applies to special promise made by the executor or administrator to pay, out of his own estate, what he is already liable to pay in his representative capacity. Id., 75. Agreement in statute will not be implied. 82 C. 178. If there is new benefit to promisor and act is done on his request and credit, original undertaking ordinarily arises. 112 C. 391. Oral contracts or promises held within statute: For appearance of another or payment of debt. 1 R. 57. To pay loss if suit against another failed. 2 D. 457. By discharged endorser, to pay note if maker was not sued. 4 C. 122, 130. Promise by administrator without assets; 22 C. 323; aliter, when administrator has assets. 22 C. 323. Promise to A to pay his debts due others, within statute as to A's creditors; 31 C. 100; but not as to A. 22 C. 325. Promise made to one to whom another is answerable. Id.; 26 C. 109. Undertaking by one not before liable to perform same duty for which party for whom undertaking was made continues liable. 35 C. 350; 41 C. 196; 60 C. 71; 125 C. 500. Contracts of surety and guaranty. 31 C. 101; Id., 362. To answer for deficiency of tax collector. 41 C. 196. By third person to save endorser harmless. 52 C. 473. By third person to pay tax if collector would forbear to levy; 60 C. 76; aliter if arrangement releases original debtor. Id., 76, 77. Of owner of building to pay subcontractor if contractor did not. 60 C. 471. Agreement by officer of corporation personally to pay its debt in certain contingency; 76 C. 43; by corporation to pay for services rendered to another corporation which former organizes. 82 C. 178. A promise to indemnify promisee for becoming surety for a third person at the request of promisor is not within statute. 147 C. 1. Undertaking, by party not before liable, for purpose of securing, or for performance of, a duty for which party for whom undertaking is made continues liable is within statute as special promise to answer for debt, default or miscarriage of another; defense of statute of frauds need not be specially pleaded; unless X company was relieved of its obligation to pay plaintiff for work, oral promise by defendant to pay plaintiff for it constituted a collateral, rather than an original, undertaking and was within statute of frauds. 150 C. 8. Oral contracts or promises held not within statute: To pay for boarding son. 1 R. 90. Of principal to indemnify agent acting properly. 1 C. 522. By administrator to submit claim of estate to arbitration. 2 C. 691. Undertaking of assignee accepting trust. 3 C. 277. Of A to pay B one-half C might recover of D. 16 C. 553. Of A to pay for such articles as B should furnish C. 17 C. 119, 121. Contract of bailee under officer's receipt. 20 C. 494. Special agreement of contractor de erection of church. 23 C. 557. Of administrator to pay costs of suit. 28 C. 550. Accommodation paper. 31 C. 362. Promise which discharges debtor and assumes new obligation. 35 C. 349. By grantee in deed to assume mortgage debt. 42 C. 254. Promise to pay another with funds of promisee. 53 C. 181. Oral agreement to pay funds received of promisee to his creditor. 60 C. 80. By defendant to pay plaintiff his commissions for securing actors, out of actors' salaries, assented to by them. 62 C. 54–56. By owner, after failure of original contractor, with subcontractor for completion of work. Id., 86. Promise to indemnify surety. 64 C. 273; 83 C. 686; 122 C. 26. Promise of president of corporation to pay for supplies to its employees held to be his independent agreement. 92 C. 587. Promise made to debtor to pay his debts. 93 C. 576. Performing services for contractor of building on owner's promise to pay, if contractor did not. 94 C. 502. Promise to pay for doctor's services to child injured by promisor's automobile. 99 C. 163. A father who ratifies his daughter's purchase of a fur coat and orally promises to pay for it; contract is enforceable. 107 C. 51. Oral agreement by seller of stock to repurchase at selling price if buyer became dissatisfied within 1 year is not within statute though stock was sold for over $100. 109 C. 598. Promise of agent that he would assume entire responsibility and give personal attention to shipment from principal. 112 C. 385. Agreement by original purchaser of truck to see that payments would be made after it was transferred to another. 124 C. 383. Direct promise of mortgagee to pay for rebuilding stores. 126 C. 579. Oral agreement of sale though not enforceable under statute may entitle broker to commission. 144 C. 555. A promise to indemnify the promisee for becoming surety for a third person, at the request of the promisor, is not within statute. 147 C. 1.
