CHAPTER 295

ENERGY PLANNING

Table of Contents

Sec. 16a-1. Legislative findings and purpose.

Sec. 16a-2. Definitions.

Sec. 16a-3. Connecticut Energy Advisory Board.

Sec. 16a-3a. Integrated resources plan for energy resource procurement.

Sec. 16a-3b. Implementation of the integrated resources plan.

Sec. 16a-3c. Electric distribution companies’ plans to build electric generation facilities.

Sec. 16a-3d. Comprehensive energy plan.

Sec. 16a-3e. Integrated resources plan; requirements. New generation sources. Report.

Sec. 16a-4. Office of Policy and Management. Staff. Regulations.

Sec. 16a-4a. Office of Policy and Management. Duties and powers.

Sec. 16a-4b. Municipalities may petition for redesignation of planning region. Procedure.

Sec. 16a-4c. Redesignation of planning regions by the secretary. Procedure. Voluntary consolidation.

Sec. 16a-4d. State agency energy efficiency or renewable energy technology test program.

Sec. 16a-5. Secretary’s investigatory and subpoena powers.

Sec. 16a-6. Cooperation of other state agencies. License for sale of gasoline.

Sec. 16a-7. Annual report and recommendations by board.

Sec. 16a-7a. Annual comprehensive energy plan.

Sec. 16a-7b. Infrastructure criteria guidelines.

Sec. 16a-7c. Request for proposal: Solicitation, submission, evaluation, report, net energy analysis.

Sec. 16a-8. Programs to foster cooperative effort.

Sec. 16a-9. Energy emergency plan. Amendments.

Sec. 16a-10. Joint legislative committee established.

Sec. 16a-11. Governor’s proclamation of energy emergency. Order implementing plan. Review and disapproval. Termination.

Sec. 16a-12. Energy emergency not covered by state plan. Review and disapproval. Termination.

Sec. 16a-13. Aggrieved parties. Petition for exemption. Penalty for false statement. Exemptions. Appeal. Regulations.

Sec. 16a-13a. Levels of energy consumption considered in grant or denial of exemption. Regulations.

Sec. 16a-13b. Responsibilities of the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection in energy emergency activities.

Sec. 16a-13c. Violation of energy emergency plan or order. Interference with energy emergency activities. Penalties.

Sec. 16a-13d. Study on establishing a reserve of energy resources.

Sec. 16a-14. General powers and duties of the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection re energy matters.

Sec. 16a-14a. Grant program for businesses involved in energy-related products and services.

Sec. 16a-14b. Testing programs for energy-related products. Regulations. Report.

Secs. 16a-14c and 16a-14d. Comprehensive energy plan. Technical advisory group; recommendations regarding electric energy efficiency; regulations.

Sec. 16a-14e. Purchasing pool for purchase of electricity.

Sec. 16a-15. Display of signs on fuel pumps. Display of signs posting gas price for public and members of retail membership organization. Regulations. Penalty.

Sec. 16a-15a. Notice of full-serve and self-serve fuel pumps. Notice of discounts. Handicapped drivers.

Sec. 16a-16. Enforcement; injunctions, damages. Remedies not exclusive.


Sec. 16a-1. Legislative findings and purpose. It is found and declared that a shortage of energy supplies and resources exists in the state and the United States and that a critical shortage may be imminent, that the existence of such shortage is inimical to the public health, safety and welfare of the people of the state, that there is a necessity to implement the federal mandatory allocation order and other federal directives and federal statutes, establish contingency rationing plans for fuel oil, gasoline and other energy supplies and restrict the use of energy and that the necessity of enacting the provisions of this chapter to provide for equitable distribution and conservation of energy is declared as a matter of legislative determination.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 1, 20.)

