CHAPTER 14

FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT

Table of Contents

Sec. 1-200. (Formerly Sec. 1-18a). Definitions.

Sec. 1-206. (Formerly Sec. 1-21i). Denial of access to public records or meetings. Appeals. Notice. Orders. Civil penalty. Petition for relief from vexatious requester. Service of process upon commission. Frivolous appeals. Appeal re state hazardous waste program records.

Sec. 1-210. (Formerly Sec. 1-19). Access to public records. Exempt records.

Sec. 1-227. (Formerly Sec. 1-21c). Provision of notice of meetings to persons filing written request. Fees.

Sec. 1-228. (Formerly Sec. 1-21d). Adjournment of meetings. Notice.

Sec. 1-232. (Formerly Sec. 1-21h). Conduct of meetings.


Sec. 1-200. (Formerly Sec. 1-18a). Definitions. As used in this chapter, the following words and phrases have the following meanings, except where such terms are used in a context which clearly indicates the contrary:

(1) “Public agency” or “agency” means:

(A) Any executive, administrative or legislative office of the state or any political subdivision of the state and any state or town agency, any department, institution, bureau, board, commission, authority or official of the state or of any city, town, borough, municipal corporation, school district, regional district or other district or other political subdivision of the state, including any committee of, or created by, any such office, subdivision, agency, department, institution, bureau, board, commission, authority or official, and also includes any judicial office, official, or body or committee thereof but only with respect to its or their administrative functions, and for purposes of this subparagraph, “judicial office” includes, but is not limited to, the Division of Public Defender Services;

(B) Any person to the extent such person is deemed to be the functional equivalent of a public agency pursuant to law; or

(C) Any “implementing agency”, as defined in section 32-222.

(2) “Meeting” means any hearing or other proceeding of a public agency, any convening or assembly of a quorum of a multimember public agency, and any communication by or to a quorum of a multimember public agency, whether in person or by means of electronic equipment, to discuss or act upon a matter over which the public agency has supervision, control, jurisdiction or advisory power. “Meeting” does not include: Any meeting of a personnel search committee for executive level employment candidates; any chance meeting, or a social meeting neither planned nor intended for the purpose of discussing matters relating to official business; strategy or negotiations with respect to collective bargaining; a caucus of members of a single political party notwithstanding that such members also constitute a quorum of a public agency; an administrative or staff meeting of a single-member public agency; and communication limited to notice of meetings of any public agency or the agendas thereof. A quorum of the members of a public agency who are present at any event which has been noticed and conducted as a meeting of another public agency under the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act shall not be deemed to be holding a meeting of the public agency of which they are members as a result of their presence at such event.

(3) “Caucus” means (A) a convening or assembly of the enrolled members of a single political party who are members of a public agency within the state or a political subdivision, or (B) the members of a multimember public agency, which members constitute a majority of the membership of the agency, or the other members of the agency who constitute a minority of the membership of the agency, who register their intention to be considered a majority caucus or minority caucus, as the case may be, for the purposes of the Freedom of Information Act, provided (i) the registration is made with the office of the Secretary of the State for any such public agency of the state, in the office of the clerk of a political subdivision of the state for any public agency of a political subdivision of the state, or in the office of the clerk of each municipal member of any multitown district or agency, (ii) no member is registered in more than one caucus at any one time, (iii) no such member's registration is rescinded during the member's remaining term of office, and (iv) a member may remain a registered member of the majority caucus or minority caucus regardless of whether the member changes his or her party affiliation under chapter 143.

(4) “Person” means natural person, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, association or society.

(5) “Public records or files” means any recorded data or information relating to the conduct of the public's business prepared, owned, used, received or retained by a public agency, or to which a public agency is entitled to receive a copy by law or contract under section 1-218, whether such data or information be handwritten, typed, tape-recorded, videotaped, printed, photostated, photographed or recorded by any other method.

(6) “Executive sessions” means a meeting of a public agency at which the public is excluded for one or more of the following purposes: (A) Discussion concerning the appointment, employment, performance, evaluation, health or dismissal of a public officer or employee, provided that such individual may require that discussion be held at an open meeting; (B) strategy and negotiations with respect to pending claims or pending litigation to which the public agency or a member thereof, because of the member's conduct as a member of such agency, is a party until such litigation or claim has been finally adjudicated or otherwise settled; (C) matters concerning security strategy or the deployment of security personnel, or devices affecting public security; (D) discussion of the selection of a site or the lease, sale or purchase of real estate by the state or a political subdivision of the state when publicity regarding such site, lease, sale, purchase or construction would adversely impact the price of such site, lease, sale, purchase or construction until such time as all of the property has been acquired or all proceedings or transactions concerning same have been terminated or abandoned; and (E) discussion of any matter which would result in the disclosure of public records or the information contained therein described in subsection (b) of section 1-210.

(7) “Personnel search committee” means a body appointed by a public agency, whose sole purpose is to recommend to the appointing agency a candidate or candidates for an executive-level employment position. Members of a “personnel search committee” shall not be considered in determining whether there is a quorum of the appointing or any other public agency.

(8) “Pending claim” means a written notice to an agency which sets forth a demand for legal relief or which asserts a legal right stating the intention to institute an action in an appropriate forum if such relief or right is not granted.

(9) “Pending litigation” means (A) a written notice to an agency which sets forth a demand for legal relief or which asserts a legal right stating the intention to institute an action before a court if such relief or right is not granted by the agency; (B) the service of a complaint against an agency returnable to a court which seeks to enforce or implement legal relief or a legal right; or (C) the agency's consideration of action to enforce or implement legal relief or a legal right.

(10) “Freedom of Information Act” means this chapter.

(11) “Governmental function” means the administration or management of a program of a public agency, which program has been authorized by law to be administered or managed by a person, where (A) the person receives funding from the public agency for administering or managing the program, (B) the public agency is involved in or regulates to a significant extent such person's administration or management of the program, whether or not such involvement or regulation is direct, pervasive, continuous or day-to-day, and (C) the person participates in the formulation of governmental policies or decisions in connection with the administration or management of the program and such policies or decisions bind the public agency. “Governmental function” shall not include the mere provision of goods or services to a public agency without the delegated responsibility to administer or manage a program of a public agency.

(12) “Electronic equipment” means any technology that facilitates real-time public access to meetings, including, but not limited to, telephonic, video or other conferencing platforms.

(13) “Electronic transmission” means any form or process of communication not directly involving the physical transfer of paper or another tangible medium, which (A) is capable of being retained, retrieved and reproduced by the recipient, and (B) is retrievable in paper form by the recipient.

(P.A. 75-342, S. 1; P.A. 77-421; 77-609, S. 1, 8; P.A. 83-67, S. 1; 83-372; P.A. 84-546, S. 3, 173; P.A. 87-568, S. 1, 2; P.A. 90-307, S. 2, 5; P.A. 91-140, S. 1, 3; P.A. 93-195, S. 1; P.A. 95-79, S. 2, 189; P.A. 97-47, S. 1; P.A. 00-136, S. 1; P.A. 01-169, S. 1; P.A. 02-130, S. 17; P.A. 11-220, S. 1; P.A. 13-263, S. 7; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 21-2, S. 147.)