Agreement for the sale of real estate. “Agreement” contemplates a transfer of some portion of the title. 61 C. 483. Stipulations collateral to the contract of sale, but contained therein, may be enforced, if the action does not tend to enforce the sale or purchase of the interest in land. 62 C. 46; 109 C. 525. Sufficiency of memorandum in general; admissibility of parol evidence to explain it. 87 C. 90. Land must be described with reasonable certainty. 90 C. 281; 91 C. 29. Law applies as well to action by vendee for damages as to one for specific performance. Id. Any modification of original agreement must be in writing. 82 C. 293. Promisor estopped to set up statute by improvements made by promisee in reliance on oral agreement to reconvey. 124 C. 507. Recital of valuable consideration in an absolute deed is sufficient to rebut a claim of a resulting trust by oral agreement. 113 C. 470; 121 C. 159. Contracts or promises held within statute: Of grantor to pay grantee for any lack of agreed acreage; K. 24; aliter; 1 R. 74; 62 C. 45. Grantee's promise to pay more if land should exceed estimated acreage. 1 D. 23. To build and rent store with wharf for 3 years. 18 C. 228. Right to perpetually divert water upon land cannot be acquired by oral license. 23 C. 223. Agreement to dispose of equitable interest in land. 27 C. 316. Oral promise to devise real estate to plaintiff. 60 C. 50. Oral agreement to convey land in consideration of services rendered. 62 C. 373. Oral promise to will one's property to another, in consideration of the latter's services and companionship, is within, if promisor leaves real as well as personal estate; 63 C. 536; 83 C. 34; but not if he leaves only personal estate; 82 C. 652; but action of quantum meruit lies and agreement may be admissible in evidence. 82 C. 648; 83 C. 34. Express trust of real estate; 66 C. 499; 75 C. 1; 84 C. 560; 124 C. 144; 130 C. 294; but see where trust arose in another state and claim was for proceeds of land sold. 81 C. 436. Offer of mortgagee at auction sale of property to let certain sum “remain” on land. 70 C. 92. Approval of principal, where land sold to agent subject to it. 83 C. 120. Agreement for release of mortgage. 92 C. 416. Contracts or promises held not within statute: The conditions attending the delivery of a deed in escrow may, as between the parties, be proved by parol. 2 R. 81, 82. Promise to pay what land was reasonably worth for its use and occupation. 2 R. 150. Not to use land in certain manner. 3 D. 484. Agreement for sale of fixtures capable of separation. 3 D. 484. Statute only requires that the agreement on which the action is brought should be in writing. 2 C. 304. Collateral conditions are provable by parol. 2 C. 304. Agreement to share profits of land speculation. 4 C. 573. Implied trust de purchase and ownership of land is provable by parol. 16 C. 401; 35 C. 169; 59 C. 199. Also an express trust if partially performed. 16 C. 401. Oral partition of division fence. 29 C. 429. That builder should own building erected on promisor's land. 34 C. 523. Oral agreement not to carry on a particular kind of business on premises sold. 61 C. 483. Oral promise by grantor to repay grantee the difference in value between actual frontage and the frontage stated in deed. 62 C. 45. Agreement with real estate broker for his services. 76 C. 308; 79 C. 297; 131 C. 378; 133 C. 209, 210. Obligation of water company to sell plant to town, arising under legislative act. 80 C. 646. Oral promise to account for money received from sale of land. 81 C. 433; 109 C. 525. Implied obligation of owner of land to refund money paid under contract for future sale after he has sold land to a third person. 