Sec. 16a-2. Definitions. As used in this chapter:

(a) “Department” means the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection;

(b) “Board” means the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board;

(c) “Commissioner” means the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection;

(d) “Energy” means work or heat that is, or may be, produced from any fuel or source whatsoever;

(e) “Energy emergency” means a situation where the health, safety or welfare of the citizens of the state is threatened by an actual or impending acute shortage in usable energy resources;

(f) “Energy resource” means natural gas, petroleum products, coal and coal products, wood fuels, geothermal sources, radioactive materials and any other resource yielding energy;

(g) “Person” means any individual, firm, partnership, association, syndicate, company, trust, corporation, limited liability company, municipality, agency or political or administrative subdivision of the state, or other legal entity of any kind;

(h) “Service area” means any geographic area serviced by the same energy-producing public service company, as defined in section 16-1;

(i) “Renewable resource” means solar, wind, water, wood or other biomass source of energy and geothermal energy;

(j) “Energy-related products” means (1) energy systems and equipment that utilize renewable resources to provide space heating or cooling, water heating, electricity or other useful energy, (2) insulation materials, and (3) equipment designed to conserve energy or increase the efficiency of its use, including that used for residential, commercial, industrial and transportation purposes;

(k) “Energy-related services” means (1) the design, construction, installation, inspection, maintenance, adjustment or repair of energy-related products, (2) inspection, adjustment, maintenance or repair of any conventional energy system, (3) the performance of energy audits or the provision of energy management consulting services, and (4) weatherization activities carried out under any federal, state or municipal program;

(l) “Conventional energy system” means any system for supplying space heating or cooling, ventilation or domestic or commercial hot water which is not included in subdivision (1) of subsection (j) of this section;

(m) “Energy supply” means any energy resource capable of being used to perform useful work and any form of energy such as electricity produced or derived from energy resources which may be so used; and

(n) “Energy facility” means a structure that generates, transmits or stores electricity, natural gas, refined petroleum products, renewable fuels, coal and coal products, wood fuels, geothermal sources, radioactive material and other resources yielding energy.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 2, 20; P.A. 75-537, S. 1, 55; P.A. 77-614, S. 41, 610; P.A. 79-576, S. 1, 7; P.A. 82-231, S. 2, 8; P.A. 95-79, S. 54, 189; P.A. 07-242, S. 76; P.A. 11-80, S. 1, 36.)

History: P.A. 75-537 replaced Connecticut energy agency and its administrator with department and commissioner of planning and energy policy; P.A. 77-614 replaced department and commissioner of planning and energy policy with office of policy and management and its secretary; P.A. 79-576 added Subdivs. (i) to (l) defining “renewable resource”, “energy-related products”, “energy-related services”, and “conventional energy system”; P.A. 82-231 deleted electricity from definition of “energy resource”, added geothermal energy to definition of “renewable resource”, defined “energy supply” and applied all definitions under this section to Secs. 16a-45a, 16a-46, 16a-46a and 16a-46b; P.A. 95-79 redefined “person” to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 07-242 added Subdiv. (n) defining “energy facility”, effective June 4, 2007; P.A. 11-80 deleted references to Secs. 16a-45a, 16a-46, 16a-46a and 16a-46b re applicability of definitions, effective July 1, 2011; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management” and “Office of Policy and Management” were changed editorially by the Revisors to “Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection” and “Department of Energy and Environmental Protection”, respectively, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-3. Connecticut Energy Advisory Board. (a) There is established a Connecticut Energy Advisory Board consisting of nine members, including the Office of Consumer Counsel. The president pro tempore of the Senate shall appoint a representative of an environmental organization knowledgeable in energy efficiency programs, a representative of a consumer advocacy organization and a representative of a state-wide business association. The speaker of the House of Representatives shall appoint a representative of low-income ratepayers, a representative of academia who has knowledge of energy-related issues and a member of the public considered to be an expert in electricity, generation, renewable energy, procurement or conservation programs. The minority leader of the Senate shall appoint a representative of a municipality. The minority leader of the House of Representatives shall appoint a member of the public considered to be an expert in electricity, generation, renewable energy, procurement or conservation. All appointed members shall serve in accordance with section 4-1a. No appointee may be employed by, or a consultant of, a public service company, as defined in section 16-1, or an electric supplier, as defined in section 16-1, or an affiliate or subsidiary of such company or supplier.

(b) The board shall (1) report to the General Assembly on the status of programs administered by the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, (2) consult with the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection regarding the integrated resource plan developed pursuant to section 16a-3a, and (3) review, within available resources, requests from the General Assembly.