History: P.A. 77-421 deleted reference to court of common pleas, probate court and juvenile court in Subsec. (a); P.A. 77-609 redefined “meeting” and “executive sessions”; P.A. 83-67 amended Subsec. (a) by including any state, municipal or district authority within the meaning of “agency” or “public agency”; P.A. 83-372 included within the definition of “agency” or “public agency” any committee formed by a body previously defined as an agency or public agency; P.A. 84-546 included committees of authorities in definition of “public agency”; P.A. 87-568 excluded from definition of “meeting” any “meeting of a personnel search committee for executive level employment candidates” and added Subsec. (f), defining “personnel search committee”; P.A. 90-307 added Subsec. (g) re exception to meeting provisions; P.A. 91-140 inserted new Subsecs. (g) and (h), defining “pending claim” and “pending litigation”, and relettered former Subsec. (g) as Subsec. (i); P.A. 93-195 inserted “, or created by,” in definition of “public agency” or “agency” in Subsec. (a); P.A. 95-79 redefined “person” to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 97-47 replaced alphabetic Subdiv. indicators with numbers, transferred quorum provisions (formerly Subdiv. (i)) to Subdiv. (2), defining “meeting”, and added Subdiv. (10) defining “Freedom of Information Act”; Sec. 1-18a transferred to Sec. 1-200 in 1999; P.A. 00-136 redefined “public agency” in Subdiv. (1) to include implementing agencies, as defined in Sec. 32-222; P.A. 01-169 amended definition of “public agency” in Subdiv. (1) by making technical changes, dividing Subdiv. into Subparas. and adding Subpara. (B) to include any person to extent such person is deemed the functional equivalent of a public agency, amended definition of “public records or files” in Subdiv. (5) by adding “or to which a public agency is entitled to receive a copy by law or contract under section 1-218”, made a technical change for the purposes of gender neutrality in Subdiv. (6) and added Subdiv. (11) defining “governmental function”; P.A. 02-130 made a technical change in Subdiv. (1)(C), substituted “does not” for “shall not” in Subdiv. (2) and amended definition of “caucus” in Subdiv. (3) to designate existing provisions as Subpara. (A) and add Subpara. (B) re members of a multimember public agency, effective May 10, 2002; P.A. 11-220 amended Subdiv. (1)(A) to define “judicial office”; P.A. 13-263 redefined “executive sessions” in Subdiv. (6)(D), effective July 11, 2013; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 21-2 made a technical change, redefined “public records or files” in Subdiv. (5), added Subdiv. (12) defining “electronic equipment”, and added Subdiv. (13) defining “electronic transmission”, effective June 23, 2021.

Sec. 1-206. (Formerly Sec. 1-21i). Denial of access to public records or meetings. Appeals. Notice. Orders. Civil penalty. Petition for relief from vexatious requester. Service of process upon commission. Frivolous appeals. Appeal re state hazardous waste program records. (a) Any denial of the right to inspect or copy records provided for under section 1-210 shall be made to the person requesting such right by the public agency official who has custody or control of the public record, in writing, within four business days of such request, except when the request is determined to be subject to subsections (b) and (c) of section 1-214, in which case such denial shall be made, in writing, within ten business days of such request. Failure to comply with a request to so inspect or copy such public record within the applicable number of business days shall be deemed to be a denial.

(b) (1) Any person denied the right to inspect or copy records under section 1-210 or wrongfully denied the right to attend any meeting of a public agency or denied any other right conferred by the Freedom of Information Act may appeal therefrom to the Freedom of Information Commission, by filing a notice of appeal with said commission. A notice of appeal shall be filed not later than thirty days after such denial, except in the case of an unnoticed or secret meeting, in which case the appeal shall be filed not later than thirty days after the person filing the appeal receives actual or constructive notice that such meeting was held. For purposes of this subsection, such notice of appeal shall be deemed to be filed on the date it is received by said commission or on the date it is postmarked, if received more than thirty days after the date of the denial from which such appeal is taken. Upon receipt of such notice, the commission shall serve upon all parties, by certified or registered mail or by electronic transmission, a copy of such notice together with any other notice or order of such commission. In the case of the denial of a request to inspect or copy records contained in a public employee's personnel or medical file or similar file under subsection (c) of section 1-214, the commission shall include with its notice or order an order requiring the public agency to notify any employee whose records are the subject of an appeal, and the employee's collective bargaining representative, if any, of the commission's proceedings and, if any such employee or collective bargaining representative has filed an objection under said subsection (c), the agency shall provide the required notice to such employee and collective bargaining representative by certified mail, return receipt requested, by electronic transmission or by hand delivery with a signed receipt. A public employee whose personnel or medical file or similar file is the subject of an appeal under this subsection may intervene as a party in the proceedings on the matter before the commission. Said commission shall, after due notice to the parties, hear and decide the appeal within one year after the filing of the notice of appeal. The commission shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54, establishing criteria for those appeals which shall be privileged in their assignment for hearing. Any such appeal shall be heard not later than thirty days after receipt of a notice of appeal and decided not later than sixty days after the hearing. If a notice of appeal concerns an announced agency decision to meet in executive session or an ongoing agency practice of meeting in executive sessions, for a stated purpose, the commission or a member or members of the commission designated by its chairperson shall serve notice upon the parties in accordance with this section and hold a preliminary hearing on the appeal not later than seventy-two hours after receipt of the notice, provided such notice shall be given to the parties at least forty-eight hours prior to such hearing. During such preliminary hearing, the commission shall take evidence and receive testimony from the parties. If after the preliminary hearing the commission finds probable cause to believe that the agency decision or practice is in violation of sections 1-200 and 1-225, the agency shall not meet in executive session for such purpose until the commission decides the appeal. If probable cause is found by the commission, it shall conduct a final hearing on the appeal and render its decision not later than five days after the completion of the preliminary hearing. Such decision shall specify the commission's findings of fact and conclusions of law.