82 C. 383; 90 C. 281. Agency to sell land and execute memorandum. 83 C. 120. Agreement to buy land jointly, build house and share profits. 86 C. 453. Agreement for arbitration of boundary dispute. 87 C. 678. Sale of building to be removed. 88 C. 1; 90 C. 289. Surrender of land by vendee in possession, on default in payments due under contract. 90 C. 555. Authority to sell land and sign contract may be created by parol. 96 C. 84. Absolute deed may be construed as mortgage. 91 C. 571; 93 C. 61; 97 C. 196; 109 C. 525. Memorandum not naming or describing purchaser held insufficient. 99 C. 542. Agreement held insufficient as to mortgage details; Id.; so where duration of purchase money mortgage is not disclosed. 101 C. 166; 105 C. 636. Executed parol agreement for division fence not within statute. 101 C. 290. Oral agreement to release blanket mortgage from lot as soon as house erected thereon is unenforceable. 108 C. 30. Memorandum held insufficient for lack of statement as to time of payment and completion. Id., 688. Where an oral agreement is executed as to that part relating to realty, balance of agreement may be proved by parol. 109 C. 525. Power of real estate agent to enter written agreement to sell. 144 C. 541. Oral agreement of sale though not enforceable under statute may entitle broker to commission. Id., 555. Total purchase price and amount of purchase money mortgage indefinite; agreement held not sufficient. 145 C. 669. Agreement to sell did not specify conditions of repayment in regard to a purchase money mortgage; held to violate the statute of frauds. 148 C. 153. Agreement calling for total purchase price of $30,000 with stipulation as to payments totaling only $25,000 held unenforceable. 149 C. 236. Cited. 150 C. 481.
Lease of real estate. Oral agreement to lease for a term of years is within statute. 1 R. 549; 21 C. 403; 22 C. 403; 80 C. 263; 82 C. 413. The terms of such an agreement admissible in evidence as bearing on amount of rent due. 22 C. 433; 23 C. 59. Status of an oral lease which is within statute. 23 C. 312; 80 C. 455; 82 C. 414; 86 C. 34. Agreement defining terms of existing tenancy is in statute; 80 C. 507; so one for possession of premises until a controversy is settled; 80 C. 504; and one not to be performed in year. 86 C. 32. Letter saying lease is “all right” held sufficient memorandum; 75 C. 681; but agreement failing to state length of term is insufficient. 80 C. 267. Agreement for lease for 2 years is in statute; receipt for rent may constitute sufficient memorandum. 92 C. 226. Agreement for extension of lease on notice does not require new lease or written notice. 95 C. 454. Defectively executed lease for more than 1 year is binding between parties if evidenced by memorandum sufficient under statute of frauds. 102 C. 479. Statute not applicable to oral modification of lease, reducing rent, where reduced rent has actually been accepted. 120 C. 572. Entry and payment of rent under a lease may constitute such part performance as to estop lessor from setting up statute. 128 C. 619. Option to purchase decedent's homestead excepting “the houselot of about one acre, together with the house and garage situated thereon” too uncertain to satisfy statute. 156 C. 175.
Memorandum of agreement for sale of real property complies with statute when buyer seeks to charge seller with specific performance and seller's agreement was definite and enforceable, although buyer-plaintiff's agreement was conditional on his obtaining a mortgage. 28 CS 114.
Written agreement to purchase land whose extent and price were left to future determination held on demurrer not to satisfy statute of frauds. 5 Conn. Cir. Ct. 439.