(c) The board shall elect a chairman and a vice-chairman from among its members and shall adopt such rules of procedure as are necessary to carry out its functions.

(d) The board shall convene its first meeting not later than September 1, 2011. A quorum of the board shall consist of two-thirds of the members currently serving on the board.

(e) The board shall employ such staff as is required for the proper discharge of its duties. The board may also retain any third-party consultants it deems necessary to accomplish the goals set forth in subsection (b) of this section. The board shall annually submit to the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection a proposal regarding the level of funding required for the discharge of its duties, which proposal shall be approved by the department either as submitted or as modified by the department, provided the total funding for the board, including, but not limited to, staff and third-party consultants, shall not exceed one million five hundred thousand dollars in any fiscal year.

(f) The Connecticut Energy Advisory Board shall be within the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection for administrative purposes only.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 3, 4, 20; P.A. 76-337; P.A. 77-614, S. 56, 162, 284, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 83-487, S. 8, 33; P.A. 86-187, S. 8, 10; P.A. 87-496, S. 73, 110; P.A. 95-250, S. 20, 42; 95-309, S. 11, 12; P.A. 96-211, S. 1, 5, 6; P.A. 03-140, S. 16; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(h); P.A. 04-189, S. 1; P.A. 07-242, S. 53; P.A. 11-80, S. 1, 37.)

History: P.A. 76-337 increased members from 13 to 14, replaced “chairman” with “chairperson”, added chairperson of power facility evaluation council as fourteenth member, replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority as called for in P.A. 75-486 and required that one gubernatorial appointee be representative of organized labor; P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation and commissioner of commerce with commissioner of economic development, effective January 1, 1979, and added Subsec. (c) placing board within office of policy and management for administrative purposes; P.A. 83-487 added commissioners of housing, administrative services and transportation to board and specified duties of board in new Subsec. (b), relettering previous Subsecs. (b) and (c) accordingly; P.A. 86-187 replaced power facility evaluation council with Connecticut siting council in Subsec. (a); P.A. 87-496 substituted “public works” for “administrative services” commissioner in Subsec. (a); P.A. 95-250 and P.A. 96-211 amended Subsec. (a) to reduce the number of board members from 17 to 16 and to replace the Commissioners of Economic Development and Housing with the Commissioner of Economic and Community Development; P.A. 95-309 changed effective date of P.A. 95-250 but did not affect this section; P.A. 03-140 amended Subsec. (a) to decrease membership from 16 to 9, to remove the Commissioner of Economic and Community Development, the chairperson of the Connecticut Siting Council and the Commissioner of Public Works from the board, to add the Consumer Counsel, the Commissioner of Agriculture and the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management to the board, to reduce the Governor’s appointments from four members to one member, to reduce the president pro tempore’s and the speaker’s appointments from three members to one member, to make a technical change and to add prohibition re appointees who are employed by or consultants of public service companies or electric suppliers or their affiliates or subsidiaries, amended Subsec. (b) to replace former provisions re board’s duties with Subdivs. (1) to (7), inclusive, re board’s duties, amended Subsec. (c) to delete provision re compensation for performance of official duties, redesignated existing Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (f), added new Subsec. (d) re convening the board’s first meeting, and added new Subsec. (e) re employment of staff, effective July 1, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Agriculture with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 07-242 amended Subsec. (a) to increase board membership from 9 to 15 members by adding representatives of an environmental organization knowledgeable in energy efficiency programs, a consumer advocacy organization, a state-wide business association, a chamber of commerce, a state-wide manufacturing association, low-income ratepayers, state residents with expertise in energy issues, and the public considered to be expert in electricity, generation, procurement or conservation programs, amended Subsec. (b) to delete former Subdivs. (1) re preparing annual report, (4) re issuing request for proposals and (5) re evaluating proposals, redesignate existing Subdivs. (2), (3), (6) and (7) as Subdivs. (1) to (4) and add new Subdiv. (5) re reviewing procurement plan and amended Subsec. (e) to allow board to retain third-party consultants, effective June 4, 2007; P.A. 11-80 amended Subsec. (a) by changing number of board members from 15 to 9, by removing from board the Commissioner of Environmental Protection, chairperson of the Public Utilities Control Authority, Commissioner of Transportation, Commissioner of Agriculture and Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management, by replacing Governor with president pro tempore of Senate as appointing authority for a representative of an environmental organization, by deleting president pro tempore’s appointments of representatives of a chamber of commerce, a manufacturing association and a member of the public, by replacing speaker’s appointment of a representative of state residents with a representative of academia and adding “renewable energy” to list of qualifications for speaker’s other appointment, and by adding appointments for minority leaders of the House and Senate, amended Subsec. (b) by deleting former Subdivs. (1) to (5) and adding new Subdivs. (1) to (3) re responsibilities of board, amended Subsec. (d) by changing date of first meeting from not later than September 1, 2003, to not later than September 1, 2011, amended Subsec. (e) by replacing “Department of Public Utility Control” with “Department of Energy and Environmental Protection” and by adding requirement that board funding not exceed $1.5 million in any fiscal year and amended Subsec. (f) to place board within Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, rather than Office of Policy and Management, effective July 1, 2011.