(2) In any appeal to the Freedom of Information Commission under subdivision (1) of this subsection or subsection (c) of this section, the commission may confirm the action of the agency or order the agency to provide relief that the commission, in its discretion, believes appropriate to rectify the denial of any right conferred by the Freedom of Information Act. The commission may declare null and void any action taken at any meeting which a person was denied the right to attend and may require the production or copying of any public record. In addition, upon the finding that a denial of any right created by the Freedom of Information Act was without reasonable grounds and after the custodian or other official directly responsible for the denial has been given an opportunity to be heard at a hearing conducted in accordance with sections 4-176e to 4-184, inclusive, the commission may, in its discretion, impose against the custodian or other official a civil penalty of not less than twenty dollars nor more than one thousand dollars. If the commission finds that a person has taken an appeal under this subsection frivolously, without reasonable grounds and solely for the purpose of harassing the agency from which the appeal has been taken, after such person has been given an opportunity to be heard at a hearing conducted in accordance with sections 4-176e to 4-184, inclusive, the commission may, in its discretion, impose against that person a civil penalty of not less than twenty dollars nor more than one thousand dollars. The commission shall notify a person of a penalty levied against him pursuant to this subsection by written notice sent by certified or registered mail or electronic transmission. If a person fails to pay the penalty within thirty days of receiving such notice, the Superior Court shall, on application of the commission, issue an order requiring the person to pay the penalty imposed. If the executive director of the commission has reason to believe an appeal under subdivision (1) of this subsection or subsection (c) of this section (A) presents a claim beyond the commission's jurisdiction; (B) would perpetrate an injustice; or (C) would constitute an abuse of the commission's administrative process, the executive director shall not schedule the appeal for hearing without first seeking and obtaining leave of the commission. The commission shall provide due notice to the parties and review affidavits and written argument that the parties may submit and grant or deny such leave summarily at its next regular meeting. The commission shall grant such leave unless it finds that the appeal: (i) Does not present a claim within the commission's jurisdiction; (ii) would perpetrate an injustice; or (iii) would constitute an abuse of the commission's administrative process. Any party aggrieved by the commission's denial of such leave may apply to the superior court for the judicial district of New Britain, within fifteen days of the commission meeting at which such leave was denied, for an order requiring the commission to hear such appeal.

(3) In making the findings and determination under subdivision (2) of this subsection the commission shall consider the nature of any injustice or abuse of administrative process, including but not limited to: (A) The nature, content, language or subject matter of the request or the appeal, including, among other factors, whether the request or appeal is repetitious or cumulative; (B) the nature, content, language or subject matter of prior or contemporaneous requests or appeals by the person making the request or taking the appeal; (C) the nature, content, language or subject matter of other verbal and written communications to any agency or any official of any agency from the person making the request or taking the appeal; (D) any history of nonappearance at commission proceedings or disruption of the commission's administrative process, including, but not limited to, delaying commission proceedings; and (E) the refusal to participate in settlement conferences conducted by a commission ombudsman in accordance with the commission's regulations.

(4) Notwithstanding any provision of this subsection to the contrary, in the case of an appeal to the commission of a denial by a public agency, the commission may, upon motion of such agency, confirm the action of the agency and dismiss the appeal without a hearing if it finds, after examining the notice of appeal and construing all allegations most favorably to the appellant, that (A) the agency has not violated the Freedom of Information Act, or (B) the agency has committed a technical violation of the Freedom of Information Act that constitutes a harmless error that does not infringe the appellant's rights under said act.

(5) Notwithstanding any provision of this subsection, a public agency may petition the commission for relief from a requester that the public agency alleges is a vexatious requester. Such petition shall be sworn under penalty of false statement, as provided in section 53a-157b, and shall detail the conduct which the agency alleges demonstrates a vexatious history of requests, including, but not limited to: (A) The number of requests filed and the total number of pending requests; (B) the scope of the requests; (C) the nature, content, language or subject matter of the requests; (D) the nature, content, language or subject matter of other oral and written communications to the agency from the requester; and (E) a pattern of conduct that amounts to an abuse of the right to access information under the Freedom of Information Act or an interference with the operation of the agency. Upon receipt of such petition, the executive director of the commission shall review the petition and determine whether it warrants a hearing. If the executive director determines that a hearing is not warranted, the executive director shall recommend that the commission deny the petition without a hearing. The commission shall vote at its next regular meeting after such recommendation to accept or reject such recommendation and, after such meeting, shall issue a written explanation of the reasons for such acceptance or rejection. If the executive director determines that a hearing is warranted, the commission shall serve upon all parties, by certified or registered mail or electronic transmission, a copy of such petition together with any other notice or order of the commission. The commission shall, after due notice to the parties, hear and either grant or deny the petition within one year after its filing. Upon a grant of such petition, the commission may provide appropriate relief commensurate with the vexatious conduct, including, but not limited to, an order that the agency need not comply with future requests from the vexatious requester for a specified period of time, but not to exceed one year. Any party aggrieved by the commission's granting of such petition may apply to the superior court for the judicial district of New Britain, within fifteen days of the commission meeting at which such petition was granted, for an order reversing the commission's decision.

(c) Any person who does not receive proper notice of any meeting of a public agency in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act may appeal under the provisions of subsection (b) of this section. A public agency of the state shall be presumed to have given timely and proper notice of any meeting as provided for in said Freedom of Information Act if notice is given in the Connecticut Law Journal or a Legislative Bulletin. A public agency of a political subdivision shall be presumed to have given proper notice of any meeting, if a notice is timely sent under the provisions of said Freedom of Information Act by (1) first-class mail to the address, or (2) electronic transmission to the information processing system, as defined in section 1-267, indicated in the request of the person requesting the same. If such commission determines that notice was improper, it may, in its sound discretion, declare any or all actions taken at such meeting null and void.

(d) Any party aggrieved by the decision of said commission may appeal therefrom, in accordance with the provisions of section 4-183. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 4-183, in any such appeal of a decision of the commission, the court may conduct an in camera review of the original or a certified copy of the records which are at issue in the appeal but were not included in the record of the commission's proceedings, admit the records into evidence and order the records to be sealed or inspected on such terms as the court deems fair and appropriate, during the appeal. The commission shall have standing to defend, prosecute or otherwise participate in any appeal of any of its decisions and to take an appeal from any judicial decision overturning or modifying a decision of the commission. If aggrievement is a jurisdictional prerequisite to the commission taking any such appeal, the commission shall be deemed to be aggrieved. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 3-125, legal counsel employed or retained by said commission shall represent said commission in all such appeals and in any other litigation affecting said commission. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (c) of section 4-183 and section 52-64, all process shall be served upon said commission at its office. Any appeal taken pursuant to this section shall be privileged in respect to its assignment for trial over all other actions except writs of habeas corpus and actions brought by or on behalf of the state, including informations on the relation of private individuals. Nothing in this section shall deprive any party of any rights he may have had at common law prior to January 1, 1958. If the court finds that any appeal taken pursuant to this section or section 4-183 is frivolous or taken solely for the purpose of delay, it shall order the party responsible therefor to pay to the party injured by such frivolous or dilatory appeal costs or attorney's fees of not more than one thousand dollars. Such order shall be in addition to any other remedy or disciplinary action required or permitted by statute or by rules of court.