Partial performance and its effect. An oral agreement respecting real estate, executed in part, will be specifically enforced. K. 400; 2 R. 163, 165; 2 D. 225; 5 D. 71; 7 C. 348; 13 C. 491; 14 C. 122; 16 C. 401; 18 C. 229; 26 C. 373; 27 C. 341; 29 C. 429; 35 C. 181; 36 C. 55, 56; 80 C. 267; 85 C. 635; 88 C. 547; 91 C. 651; 92 C. 416; 98 C. 318. Acts of performance admissible before contract is specifically proved. 16 C. 402. What acts constitute part performance. 18 C. 229; 37 C. 14; 98 C. 319; 101 C. 328; 108 C. 690; 112 C. 429; 113 C. 301. What acts are insufficient. 1 R. 59; 19 C. 74; 63 C. 539–545; 108 C. 690. The acts relied upon as part performance must afford satisfactory evidence of the original contract. 2 R. 165. Mere payment in part execution is insufficient. 27 C. 316; 108 C. 690. Agreement will not be taken out of statute at law, unless performance is complete. 18 C. 231; 122 C. 510. Reason for specifically enforcing an oral contract which is partially performed. 19 C. 74. Acts must be inexplicable on any theory save that of agreement; 75 C. 1; and this presents question of law. 69 C. 104. Payment is not a part of performance. 88 C. 548; 108 C. 690. Estoppel to claim under statute. 92 C. 416; 124 C. 512. True basis of part performance is estoppel. 124 C. 516. Estoppel against setting up statute need not be pleaded. Id., 510. Entry and payment of rent under a lease may constitute such part performance as to estop lessor from setting up statute. 128 C. 619. Buyer's possession as part performance; 98 C. 315; 101 C. 323, 328; 110 C. 392; 112 C. 427. Buyer's use of uncompleted house for storage of furniture plus seller's declaration that house was sold. 101 C. 328. Part performance of agreement not to be performed within a year. 106 C. 243. Part performance to make effective an oral agreement must be referable to it and consistent with its terms. 113 C. 475. Giving of power of attorney to A not part performance of oral agreement to convey to him. 114 C. 539. Doctrine of part performance is purely equitable; not available in action for damages for breach of contract within statute. 122 C. 507. Acts relied upon by plaintiff must be acts done by himself. 124 C. 148.
Allegations in complaint that plaintiff fulfilled obligations under a forbearance agreement by executing and delivering a note and mortgage and executing a guarantee were sufficient to bring case within the doctrine of part performance and preclude application of section. 151 CA 549.
Agreement upon consideration of marriage. Contract to marry is not within statute. 20 C. 508. Antenuptial promise based on forbearance to sue is not within statute, although made in contemplation of marriage. 25 C. 159.
Agreement not to be performed within 1 year. Oral agreement to let mill for 3 years, furnish dyestuffs, etc., within. 1 R. 549. Oral lease for more than 1 year, within. 22 C. 403. If performance may take place within 1 year, as an agreement to labor for 1 year, contract is not within; 12 C. 460, 461; 61 C. 484; 101 C. 57; aliter if services are not to begin at once. 16 C. 250. Oral agreement to build store within 6 months and lease it for 3 years, not within. 18 C. 232. Mere expectation of nonperformance within a year does not bring the case within statute. 20 C. 508. The terms of an oral contract for labor, within statute, are admissible as tending to prove what the services were reasonably worth. 25 C. 191, 401. Contract of apprenticeship to continue more than 1 year is within. 18 C. 341. Contract for employment for a year to begin at subsequent day is within statute; 85 C. 421; but not a mere agreement for an increase of salary “per year”. 87 C. 79. Contract to bequeath in consideration of care until death is not within statute; depends upon continuance of life. 101 C. 57. Part performance as taking out of statute. 106 C. 243.
Agreement for sale of personal property. Performance on one side takes case out of statute. 2 R. 191, 387. Shares of stock of corporation within; 15 C. 403; 50 C. 491; 99 C. 172; but not agreement by seller to repurchase if unsatisfactory. 109 C. 598. Delivery of stock certificates a sufficient symbolical delivery of shares. 50 C. 491. Buildings, crops and earth itself, sold as separate from land, are personal property. 19 C. 165; 88 C. 3. Oral, to manufacture and deliver special article, not within. 20 C. 53. Delivery of bill of sale is vendor's execution of contract. 26 C. 374. Facts held to show a sale and not a contract to manufacture. 29 C. 511. If part of entire contract is within, the whole is within; delivery at a distance from place of sale does not take case out of statute. Id., 515. Executed contracts de division of personalty not within. Id., 429. Oral, that builder should own structure erected on promisor's land, not within; but a sale after erection must be in writing. 34 C. 523. Subsequent tender and acceptance have same effect as original delivery. 44 C. 139. Includes sale of house to be severed from land; 88 C. 1; 90 C. 289; so sale of shares of stock. 90 C. 342. Agreement to enter jointly into purchase and sale of goods held not in statute. 93 C. 580. Agreement need not fix time of delivery or payment, as reasonable time will be implied. 96 C. 88. Interest in corporation where no stock certificates issued. 100 C. 60. Contract to supply and install plumbing fixtures, for a single price which included labor and incidental materials, not within statute. 110 C. 241. Memorandum held inadequate. 134 C. 376. Memorandum held sufficient. Id., 469. Resulting trust may be proved by parol evidence. 135 C. 378. Option to purchase satisfied statute. 136 C. 41. Where relationship of parties gives rise to constructive trust. Id., 352. Letter offering property, his lease, his occupation of property and other facts provide sufficient description. 138 C. 227. Allegations of complaint held sufficient to enable plaintiff vendor to produce evidence of acts of part performance. Id., 605.