See Sec. 4-38f for definition of “administrative purposes only”.

See Sec. 16-245l re operating expenses for the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board.

Sec. 16a-3a. Integrated resources plan for energy resource procurement. (a) The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, in consultation with the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board and the electric distribution companies, shall review the state’s energy and capacity resource assessment and develop an integrated resources plan for the procurement of energy resources, including, but not limited to, conventional and renewable generating facilities, energy efficiency, load management, demand response, combined heat and power facilities, distributed generation and other emerging energy technologies to meet the projected requirements of their customers in a manner that minimizes the cost of such resources to customers over time and maximizes consumer benefits consistent with the state’s environmental goals and standards. Such integrated resources plan shall seek to lower the cost of electricity.

(b) On or before January 1, 2012, and biennially thereafter, the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, in consultation with the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board and the electric distribution companies, shall prepare an assessment of (1) the energy and capacity requirements of customers for the next three, five and ten years, (2) the manner of how best to eliminate growth in electric demand, (3) how best to level electric demand in the state by reducing peak demand and shifting demand to off-peak periods, (4) the impact of current and projected environmental standards, including, but not limited to, those related to greenhouse gas emissions and the federal Clean Air Act goals and how different resources could help achieve those standards and goals, (5) energy security and economic risks associated with potential energy resources, and (6) the estimated lifetime cost and availability of potential energy resources.

(c) Resource needs shall first be met through all available energy efficiency and demand reduction resources that are cost-effective, reliable and feasible. The projected customer cost impact of any demand-side resources considered pursuant to this subsection shall be reviewed on an equitable basis with nondemand-side resources. The integrated resources plan shall specify (1) the total amount of energy and capacity resources needed to meet the requirements of all customers, (2) the extent to which demand-side measures, including efficiency, conservation, demand response and load management can cost-effectively meet these needs in a manner that ensures equity in benefits and cost reduction to all classes and subclasses of consumers, (3) needs for generating capacity and transmission and distribution improvements, (4) how the development of such resources will reduce and stabilize the costs of electricity to each class and subclass of consumers, and (5) the manner in which each of the proposed resources should be procured, including the optimal contract periods for various resources.

(d) The integrated resources plan shall consider: (1) Approaches to maximizing the impact of demand-side measures; (2) the extent to which generation needs can be met by renewable and combined heat and power facilities; (3) the optimization of the use of generation sites and generation portfolio existing within the state; (4) fuel types, diversity, availability, firmness of supply and security and environmental impacts thereof, including impacts on meeting the state’s greenhouse gas emission goals; (5) reliability, peak load and energy forecasts, system contingencies and existing resource availabilities; (6) import limitations and the appropriate reliance on such imports; (7) the impact of the procurement plan on the costs of electric customers; and (8) the effects on participants and nonparticipants. Such plan shall include options for lowering the rates and cost of electricity. The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall hold a public hearing on such integrated resources plan pursuant to chapter 54. The commissioner may approve or reject such plan with comments.