(e) Within sixty days after the filing of a notice of appeal alleging violation of any right conferred by the Freedom of Information Act concerning records of the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection relating to the state's hazardous waste program under sections 22a-448 to 22a-454, inclusive, the Freedom of Information Commission shall, after notice to the parties, hear and decide the appeal. Failure by the commission to hear and decide the appeal within such sixty-day period shall constitute a final decision denying such appeal for purposes of this section and section 4-183. On appeal, the court may, in addition to any other powers conferred by law, order the disclosure of any such records withheld in violation of the Freedom of Information Act and may assess against the state reasonable attorney's fees and other litigation costs reasonably incurred in an appeal in which the complainant has prevailed against the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection.

(P.A. 75-342, S. 14; P.A. 76-435, S. 25, 82; P.A. 77-403; 77-603, S. 2, 125; 77-609, S. 6, 8; P.A. 78-331, S. 57, 58; P.A. 81-431, S. 2, 3; P.A. 83-129, S. 1, 2; 83-587, S. 69, 96; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-31, S. 1, 2; P.A. 84-112, S. 2, 3; 84-136; 84-311, S. 1, 3; P.A. 86-408, S. 1, 4; P.A. 87-285, S. 2; 87-526, S. 4; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; 88-317, S. 39, 107; 88-353, S. 2, 4; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; 90-307, S. 1, 5; P.A. 92-207, S. 2; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; 93-191, S. 1, 4; P.A. 95-220, S. 4–6; P.A. 97-47, S. 10–12; P.A. 00-136, S. 6; P.A. 07-202, S. 11; P.A. 11-80, S. 1; P.A. 17-86, S. 1; P.A. 18-95, S. 1; P.A. 19-64, S. 14; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 21-2, S. 148.)

History: P.A. 76-435 made technical changes; P.A. 77-403 changed “person” to “party”; P.A. 77-603 required that court appeals be made in accordance with Sec. 4-183; P.A. 77-609 changed provisions for appeals to freedom of information commission and provided that legal counsel represent the commission in court appeals; P.A. 78-331 made technical changes, reiterating amendments of P.A. 77-603; P.A. 81-431 added provisions in Subsec. (b) clarifying time of filing of notice of appeal and authorizing imposition of civil penalties for unreasonable denials, added a provision in Subsec. (d) re service of process upon the commission and deleted reference to commission's authority to impose fines for wilful and unreasonable denials; P.A. 83-129 amended Subsec. (b) to allow the commission to penalize those who bring frivolous appeals and amended Subsec. (d) by allowing the court to order those engaged in dilatory or frivolous appeals to pay the injured party's costs or attorney's fees; P.A. 83-587 made technical change in Subsec. (c); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-31 established an expedited hearing procedure for appeals involving executive sessions, effective July 1, 1984; P.A. 84-112 increased civil penalty for denial of right of access to records from $500 to $1,000; P.A. 84-136 provided for extended appeal period in the case of an unnoticed or secret meeting; P.A. 84-311 added provision re commission standing in appeals in Subsec. (d); P.A. 86-408 changed time limit for hearing and decision on appeal to one year after filing of notice and required that commission adopt regulations establishing criteria for privileged assignment for hearing for certain appeals which must be decided within 90 days after filing; P.A. 87-285 amended Subsec. (b) to require notice to the employee of any appeal to the commission regarding denial of access to his personnel or medical files, and to allow the employee to intervene as a party in the proceedings; P.A. 87-526 amended Subsec. (d) to allow court to conduct in camera review of records which are at issue in appeal but not included in record of commission's proceedings; P.A. 88-230 replaced “judicial district of Hartford-New Britain” with “judicial district of Hartford”, effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 88-317 amended references to Ch. 54 and Secs. 4-177 to 4-184 in Subsec. (b) to include new sections added to Ch. 54 and substituted “subsection (c) of section 4-183” for “subsection (b) of section 4-183” in Subsec. (d), effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 88-353 added requirement in Subsec. (b) re notice to collective bargaining representative; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 90-307, S. 1, re appeals re records of environmental protection department relating to state hazardous waste program, was added editorially by the Revisors as Subsec. (e) in 1991; P.A. 92-207 amended Subsec. (a) to allow 10 days for the denial of the right to inspect and copy records and to require that denial be made in writing pursuant to Subsecs. (b) and (c) of Sec. 1-20a; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 93-191 amended Subsec. (b) by adding Subdiv. designations, adding Subdiv. (2) provision regarding appeals which present a claim beyond the commission's jurisdiction, would perpetrate an injustice or would constitute an abuse of the commission's administrative process, adding Subdiv. (3) regarding considerations in determining injustice or abuse of administrative process, and adding Subdiv. (4) regarding dismissal without hearing, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 97-47 amended Subsecs. (b), (c) and (e) by substituting “the Freedom of Information Act” for list of sections; Sec. 1-21i transferred to Sec. 1-206 in 1999; P.A. 00-136 amended Subdiv. (b)(4) to insert Subpara. (A) designator and to add new language as Subpara. (B) re technical violations that constitute harmless error; P.A. 07-202 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to require commission to take evidence and receive testimony during the preliminary hearing, to require the decision to specify commission's findings of fact and conclusions of law and to make technical changes, effective July 10, 2007; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “Department of Environmental Protection” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Department of Energy and Environmental Protection” in Subsec. (e), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 17-86 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to replace “notice in fact” with “actual or constructive notice” re time of filing appeals re unnoticed or secret meetings; P.A. 18-95 amended Subsec. (b)(3) to add reference to repetitious or cumulative requests or appeals in Subpara. (A) and to add Subparas. (D) and (E) re history of nonappearance or disruption of process and refusal to participate in settlement conferences, respectively, and added Subsec. (b)(5) re petitions for relief from alleged vexatious requesters; P.A. 19-64 amended Subsec. (b)(2) by replacing “superior court for the judicial district of Hartford” with “Superior Court” and by replacing “judicial district of Hartford” with “judicial district of New Britain”; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 21-2 amended Subsec. (b) by adding references to electronic transmission re service of notices and Subsec. (c) by designating existing provision re notice timely sent by first-class mail as Subdiv. (1) and adding Subdiv. (2) re notice timely sent by electronic transmission, effective July 1, 2021.

Sec. 1-210. (Formerly Sec. 1-19). Access to public records. Exempt records. (a) Except as otherwise provided by any federal law or state statute, all records maintained or kept on file by any public agency, whether or not such records are required by any law or by any rule or regulation, shall be public records and every person shall have the right to (1) inspect such records promptly during regular office or business hours, (2) copy such records in accordance with subsection (g) of section 1-212, or (3) receive a copy of such records in accordance with section 1-212. Any agency rule or regulation, or part thereof, that conflicts with the provisions of this subsection or diminishes or curtails in any way the rights granted by this subsection shall be void. Each such agency shall keep and maintain all public records in its custody at its regular office or place of business in an accessible place and, if there is no such office or place of business, the public records pertaining to such agency shall be kept in the office of the clerk of the political subdivision in which such public agency is located or of the Secretary of the State, as the case may be. Any certified record hereunder attested as a true copy by the clerk, chief or deputy of such agency or by such other person designated or empowered by law to so act, shall be competent evidence in any court of this state of the facts contained therein.

