CHAPTER 223

REAL ESTATE CONVEYANCE TAX

Table of Contents

Sec. 12-494. Imposition of tax on conveyances of real property for consideration. One part payable to state and the other to municipality in which paid.

Sec. 12-498. Exempt transactions.


Sec. 12-494. Imposition of tax on conveyances of real property for consideration. One part payable to state and the other to municipality in which paid. (a) There is imposed a tax on each deed, instrument or writing, whereby any lands, tenements or other realty is granted, assigned, transferred or otherwise conveyed to, or vested in, the purchaser, or any other person by such purchaser's direction, when the consideration for the interest or property conveyed equals or exceeds two thousand dollars:

(1) Subject to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, at the rate of three-­quarters of one per cent of the consideration for the interest in real property conveyed by such deed, instrument or writing, the revenue from which shall be remitted by the town clerk of the municipality in which such tax is paid, not later than ten days following receipt thereof, to the Commissioner of Revenue Services for deposit to the credit of the state General Fund; and

(2) At the rate of one-fourth of one per cent of the consideration for the interest in real property conveyed by such deed, instrument or writing, provided the amount imposed under this subdivision shall become part of the general revenue of the municipality in accordance with section 12-499.

(b) The rate of tax imposed under subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section shall, in lieu of the rate under said subdivision (1), be imposed on certain conveyances as follows:

(1) In the case of any conveyance of real property which at the time of such conveyance is used for any purpose other than residential use, except unimproved land, the tax under said subdivision (1) shall be imposed at the rate of one and one-quarter per cent of the consideration for the interest in real property conveyed;

(2) In the case of any conveyance in which the real property conveyed is a residential estate, including a primary dwelling and any auxiliary housing or structures, regardless of the number of deeds, instruments or writings used to convey such residential real estate, for which the consideration or aggregate consideration, as the case may be, in such conveyance is eight hundred thousand dollars or more, the tax under said subdivision (1) shall be imposed:

(A) At the rate of three-quarters of one per cent on that portion of such consideration up to and including the amount of eight hundred thousand dollars;

(B) Prior to July 1, 2020, at the rate of one and one-quarter per cent on that portion of such consideration in excess of eight hundred thousand dollars; and

(C) On and after July 1, 2020, (i) at the rate of one and one-quarter per cent on that portion of such consideration in excess of eight hundred thousand dollars up to and including the amount of two million five hundred thousand dollars, and (ii) at the rate of two and one-quarter per cent on that portion of such consideration in excess of two million five hundred thousand dollars; and

(3) In the case of any conveyance in which real property on which mortgage payments have been delinquent for not less than six months is conveyed to a financial institution or its subsidiary that holds such a delinquent mortgage on such property, the tax under said subdivision (1) shall be imposed at the rate of three-quarters of one per cent of the consideration for the interest in real property conveyed. For the purposes of subdivision (1) of this subsection, “unimproved land” includes land designated as farm, forest or open space land.

(c) In addition to the tax imposed under subsection (a) of this section, any targeted investment community, as defined in section 32-222, or any municipality in which properties designated as manufacturing plants under section 32-75c are located, may, on or after March 15, 2003, impose an additional tax on each deed, instrument or writing, whereby any lands, tenements or other realty is granted, assigned, transferred or otherwise conveyed to, or vested in, the purchaser, or any other person by his direction, when the consideration for the interest or property conveyed equals or exceeds two thousand dollars, which additional tax shall be at a rate of up to one-fourth of one per cent of the consideration for the interest in real property conveyed by such deed, instrument or writing. The revenue from such additional tax shall become part of the general revenue of the municipality in accordance with section 12-499.

(1967, P.A. 693, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 158, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1, S. 6, 15; P.A. 85-480, S. 1, 3; P.A. 86-397, S. 8, 10; P.A. 89-205, S. 1; 89-251, S. 19, 203; P.A. 91-356, S. 1, 3; P.A. 92-57, S. 1, 2; P.A. 03-2, S. 40; P.A. 04-201, S. 4; 04-216, S. 51; P.A. 05-268, S. 1, 2; P.A. 07-154, S. 6; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-1, S. 128; June 11 Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 1; P.A. 11-6, S. 102; P.A. 19-117, S. 337.)