Delivery, acceptance and receipt. What constitutes sufficient acceptance to take contracts out of statute; 13 C. 332; is question of fact. 90 C. 193. Goods set apart, and verbal delivery to vendee standing by, sufficient; such delivery not symbolical. 17 C. 173. Subsequent tender and acceptance have same effect as original delivery. 44 C. 139. Delivery of stock certificate sufficient delivery of shares. 50 C. 491. Acceptance by vendee must be an actual receiving on his part of the whole or part of the property sold; acceptance may be sufficient to pass title and yet insufficient to remove case from statute; facts held insufficient to show such an acceptance as would remove case from statute. 60 C. 366. Where no actual change of possession, it must clearly appear that continued possession of vendor is that of bailee for vendee. 75 C. 377; 76 C. 232. What constitutes acceptance. 90 C. 342. Constructive delivery and acceptance; shares of stock. Id.; 99 C. 173. Receipt of part of one shipment as taking case out of statute. 93 C. 580; Id., 639; 102 C. 634. Direction of seller to buyer to purchase shares in open market held part performance because creating agency. 99 C. 173. But seller's oral agreement with buyer to repurchase shares of stock at any time within 1 year if buyer becomes dissatisfied is enforceable. 109 C. 598. Efforts of defendant to sell stock after delivery as indicative of acceptance. 113 C. 761.
Contract unenforceable as one which could not be performed within 1 year. Doctrine of part performance not applicable to such contracts. 137 C. 488. Full performance by one party to a contract takes it out of statute. 138 C. 94.
Oral promise to make a bequest in consideration of marriage made after marriage held within the prohibition of section. 1 CS 1; Id., 26. What plaintiff may prove by extrinsic evidence. Id., 61; 13 CS 78; 14 CS 454; 15 CS 60; Id., 190. Effect of failure to show that agreement could not be performed in 1 year. 3 CS 102. Effect of oral renewal of lease; renewal and continuance distinguished. Id., 146. Oral promise to reimburse town for relief furnished to one of its inhabitants not within statute of frauds. 11 CS 295. What is a sufficiently definite description. 13 CS 78. Not essential that promisee sign memorandum. Id., 456; 15 CS 57. The written memorandum must state all the essential terms of the agreement with such certainty that there is no need to recourse to parol evidence. 13 CS 420; 14 CS 356; Id., 367. Provision “the buyer to have first refusal” is too indefinite as to terms to satisfy statute of frauds. 13 CS 459. Cited. 14 CS 273. Equitable estoppel may be invoked against one claiming the benefit of statute. Id., 351. The essential terms of a sales contract are that the sale has been made and the name of the purchaser. Id., 356. Demurrer will lie if it appears impossible to produce any competent evidence of a memorandum. Id., 426. Plaintiff is entitled to prove by extrinsic evidence that defendant owned a single piece of land in Lakeville where memorandum read for “my Lakeville property”. Id., 454. Cited. 15 CS 447; 16 CS 51; 17 CS 273; 18 CS 177. Oral representation by developer that lots would be same size and shape as delineated on map not enforceable. 19 CS 6. Where subcontractor induced to complete work on owner's promise, “I'll see that you get your money”, it was not enforceable under section. Id., 98. Cited. Id., 355. What constitutes part performance of a contract for the sale of land so as to remove it from statute of frauds. 21 CS 88. Where plaintiff gave defendant $1,000 down payment for land on promise of defendant to return it if plaintiff couldn't get mortgage and where the agreement to buy the land was oral, held defense of statute of frauds was unavailable to defendant and plaintiff was entitled to have the deposit back. 23 CS 442. Agreement with real estate broker is for personal services and not within statute of frauds. 26 CS 193. Administrative regulation prescribing form for such agreement held not to alter statute of frauds. Id., 194. Cited. 32 CS 511. Where goods were sold to corporation on personal credit of sole stockholder and principal officer, without personal or direct benefit to him, conclusion that oral agreement to pay was unenforceable held error. 33 CS 528.