(b) Nothing in the Freedom of Information Act shall be construed to require disclosure of:

(1) Preliminary drafts or notes provided the public agency has determined that the public interest in withholding such documents clearly outweighs the public interest in disclosure;

(2) Personnel or medical files and similar files the disclosure of which would constitute an invasion of personal privacy;

(3) Records of law enforcement agencies not otherwise available to the public which records were compiled in connection with the detection or investigation of crime, if the disclosure of such records would not be in the public interest because it would result in the disclosure of (A) the identity of informants not otherwise known or the identity of witnesses not otherwise known whose safety would be endangered or who would be subject to threat or intimidation if their identity was made known, (B) the identity of minor witnesses, (C) signed statements of witnesses, (D) information to be used in a prospective law enforcement action if prejudicial to such action, (E) investigatory techniques not otherwise known to the general public, (F) arrest records of a juvenile, which shall also include any investigatory files, concerning the arrest of such juvenile, compiled for law enforcement purposes, (G) the name and address of the victim of a sexual assault under section 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-71, 53a-72a, 53a-72b or 53a-73a, voyeurism under section 53a-189a, injury or risk of injury, or impairing of morals under section 53-21 or family violence, as defined in section 46b-38a, or of an attempt thereof, or (H) uncorroborated allegations subject to destruction pursuant to section 1-216;

(4) Records pertaining to strategy and negotiations with respect to pending claims or pending litigation to which the public agency is a party until such litigation or claim has been finally adjudicated or otherwise settled;

(5) (A) Trade secrets, which for purposes of the Freedom of Information Act, are defined as information, including formulas, patterns, compilations, programs, devices, methods, techniques, processes, drawings, cost data, customer lists, film or television scripts or detailed production budgets that (i) derive independent economic value, actual or potential, from not being generally known to, and not being readily ascertainable by proper means by, other persons who can obtain economic value from their disclosure or use, and (ii) are the subject of efforts that are reasonable under the circumstances to maintain secrecy; and

(B) Commercial or financial information given in confidence, not required by statute;

(6) Test questions, scoring keys and other examination data used to administer a licensing examination, examination for employment or academic examinations;

(7) The contents of real estate appraisals, engineering or feasibility estimates and evaluations made for or by an agency relative to the acquisition of property or to prospective public supply and construction contracts, until such time as all of the property has been acquired or all proceedings or transactions have been terminated or abandoned, provided the law of eminent domain shall not be affected by this provision;

(8) Statements of personal worth or personal financial data required by a licensing agency and filed by an applicant with such licensing agency to establish the applicant's personal qualification for the license, certificate or permit applied for;

(9) Records, reports and statements of strategy or negotiations with respect to collective bargaining;

(10) Records, tax returns, reports and statements exempted by federal law or the general statutes or communications privileged by the attorney-client relationship, marital relationship, clergy-penitent relationship, doctor-patient relationship, therapist-patient relationship or any other privilege established by the common law or the general statutes, including any such records, tax returns, reports or communications that were created or made prior to the establishment of the applicable privilege under the common law or the general statutes;

(11) Names or addresses of students enrolled in any public school or college without the consent of each student whose name or address is to be disclosed who is eighteen years of age or older and a parent or guardian of each such student who is younger than eighteen years of age, provided this subdivision shall not be construed as prohibiting the disclosure of the names or addresses of students enrolled in any public school in a regional school district to the board of selectmen or town board of finance, as the case may be, of the town wherein the student resides for the purpose of verifying tuition payments made to such school;

(12) Any information obtained by the use of illegal means;

(13) Records of an investigation or the name of an employee providing information under the provisions of section 4-61dd or sections 4-276 to 4-280, inclusive;

(14) Adoption records and information provided for in sections 45a-746, 45a-750 and 45a-751;

(15) Any page of a primary petition, nominating petition, referendum petition or petition for a town meeting submitted under any provision of the general statutes or of any special act, municipal charter or ordinance, until the required processing and certification of such page has been completed by the official or officials charged with such duty after which time disclosure of such page shall be required;

(16) Records of complaints, including information compiled in the investigation thereof, brought to a municipal health authority pursuant to chapter 368e or a district department of health pursuant to chapter 368f, until such time as the investigation is concluded or thirty days from the date of receipt of the complaint, whichever occurs first;

(17) Educational records which are not subject to disclosure under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, 20 USC 1232g;

(18) Records, the disclosure of which the Commissioner of Correction, or as it applies to Whiting Forensic Hospital, the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, has reasonable grounds to believe may result in a safety risk, including the risk of harm to any person or the risk of an escape from, or a disorder in, a correctional institution or facility under the supervision of the Department of Correction or Whiting Forensic Hospital. Such records shall include, but are not limited to:

(A) Security manuals, including emergency plans contained or referred to in such security manuals;

(B) Engineering and architectural drawings of correctional institutions or facilities or Whiting Forensic Hospital facilities;

(C) Operational specifications of security systems utilized by the Department of Correction at any correctional institution or facility or Whiting Forensic Hospital facilities, except that a general description of any such security system and the cost and quality of such system may be disclosed;

(D) Training manuals prepared for correctional institutions and facilities or Whiting Forensic Hospital facilities that describe, in any manner, security procedures, emergency plans or security equipment;

(E) Internal security audits of correctional institutions and facilities or Whiting Forensic Hospital facilities;

(F) Minutes or recordings of staff meetings of the Department of Correction or Whiting Forensic Hospital facilities, or portions of such minutes or recordings, that contain or reveal information relating to security or other records otherwise exempt from disclosure under this subdivision;

(G) Logs or other documents that contain information on the movement or assignment of inmates or staff at correctional institutions or facilities; and

(H) Records that contain information on contacts between inmates, as defined in section 18-84, and law enforcement officers;

(19) Records when there are reasonable grounds to believe disclosure may result in a safety risk, including the risk of harm to any person, any government-owned or leased institution or facility or any fixture or appurtenance and equipment attached to, or contained in, such institution or facility, except that such records shall be disclosed to a law enforcement agency upon the request of the law enforcement agency. Such reasonable grounds shall be determined (A) (i) by the Commissioner of Administrative Services, after consultation with the chief executive officer of an executive branch state agency, with respect to records concerning such agency; and (ii) by the Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection, after consultation with the chief executive officer of a municipal, district or regional agency, with respect to records concerning such agency; (B) by the Chief Court Administrator with respect to records concerning the Judicial Department; and (C) by the executive director of the Joint Committee on Legislative Management, with respect to records concerning the Legislative Department. As used in this section, “government-owned or leased institution or facility” includes, but is not limited to, an institution or facility owned or leased by a public service company, as defined in section 16-1, other than a water company, as defined in section 25-32a, a certified telecommunications provider, as defined in section 16-1, or a municipal utility that furnishes electric or gas service, but does not include an institution or facility owned or leased by the federal government, and “chief executive officer” includes, but is not limited to, an agency head, department head, executive director or chief executive officer. Such records include, but are not limited to:

(i) Security manuals or reports;

(ii) Engineering and architectural drawings of government-owned or leased institutions or facilities;

(iii) Operational specifications of security systems utilized at any government-owned or leased institution or facility, except that a general description of any such security system and the cost and quality of such system may be disclosed;

(iv) Training manuals prepared for government-owned or leased institutions or facilities that describe, in any manner, security procedures, emergency plans or security equipment;

(v) Internal security audits of government-owned or leased institutions or facilities;

(vi) Minutes or records of meetings, or portions of such minutes or records, that contain or reveal information relating to security or other records otherwise exempt from disclosure under this subdivision;

(vii) Logs or other documents that contain information on the movement or assignment of security personnel; and

(viii) Emergency plans and emergency preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation plans, including plans provided by a person to a state agency or a local emergency management agency or official;

(20) Records of standards, procedures, processes, software and codes, not otherwise available to the public, the disclosure of which would compromise the security or integrity of an information technology system;

(21) The residential, work or school address of any participant in the address confidentiality program established pursuant to sections 54-240 to 54-240o, inclusive;

(22) The electronic mail address of any person that is obtained by the Department of Transportation in connection with the implementation or administration of any plan to inform individuals about significant highway or railway incidents;

(23) The name or address of any minor enrolled in any parks and recreation program administered or sponsored by any public agency;

(24) Responses to any request for proposals or bid solicitation issued by a public agency, responses by a public agency to any request for proposals or bid solicitation issued by a private entity or any record or file made by a public agency in connection with the contract award process, until such contract is executed or negotiations for the award of such contract have ended, whichever occurs earlier, provided the chief executive officer of such public agency certifies that the public interest in the disclosure of such responses, record or file is outweighed by the public interest in the confidentiality of such responses, record or file;

(25) The name, address, telephone number or electronic mail address of any person enrolled in any senior center program or any member of a senior center administered or sponsored by any public agency;

(26) All records obtained during the course of inspection, investigation, examination and audit activities of an institution, as defined in section 19a-490, that are confidential pursuant to a contract between the Department of Public Health and the United States Department of Health and Human Services relating to the Medicare and Medicaid programs;

(27) Any record created by a law enforcement agency or other federal, state, or municipal governmental agency consisting of a photograph, film, video or digital or other visual image depicting the victim of a homicide, to the extent that such record could reasonably be expected to constitute an unwarranted invasion of the personal privacy of the victim or the victim's surviving family members;

(28) Any records maintained or kept on file by an executive branch agency or public institution of higher education, including documentation prepared or obtained prior to May 25, 2016, relating to claims of or testing for faulty or failing concrete foundations in residential buildings and documents or materials prepared by an executive branch agency or public institution of higher education relating to such records.

(c) Whenever a public agency receives a request from any person confined in a correctional institution or facility or a Whiting Forensic Hospital facility, for disclosure of any public record under the Freedom of Information Act, the public agency shall promptly notify the Commissioner of Correction or the Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services in the case of a person confined in a Whiting Forensic Hospital facility of such request, in the manner prescribed by the commissioner, before complying with the request as required by the Freedom of Information Act. If the commissioner believes the requested record is exempt from disclosure pursuant to subdivision (18) of subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner may withhold such record from such person when the record is delivered to the person's correctional institution or facility or Whiting Forensic Hospital facility.

(d) Whenever a public agency, except the Judicial Department or Legislative Department, receives a request from any person for disclosure of any records described in subdivision (19) of subsection (b) of this section under the Freedom of Information Act, the public agency shall promptly notify the Commissioner of Administrative Services or the Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection, as applicable, of such request, in the manner prescribed by such commissioner, before complying with the request as required by the Freedom of Information Act. If the commissioner, after consultation with the chief executive officer of the applicable agency, believes the requested record is exempt from disclosure pursuant to subdivision (19) of subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner may direct the agency to withhold such record from such person. In any appeal brought under the provisions of section 1-206 of the Freedom of Information Act for denial of access to records for any of the reasons described in subdivision (19) of subsection (b) of this section, such appeal shall be against the chief executive officer of the executive branch state agency or the municipal, district or regional agency that issued the directive to withhold such record pursuant to subdivision (19) of subsection (b) of this section, exclusively, or, in the case of records concerning Judicial Department facilities, the Chief Court Administrator or, in the case of records concerning the Legislative Department, the executive director of the Joint Committee on Legislative Management.

(e) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivisions (1) and (16) of subsection (b) of this section, disclosure shall be required of:

(1) Interagency or intra-agency memoranda or letters, advisory opinions, recommendations or any report comprising part of the process by which governmental decisions and policies are formulated, except disclosure shall not be required of a preliminary draft of a memorandum, prepared by a member of the staff of a public agency, which is subject to revision prior to submission to or discussion among the members of such agency;

(2) All records of investigation conducted with respect to any tenement house, lodging house or boarding house as defined in section 19a-355, or any nursing home, residential care home or rest home, as defined in section 19a-490, by any municipal building department or housing code inspection department, any local or district health department, or any other department charged with the enforcement of ordinances or laws regulating the erection, construction, alteration, maintenance, sanitation, ventilation or occupancy of such buildings; and

(3) The names of firms obtaining bid documents from any state agency.

(1957, P.A. 428, S. 1; 1963, P.A. 260; 1967, P.A. 723, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 193; 1971, P.A. 193; P.A. 75-342, S. 2; P.A. 76-294; P.A. 77-609, S. 2, 8; P.A. 79-119; 79-324; 79-575, S. 2, 4; 79-599, S. 3; P.A. 80-483, S. 1, 186; P.A. 81-40, S. 2; 81-431, S. 1; 81-448, S. 2; P.A. 83-436; P.A. 84-112, S. 1; 84-311, S. 2, 3; P.A. 85-577, S. 22; P.A. 90-335, S. 1; P.A. 91-140, S. 2, 3; P.A. 94-246, S. 14; P.A. 95-233; P.A. 96-130, S. 37; P.A. 97-47, S. 4; 97-112, S. 2; 97-293, S. 14, 26; P.A. 99-156, S. 1; P.A. 00-66, S. 5; 00-69, S. 3, 4; 00-134, S. 1; 00-136, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 00-1, S. 20, 46; P.A. 01-26, S. 1; P.A. 02-133, S. 1, 2; 02-137, S. 2; P.A. 03-200, S. 17; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 104; P.A. 05-287, S. 26; P.A. 07-202, S. 12; 07-213, S. 22; 07-236, S. 5; P.A. 08-18, S. 1; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-5, S. 17; P.A. 10-17, S. 1; P.A. 11-51, S. 44, 134; 11-242, S. 37, 38; P.A. 13-311, S. 1, 2; P.A. 14-217, S. 18; P.A. 15-213, S. 5; P.A. 16-45, S. 5; P.A. 17-211, S. 1, 2; P.A. 18-86, S. 6, 7; P.A. 19-43, S. 1; 19-123, S. 3; P.A. 21-120, S. 6.)