History: 1971 act substituted “consideration for the interest or property conveyed” for “consideration or value of the interest or property conveyed”; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1 provided for imposition of a conveyance tax, payable to the state on each deed or other instrument conveying lands, tenements or other realty at the rate of 0.5% of the purchase price for the interest in real property conveyed and for continuation of the existing conveyance tax payable to the municipality at the rate of $1.10 for each $1,000 of purchase price, effective July 1, 1983, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after said date; P.A. 85-480 amended the language of imposition so that the tax is imposed on the sale or transfer of real property and not upon the deed or instrument of conveyance; P.A. 86-397 reduced the rate of tax from .05% to .045% of the full purchase price for the interest in real property conveyed, effective June 11, 1986, and applicable to any conveyance of an interest in real property occurring on or after January 1, 1987; P.A. 89-205 made technical changes, including descriptions of the imposition of tax as applied to the deed in lieu of imposition on the sale or transfer of an interest in real property and of the rate of tax as being applied to the consideration for the interest conveyed in lieu of the full purchase price; P.A. 89-251 increased the tax under Subsec. (a)(1) from .045% to 0.5% of the consideration, changed the rate of tax in Subsec. (a)(2) from $1.10 for each $1,000 of full purchase price to 0.011% of the consideration and added Subsec. (b) providing for a higher rate of tax on conveyances for purposes other than residential and for residential property in the case of an estate for which the consideration exceeds $800,000; P.A. 91-356 added Subsec. (b)(3), re rate for certain transfers in lieu of foreclosure, effective July 1, 1991, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after said date; P.A. 92-57 amended Subsec. (b)(3) by including conveyances to the subsidiary of a financial institution holding a delinquent mortgage on the conveyed real property, effective July 1, 1992, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after that date; P.A. 03-2 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes and increase the municipal portion of the tax to 0.25% from March 15, 2003, until July 1, 2004, made a technical change in Subsec. (b) and added new Subsec. (c) re an additional tax which certain municipalities may impose during said period, effective March 15, 2003; P.A. 04-201 amended Subsec. (b) to add provisions re multiple instruments used to convey residential property, effective June 3, 2004; P.A. 04-216 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to extend the time period for the higher rate thereunder until July 1, 2005, and amended Subsec. (c) to delete sunset provision related to the tax imposed under that subsection, effective May 6, 2004; P.A. 05-268 amended Subsec. (a) to retain the rate of 0.25% until July 1, 2007, and amended Subsec. (c) to make a technical change and add “up to” re additional tax rate, effective July 1, 2005; P.A. 07-154 amended Subsec. (b) to define “unimproved land”, effective July 1, 2007; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-1 amended Subsec. (a) to retain the rate of 0.25% until July 1, 2008, effective July 1, 2007; June 11 Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1 amended Subsec. (a) to retain rate of 0.25% until July 1, 2010, effective June 16, 2008; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1 amended Subsec. (a) to retain rate of 0.25% until July 1, 2011, and make a technical change, effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-6 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing state portion of tax from 0.50% to 0.75% in Subdiv. (1) and deleting provision providing that municipal portion be lowered to 0.11% on July 1, 2011, in Subdiv. (2), and amended Subsec. (b) by increasing tax on non-residential property from 1% to 1.25% in Subdiv. (1), increasing tax on residential estate sold for more than $800,000 from .50% to .75% on the portion of sales price up to $800,000, and from 1% to 1.25% on the portion in excess of $800,000 in Subdiv. (2), and increasing tax on conveyance to a financial institution of a property with a delinquent mortgage from 0.50% to 0.75% in Subdiv. (3), effective July 1, 2011, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after that date; P.A. 19-119 amended Subsec. (b)(2) to add Subpara. (C) re rate on and after July 1, 2020 on portion of consideration in excess of $800,000 up to $2,500,000 and rate on portion of consideration in excess of $2,500,000, and made technical and conforming changes, effective July 1, 2019.

Sec. 12-498. Exempt transactions. (a) The tax imposed by section 12-494 shall not apply to:

(1) Deeds which this state is prohibited from taxing under the Constitution or laws of the United States;

(2) Deeds which secure a debt or other obligation;

(3) Deeds to which this state or any of its political subdivisions or its or their respective agencies is a party;

(4) Tax deeds;

(5) Deeds of release of property which is security for a debt or other obligation;

(6) Deeds of partition;

(7) Deeds made pursuant to mergers of corporations;

(8) Deeds made by a subsidiary corporation to its parent corporation for no consideration other than the cancellation or surrender of the subsidiary's stock;