Where written agreement for sale of land provides that portion of purchase price shall be secured by mortgage, agreement must fix time mortgage is to run. 3 Conn. Cir. Ct. 85. Statute is not defense to action for recovery of value of improvements to property made by lessee in reliance upon oral agreement to sell property so improved. 4 Conn. Cir. Ct. 437, 439, 440.
Subdiv. (5): Contract of indefinite duration is not subject to “one year” provision. 202 C. 190. Subdiv. (5): Oral contract that does not say in express terms that performance is to have a specific duration beyond 1 year is the functional equivalent of a contract of indefinite duration for purposes of statute of frauds and thus is unenforceable as outside of statute's prescription. 220 C. 569. Cited. 221 C. 236. Contract did not violate statute of frauds re Subdiv. (4) interest in real property or Subdiv. (5) agreement not to be performed within 1 year. 245 C. 640.
Cited. 5 CA 240; 13 CA 527; 23 CA 579; 33 CA 662; 38 CA 329; Id., 333; Id., 420; Id., 772; 42 CA 413; 45 CA 466. In the absence of case law construing Subdiv. (6), it is deemed appropriate to apply its provisions in accordance with limitations and caveats that have been engrafted on the other Subdivs. of Subsec. 63 CA 832. Agreement between parties not barred by statute of frauds. 69 CA 366. Due to lack of proof re existence and essential terms of an oral agreement, the alleged oral agreement violated statute of frauds. 70 CA 692. Subdiv. (4): Contract for sale of real estate that does not contain any designation of seller fails to satisfy statute. 85 CA 503. Statute did not apply to circumstances of case because contract governing son's debt had been fully performed and it is well-established that full performance by both parties to an oral contract will operate to remove a contract from the provisions of statute, and cause of action concerned property owners' default on their mortgage loan rather than an action to enforce property owners' promise to pay part of son's debt. 89 CA 200. Subdiv. (4): Although part performance may be sufficient to take a contract out of statute of frauds, plaintiffs' maintenance of city landscaping on the land was evidence of an agreement between plaintiffs and the city, not evidence of an agreement between plaintiffs and defendant to sell the land. 99 CA 294. Subdiv. (4): Because claim for negligent misrepresentation sounds in tort and not in contract, statute of frauds does not bar such claim. 116 CA 483. Subdiv. (5): Primary purpose of statute of frauds is to provide reliable evidence of the existence and terms of the contract, but an oral settlement agreement within framework of original lawsuit that was placed on the record before the trial judge and assented to by counsel for the parties is binding, as if the agreement were in writing and signed by the party to be charged, regardless of whether the agreement could be performed within a year. 132 CA 209. Subdiv. (4): Plaintiffs maintaining a civil action challenging the discretionary determination of the common interest association under Subdiv. are precluded from asserting the statute of fraud because section operates as a special defense to a civil action and accordingly may only be asserted as a shield to defeat a cause of action and not as a sword to seek a judicial remedy for a wrong. 174 CA 18. Subdiv. (6): Credit card agreement does not constitute a loan as contemplated by the statute of frauds. 174 CA 472.
Cited. 39 CS 188.
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Sec. 52-551. Sale of personal property. Section 52-551 is repealed.
(1949 Rev., S. 8294; 1959, P.A. 133, S. 10-102.)
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