History: 1963 act required that public records be kept in accessible place at regular office and at office of town clerk or secretary of the state if no regular office exists; 1967 act excluded certain records from definition of “public record” for disclosure purposes and required public agencies to keep records of proceedings; 1969 act provided that certified copies would be admitted as evidence in court proceedings; 1971 act required disclosure of records of investigations re tenement, lodging or boarding houses; P.A. 75-342 changed “town clerk” to “clerk of any political subdivision,” rewrote provisions regarding exclusion of certain records from consideration as public records for disclosure purposes and specifically required disclosure of records of investigations re nursing or rest homes or homes for the aged; P.A. 76-294 clarified meaning of “arrest records of a juvenile”; P.A. 77-609 prohibited requiring disclosure of names and addresses of public school or college students; P.A. 79-119 replaced provision in Subsec. (a) which had allowed inspection or copying of records at reasonable time determined by their custodian with provision allowing inspection during office or business hours and copying as provided in Sec. 1-15; P.A. 79-324 clarified Subsec. (c); P.A. 79-575 provided exception to disclosure of students' names and addresses for use by towns in verifying tuition payments and prohibited requiring disclosure of information obtained illegally; P.A. 79-599 prohibited requiring disclosure of records or name of state employee providing information for “whistle blowing” investigation; P.A. 80-483 made technical changes; P.A. 81-40 amended Subsec. (b) to exclude adoption records and information provided for in Secs. 45-68e and 45-68i from disclosure requirements; P.A. 81-431 amended Subsec. (c) to specifically require disclosure of memoranda and other documents which constitute part of the process by which governmental decisions and policies are formulated with a limited exception for preliminary drafts of memoranda, rather than of “all records of investigation…” as previously provided; P.A. 81-448 protected from disclosure name and address of victim of sexual assault, injury or risk of injury or impairing or attempting to impair morals; P.A. 83-436 amended Subsec. (c) to require disclosure of names of firms obtaining bid documents from any state agency; P.A. 84-112 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that agency rules or regulations that conflict with that subsection or diminish rights granted by that subsection are void; P.A. 84-311 amended disclosure exemption for trade secrets in Subsec. (b) by eliminating limitation to information obtained from the public; P.A. 85-577 added Subsec. (b)(15) regarding pages of a primary petition, a nominating petition, a referendum petition or a petition for a town meeting; P.A. 90-335 added Subsec. (b)(3)(F) re uncorroborated allegations subject to destruction pursuant to Sec. 1-20; P.A. 91-140 substituted “pending claims or pending litigation” for “pending claims and litigation” in Subsec. (b); P.A. 94-246 amended Subsec. (b)(3)(A) to add provision re disclosure of “the identity of witnesses not otherwise known whose safety would be endangered or who would be subject to threat or intimidation if their identity was made known” and insert a new Subpara. (B) re disclosure of “signed statements of witnesses”, relettering the remaining Subparas. accordingly; P.A. 95-233 added Subsec. (b)(16) re records of municipal health authorities and district departments of health complaints; P.A. 96-130 amended Subsec. (b)(14) by adding reference to Sec. 45a-751; P.A. 97-47 amended Subsec. (b) by substituting “the Freedom of Information Act” for list of sections; P.A. 97-112 substituted “residential care home” for “home for the aged” in Subsec. (c); P.A. 97-293 added Subsec. (b)(17) re educational records, effective July 1, 1997; Sec. 1-19 transferred to Sec. 1-210 in 1999; P.A. 99-156 added Subsec. (b)(18) re records that Commissioner of Correction believes may result in safety risk if disclosed and added new Subsec. (c) re requests for disclosure by persons confined in correctional institutions or facilities, relettering former Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d); P.A. 00-66 made a technical change in Subsec. (b)(18); P.A. 00-69 added Subsec. (b)(19) re certain records that may result in a safety risk, inserted new Subsec. (d) re requests under Subdiv. (b)(19) made to a public agency other than the Judicial Department, and redesignated former Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (e), effective May 16, 2000; P.A. 00-134 amended Subsec. (b)(8) to substitute “the applicant's” for “his” and to add new Subdiv. (20) re records not otherwise available to the public, the disclosure of which would compromise the security or integrity of an information technology system; P.A. 00-136 redefined trade secrets in Subsec. (b)(5) and added Subpara. and clause designators in Subsec. (b)(5); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 00-1 amended Subsec. (b)(18) and Subsec. (c) to add references to Whiting Forensic Division facilities of Connecticut Valley Hospital and to Commissioner of Mental Health and Addiction Services, effective June 21, 2000; P.A. 01-26 made a technical change in Subsec. (b)(5)(A)(i); P.A. 02-133 amended Subsec. (b)(19) to provide that records be disclosed to a law enforcement agency upon request, substitute “government-owned” for “state-owned” re facilities, provide that reasonable grounds shall be determined by the Commissioner of Public Works after consultation with the chief executive officer of the agency, the Chief Court Administrator or the executive director of the Joint Committee on Legislative Management, insert new Subpara. designators “(A)” to “(C)”, define “government-owned or leased institution or facility” and “chief executive officer”, substitute “records include” for “records shall include” and “records” for “recordings”, substitute clause designators “(i)” to “(vii)” for Subpara. designators “(A)” to “(G)”, respectively, delete reference to emergency plans in clause (i) and add new clause (viii) re emergency plans and emergency recovery or response plans and amended Subsec. (d) to add provisions re the Legislative Department and to add “after consultation with the chief executive officer of the applicable agency” re the determination by the Commissioner of Public Works that a requested record is exempt from disclosure; P.A. 02-137 amended Subsec. (a) to designate existing provisions re right to inspect and receive copy as Subdivs. (1) and (3), add Subdiv. (2) re copying of records in accordance with Sec. 1-212(g), and delete “the provisions of” in Subdiv. (3); P.A. 03-200 added Subsec. (b)(21) re address of participant in address confidentiality program, effective January 1, 2004; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (b)(19) by inserting “a water company, as defined in section 25-32a,” in definition of “government-owned or leased institution or facility” and adding new clause (ix) re water company materials and amended Subsec. (d) by adding provisions re information related to a water company, effective August 20, 2003; P.A. 05-287 added Subsec. (b)(22) re electronic mail addresses obtained by the Department of Transportation in connection with the administration of any plan to inform individuals about significant highway or railway incidents, effective July 13, 2005; P.A. 07-202 amended Subsec. (b)(19) to require Commissioner of Public Works to make reasonable grounds determinations concerning executive branch agencies and Commissioner of Emergency Management and Homeland Security to make such determinations concerning municipal, district or regional agencies, to delete provision re government-owned or leased institutions or facilities in clause (vii), to add provision re emergency preparedness and mitigation plans in clause (viii) and to make technical changes, and made conforming changes in Subsec. (d); P.A. 07-213 added Subsec. (b)(23) re name or address or minor enrolled in parks and recreation program and (24) re request for proposals or bid solicitation responses and contract award record or file; P.A. 07-236 amended Subsec. (b)(5)(A) to exclude from requirements of disclosure film or television scripts or detailed production budgets, effective July 6, 2007; P.A. 08-18 amended Subsec. (a) to eliminate requirement re making, keeping and maintaining a record of proceedings of agency meetings, effective April 29, 2008; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-5 amended Subsec. (b)(13) to add reference to Secs. 17b-301c to 17b-301g, effective October 5, 2009; P.A. 10-17 added Subsec. (b)(25) exempting contact information for senior center program enrollees and members from disclosure; pursuant to P.A. 11-51, “Commissioner of Public Works” and “Commissioner of Emergency Management and Homeland Security” were changed editorially by the Revisors to “Commissioner of Administrative Services” and “Commissioner of Emergency Services and Public Protection”, respectively, in Subsecs. (a)(19) and (d), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-242 amended Subsec. (b)(10) by exempting records relating to marital, clergy-penitent, doctor-patient or therapist-patient relationship or any other privilege established by common law or the general statutes from disclosure and by making a technical change and added Subsec. (b)(26) exempting certain records obtained during inspection, investigation, examination and audit of an institution, as defined in Sec. 19a-490, from disclosure; P.A. 13-311 amended Subsec. (b) to add new Subpara. (B) re identity of minor witnesses and redesignate existing Subparas. (B) to (G) as Subparas. (C) to (H) in Subdiv. (3) and add Subdiv. (27) re visual images of victim of a homicide, effective June 5, 2013, and applicable to all requests for records under chapter 14 pending on or made on or after that date; P.A. 14-217 amended Subsec. (b)(13) to replace references to Secs. 17b-301c to 17b-301g with references to Secs. 4-276 to 4-280, effective June 13, 2014; P.A. 15-213 amended Subsec. (b)(3)(G) to add reference re voyeurism under Sec. 53a-189a; P.A. 16-45 amended Subsec. (b) by adding Subdiv. (28) re documentation re claims of faulty or failing concrete foundations, effective May 25, 2016; P.A. 17-211 amended Subsec. (b)(19) by redefining “government-owned or leased institution or facility” and deleting Subpara. (ix) re water company that provides water service and amended Subsec. (d) by deleting provisions re information related to a water company, effective July 1, 2017; P.A. 18-86 amended Subsec. (b)(18) by deleting references to Division facilities and replacing “Division” with “Hospital”, and amended Subsec. (c) by replacing “Division” with “Hospital”, effective June 4, 2018; P.A. 19-43 amended Subsec. (b) to add reference re family violence under Sec. 46b-38a in Subdiv. (3)(G) and make technical changes; P.A. 19-123 amended Subsec. (b)(24) by adding provision re responses to request for proposals or bid solicitation issued by a private entity; P.A. 21-120 amended Subsec. (b)(28) by substituting “Any documentation provided to or obtained by an executive branch agency” with “Any records maintained or kept on file by an executive branch agency or public institution of higher education”, “documentation provided” with “documentation prepared”, “claims of faulty or failing concrete foundations in residential buildings by the owners of such residential buildings,” with “claims of or testing for faulty or failing concrete foundations in residential buildings”, and “documents prepared by an executive branch agency relating to such documentation, for seven years after the date of receipt of the documentation or seven years after May 25, 2016, whichever is later” with “documents or materials prepared by an executive branch agency or public institution of higher education relating to such records”, effective July 6, 2021.