(9) Deeds made pursuant to a decree of the Superior Court under section 46b-81, 49-24 or 52-495 or pursuant to a judgment of foreclosure by market sale under section 49-24 or pursuant to a judgment of loss mitigation under section 49-30t or 49-30u;

(10) Deeds, when the consideration for the interest or property conveyed is less than two thousand dollars;

(11) Deeds between affiliated corporations, provided both of such corporations are exempt from taxation pursuant to paragraph (2), (3) or (25) of Section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as amended from time to time;

(12) Deeds made by a corporation which is exempt from taxation pursuant to paragraph (3) of Section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as amended from time to time, to any corporation which is exempt from taxation pursuant to said paragraph (3) of said Section 501(c);

(13) Deeds made to any nonprofit organization which is organized for the purpose of holding undeveloped land in trust for conservation or recreation purposes;

(14) Deeds between spouses;

(15) Deeds of property for the Adriaen's Landing site or the stadium facility site, for purposes of the overall project, each as defined in section 32-651;

(16) Land transfers made on or after July 1, 1998, to a water company, as defined in section 16-1, provided the land is classified as class I or class II land, as defined in section 25-37c, after such transfer;

(17) Transfers or conveyances to effectuate a mere change of identity or form of ownership or organization, where there is no change in beneficial ownership;

(18) Conveyances of residential property which occur not later than six months after the date on which the property was previously conveyed to the transferor if the transferor is (A) an employer which acquired the property from an employee pursuant to an employee relocation plan, or (B) an entity in the business of purchasing and selling residential property of employees who are being relocated pursuant to such a plan;

(19) Deeds in lieu of foreclosure that transfer the transferor's principal residence;

(20) Any instrument that transfers the transferor's principal residence where the gross purchase price is insufficient to pay the sum of (A) mortgages encumbering the property transferred, and (B) any real property taxes and municipal utility or other charges for which the municipality may place a lien on the property and which have priority over the mortgages encumbering the property transferred; and

(21) Deeds that transfer the transferor's principal residence, where such residence has a concrete foundation that has deteriorated due to the presence of pyrrhotite and such transferor has obtained a written evaluation from a professional engineer licensed pursuant to chapter 391 indicating that the foundation of such residence was made with defective concrete. The exemption authorized under this subdivision shall (A) apply to the first transfer of such residence after such written evaluation has been obtained, and (B) not be available to a transferor who has received financial assistance to repair or replace such foundation from the Crumbling Foundations Assistance Fund established under section 8-441.

(b) The tax imposed by subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 12-494 shall not apply to:

(1) Deeds of the principal residence of any person approved for assistance under section 12-129b or 12-170aa for the current assessment year of the municipality in which such person resides or to any such transfer which occurs within fifteen months of the completion of any municipal assessment year for which such person qualified for such assistance;

(2) Deeds of property located in an area designated as an enterprise zone in accordance with section 32-70; and

(3) Deeds of property located in an entertainment district designated under section 32-76 or established under section 2 of public act 93-311*.

(1967, P.A. 693, S. 5; 1971, P.A. 158, S. 1; P.A. 85-159, S. 10, 19; 85-469, S. 4-6; 85-480, S. 2, 3; P.A. 87-281, S. 1, 2; 87-586, S. 8, 12; P.A. 89-205, S. 2; P.A. 90-315, S. 4, 6; P.A. 91-403, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-311, S. 4, 8; 93-389, S. 6, 7; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 93-1, S. 30, 35; P.A. 94-247, S. 3, 8; P.A. 98-157, S. 2, 15; 98-244, S. 22, 35; Dec. Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 31, 43; P.A. 99-231, S. 1; 99-241, S. 55, 66; P.A. 00-140, S. 23, 40; P.A. 04-154, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 114; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 2; P.A. 14-60, S. 8; 14-84, S. 13; 14-217, S. 207; P.A. 16-65, S. 91; P.A. 19-117, S. 336.)

*Note: Section 2 of public act 93-311 is special in nature and therefore has not been codified but remains in full force and effect according to its terms.