(e) The procurement manager of the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, in consultation with the electric distribution companies, the regional independent system operator, and the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board, shall develop a procurement plan and hold public hearings on the proposed plan. Such hearings shall not constitute a contested case and shall be held in accordance with chapter 54. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall give not less than fifteen days’ notice of such proceeding by electronic publication on the department’s Internet web site. Notice of such hearing may also be published in one or more newspapers if deemed necessary by the commissioner. Such notice shall state the date, time, and place of the hearing, the subject matter of the hearing, the statutory authority for the proposed integrated resources plan and the location where a copy of the proposed integrated resources plan may be obtained or examined in addition to posting the plan on the department’s Internet web site. The commissioner shall provide a time period of not less than forty-five days from the date the notice is published on the department’s Internet web site for public review and comment. The commissioner shall consider fully, after all public meetings, all written and oral comments concerning the proposed integrated resources plan and shall post on the department’s Internet web site and notify by electronic mail each person who requests such notice. The commissioner shall make available the electronic text of the final integrated resources plan or an Internet web site where the final integrated resources plan is posted, and a report summarizing (1) all public comments, and (2) the changes made to the final integrated resources plan in response to such comments and the reasons therefor. The commissioner shall submit the final integrated resources plan by electronic means, or as requested, to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and the environment. The department’s Bureau of Energy shall, after the public hearing, make recommendations to the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection regarding plan modifications. Said commissioner shall approve or reject the plan with comments.

(f) On or before March 1, 2012, and every two years thereafter, the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall report to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and the environment regarding goals established and progress toward implementation of the integrated resources plan established pursuant to this section, as well as any recommendations for the process.

(g) All costs associated with the development of the resource assessment and the development of the integrated resources plan and the procurement plan shall be recoverable through the assessment in section 16-49.

(h) The decisions of the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall be guided by the goals of the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, as described in section 22a-2d, and with the goals of the integrated resources plan approved pursuant to this section and the comprehensive energy plan developed pursuant to section 16a-3d and shall be based on the evidence in the record of each proceeding.

(P.A. 07-242, S. 51; P.A. 09-218, S. 4; P.A. 11-80, S. 89.)

History: P.A. 07-242 effective June 4, 2007; P.A. 09-218 amended Subsec. (b) to change assessment submittal from annually to biennially and amended Subsec. (e) to eliminate requirement that department approve, or modify and approve, procurement plan not later than 60 days after submittal, effective July 8, 2009; P.A. 11-80 amended Subsec. (a) to require Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, in consultation with Connecticut Energy Advisory Board and electric distribution companies, to develop plan, to change reference to a comprehensive plan to reference to an integrated resources plan and to add provision re plan to seek to lower the cost of electricity, amended Subsec. (b) to change date from on or before January 1, 2008, to on or before January 1, 2012, and to require department, in consultation with the board and companies, to prepare an assessment, amended Subsec. (c) to change “procurement plan” to “integrated resources plan”, to add provision in Subdiv. (2) that needs be met in a manner that ensures equity to all classes and subclasses of consumers and to add in Subdiv. (4) “each class and subclass of”, amended Subsec. (d) to change “procurement plan” to “integrated resources plan”, to add Subdiv. (8) re effects on participants and nonparticipants and to add provisions re options for lowering rates and cost, public hearing and commissioner’s ability to approve or reject the plan, amended Subsec. (e) to require that procurement manager, in consultation with electric distribution companies, regional independent system operator and Connecticut Energy Advisory Board, develop a procurement plan and hold public hearings, to delete provision re review of plan, and to add provisions re conduct and notice of hearings and re commissioner’s approval or rejection of plan, amended Subsec. (f) to change date from on or before September 30, 2009, to on or before March 1, 2012, to change “Department of Public Utility Control” to “Department of Energy and Environmental Protection” and to change “procurement plan” to “integrated resources plan”, amended Subsec. (g) to delete reference to electric distribution companies, to include integrated resources plan and to replace reference to systems benefits charge with reference to the assessment in Sec. 16-49 and added Subsec. (h) re decisions of authority guided by goals of department and plans, effective July 1, 2011 (Revisor’s note: In Subsec. (h), a provision re goals of the plans was reworded editorially by the Revisors for clarity).