Sec. 1-227. (Formerly Sec. 1-21c). Provision of notice of meetings to persons filing written request. Fees. The public agency shall, where practicable, give notice by mail or electronic transmission of each regular meeting, and of any special meeting which is called, at least one week prior to the date set for the meeting, to any person who has filed a written request for such notice with such body, except that such body may give such notice as it deems practical of special meetings called less than seven days prior to the date set for the meeting. Such notice requirement shall not apply to the General Assembly, either house thereof or to any committee thereof. Any request for notice filed pursuant to this section shall be valid for one year from the date on which it is filed unless a renewal request is filed. Renewal requests for notice shall be filed within thirty days after January first of each year. Such public agency may establish a reasonable charge for sending such notice based on the estimated cost of providing such service.

(P.A. 75-342, S. 7; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 21-2, S. 150.)

History: Sec. 1-21c transferred to Sec. 1-227 in 1999; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 21-2 added reference to electronic transmission re notice, effective July 1, 2021.

Sec. 1-228. (Formerly Sec. 1-21d). Adjournment of meetings. Notice. The public agency may adjourn any regular or special meeting to a time and place specified in the order of adjournment. Less than a quorum may so adjourn from time to time. If all members are absent from any regular meeting the clerk or the secretary of such body may declare the meeting adjourned to a stated time and place and shall cause a written notice of the adjournment to be given in the same manner as provided in section 1-225, for special meetings, unless such notice is waived as provided for special meetings. A copy of the order or notice of adjournment shall be conspicuously posted on or near the door of the place where the regular or special meeting was held and on the Internet web site of the public agency, if applicable, within twenty-four hours after the time of the adjournment. When an order of adjournment of any meeting fails to state the hour at which the adjourned meeting is to be held, it shall be held at the hour specified for regular meetings, by ordinance, resolution, by law or other rule.

(P.A. 75-342, S. 8; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 21-2, S. 151.)

History: Sec. 1-21d transferred to Sec. 1-228 in 1999; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 21-2 added provision re posting of order or notice of adjournment on Internet web site of public agency, effective July 1, 2021.

Sec. 1-232. (Formerly Sec. 1-21h). Conduct of meetings. In the event that any meeting of a public agency is interrupted by any person or group of persons so as to render the orderly conduct of such meeting unfeasible and order cannot be restored by the removal of individuals who are wilfully interrupting the meetings, the members of the agency conducting the meeting may order the meeting room cleared and continue in session. If such person or group of persons is attending such meeting by means of electronic equipment, as defined in section 1-200, the members of the public agency may terminate such person's or group of persons' attendance by electronic equipment until such time as such person or group of persons conforms to order or, if need be, until such meeting is closed. Only matters appearing on the agenda may be considered in such a session. Duly accredited representatives of the press or other news media, except those participating in the disturbance, shall be allowed to attend any session held pursuant to this section. Nothing in this section shall prohibit such public agency from establishing a procedure for readmitting an individual or individuals not responsible for wilfully disturbing the meeting.

(P.A. 75-342, S. 13; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 21-2, S. 153.)

History: Sec. 1-21h transferred to Sec. 1-232 in 1999; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 21-2 added provision authorizing members of agency conducting meeting to terminate attendance of person or group of persons attending meeting by means of electronic equipment, effective July 1, 2021.