History: 1971 act deleted Subdivs. (4) and (5) exempting deeds which confirm, correct, modify or supplement previously recorded deed and deeds between husband and wife or parent and child, renumbering subsequent subdivisions accordingly; P.A. 85-159 added Subsec. (b) re exemption from the state portion of the tax for certain transfers by elderly person approved under state property tax relief programs, effective May 16, 1985, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after July 1, 1985; P.A. 85-469 added Subsec. (a)(9) to (13), inclusive, exempting conveyances of interest in property pursuant to court order, certificates of devise or distribution and certain transfers or assignments of interest with no consideration from tax and changed effective date of P.A. 85-159 but without affecting this section; P.A. 85-480 added the following language before the colon, “any sale or transfer of an interest in real property under any of the following instruments of conveyance”; P.A. 87-281 added Subsec. (c) providing for exemption from conveyance tax with respect to any transfer of an interest in real property in which the purchase price for the interest conveyed is less than $2,000, effective June 9, 1987, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after July 1, 1987; P.A. 87-586 inserted a technical change in Subsec. (b) by replacing the reference to repealed Sec. 12-170a with reference to Sec. 12-170aa; P.A. 89-205 made technical changes, including elimination of the reference to exemption from tax for deeds recorded prior to January 1, 1968, which date was applicable upon the initial imposition of tax and is now redundant and revision of the description of exempt transfers involving governmental entities, and deleted former Subsec. (c) re exemption for transfer in which the purchase price is less than $2,000; P.A. 90-315 added Subsec. (a)(14) providing exemption from tax with respect to transfers by a corporation affiliated with the corporation to which such transfer is made, provided both corporations are exempt under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and either corporation owns or controls 100% of the capital stock of the other corporation, effective June 12, 1990, and applicable to conveyances of real property occurring on or after July 1, 1990; P.A. 91-403 amended Subsec. (a)(14), re transfers between affiliated 501(c) corporations, to expand coverage of exemption to paragraphs (2) and (25), as well as paragraph (3), corporations and added Subsecs. (15) and (16) re transfers between 501(c) corporations and re transfers to land trust organizations, effective July 1, 1991, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after that date; P.A. 93-311 added Subsec. (b)(3) exempting deeds of property located in an entertainment district, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-389 amended Subsec. (a)(11) by deleting exemption for transfers for no consideration between spouses and added Subsec. (a)(17) to exempt all transfers between spouses, effective July 1, 1993, and applicable to conveyances of real property on or after that date; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 93-1 added Subsec. (a)(18) to exempt all transfers for the stadium facility site or the practice facility site, effective September 28, 1993; P.A. 94-247 amended Subsec. (b) to apply exemption to transfers of property in entertainment districts established pursuant to Sec. 2 of public act 93-311, effective June 9, 1994; P.A. 98-157 amended Subsec. (a) to add an exemption for certain land transfers to water companies, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 98-244 amended section to remove filing requirement when matters that are not deeds, instruments or writings are assigned, transferred or conveyed and when deeds, instruments or writings are conveyed for no consideration; Dec. Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 amended Subsec. (a)(15) to add site of NFL pavilion and training facility, effective January 12, 1999; P.A. 99-231 added new Subsec. (a)(17) re transfers which effectuate a mere change of identity or form of ownership or organization with no change in beneficial ownership, effective October 1, 1999, and applicable to transfers made on or after said date; P.A. 99-241 amended Subsec. (a)(15) to delete stadium facility site, the site of the NFL pavilion and training facility site and add convention center site, sportsplex site and parking facilities site, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 00-140 amended Subsec. (a)(15) to delete references to former convention center site, sportsplex site and parking facilities site and add references to the Adriaen's Landing site and the stadium facility site, effective May 2, 2000; P.A. 04-154 added Subsec. (a)(18) re exemption for conveyances pursuant to employee relocations, effective July 1, 2004, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after that date; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 amended Subsec. (a)(9) by deleting exemption from tax for deeds made pursuant to decree under Sec. 49-24, effective January 1, 2010, and applicable to conveyances occurring on or after that date; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1 amended Subsec. (a) to include in Subdiv. (9) deeds made pursuant to Sec. 49-24, and to add Subdiv. (19) re deeds in lieu of foreclosure and Subdiv. (20) re transfers of principal residence where price insufficient to pay mortgages and liens; P.A. 14-60 made a technical change in Subsec. (b); P.A. 14-84 amended Subsec. (a)(9) to add reference to deeds made pursuant to a judgment of foreclosure by market sale; P.A. 14-217 changed effective date of P.A. 14-84, S. 13, from October 1, 2014, to January 1, 2015, effective June 13, 2014; P.A. 16-65 amended Subsec. (a)(9) by adding “or pursuant to a judgment of loss mitigation under section 49-30t or 49-30u”; P.A. 19-117 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (21) re deeds that transfer principal residence that has concrete foundation that has deteriorated due to presence of pyrrhotite and make technical changes, effective July 1, 2019.