Sec. 16a-3b. Implementation of the integrated resources plan. (a) The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall oversee the implementation of the integrated resources plan approved by the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection pursuant to section 16a-3a. The electric distribution companies shall implement the demand-side measures, including, but not limited to, energy efficiency, load management, demand response, combined heat and power facilities, distributed generation and other emerging energy technologies, specified in said plan through the comprehensive conservation and load management plan prepared pursuant to section 16-245m for review by the Energy Conservation Management Board. The electric distribution companies shall submit proposals to appropriate regulatory agencies to address transmission and distribution upgrades as specified in said plan.

(b) If the integrated resources plan specifies the construction of a generating facility, the authority shall develop and issue a request for proposals, shall publish such request for proposals in one or more newspapers or periodicals, as selected by the authority, and shall post such request for proposals on its web site. Pursuant to a nondisclosure agreement, the authority shall make available to the Office of Consumer Counsel and the Attorney General all confidential bid information it receives pursuant to this subsection, provided the bids and any analysis of such bids shall not be subject to disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act. Three months after the authority issues a final decision, it shall make available all financial bid information, provided such information regarding the bidders not selected be presented in a manner that conceals the identities of such bidders.

(1) On and after July 1, 2008, an electric distribution company may submit proposals in response to a request for proposals on the same basis as other respondents to the solicitation. A proposal submitted by an electric distribution company shall include its full projected costs such that any project costs recovered from or defrayed by ratepayers are included in the projected costs. An electric distribution company submitting any such bid shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the authority that its bid is not supported in any form of cross subsidization by affiliated entities. If the authority approves such electric distribution company’s proposal, the costs and revenues of such proposal shall not be included in calculating such company’s earning for purposes of, or in determining whether its rates are just and reasonable under, sections 16-19, 16-19a and 16-19e. An electric distribution company shall not recover more than the full costs identified in any approved proposal. Affiliates of the electric distribution company may submit proposals pursuant to section 16-244h, regulations adopted pursuant to section 16-244h and other requirements the authority may impose.

(2) If the authority selects a nonelectric distribution company proposal, an electric distribution company shall, within thirty days of the selection of a proposal by the authority, negotiate in good faith the final terms of a contract with a generating facility and shall apply to the authority for approval of such contract. Upon authority approval, the electric distribution company shall enter into such contract.

(3) The authority shall determine the appropriate manner of cost recovery for proposals selected pursuant to this section.

(4) The authority may retain the services of a third-party entity with expertise in the area of energy procurement to oversee the development of the request for proposals and to assist the authority in its approval of proposals pursuant to this section. The reasonable and proper expenses for retaining such third-party entity shall be recoverable through the generation services charge.

(c) The electric distribution companies shall issue requests for proposals to acquire any other resource needs not identified in subsection (a) or (b) of this section but specified in the integrated resources plan approved by the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection pursuant to section 16a-3a. Such requests for proposals shall be subject to approval by the authority.

(P.A. 07-242, S. 52; P.A. 11-80, S. 1, 39.)

History: P.A. 07-242 effective June 4, 2007; P.A. 11-80 amended Subsec. (a) to change entity to oversee implementation from Department of Public Utility Control to Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, to change “procurement plan” to “integrated resources plan” and “plan”, and to change approving authority from Department of Public Utility Control to Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection, amended Subsec. (b) to change “procurement plan” to “integrated resources plan” and “department” to “authority”, and amended Subsec. (c) to change “procurement plan” to “integrated resources plan”, to change approving authority from Department of Public Utility Control to Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection and to change “department” to “authority”, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-3c. Electric distribution companies’ plans to build electric generation facilities. (a) On and after July 1, 2011, if the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority does not receive and approve proposals pursuant to the requests for proposals processes, pursuant to section 16a-3b, sufficient to reach the goal set by the integrated resources plan approved pursuant to section 16a-3a, the authority may order an electric distribution company to submit for the authority’s review in a contested case proceeding, in accordance with chapter 54, a proposal to build and operate an electric generation facility in the state. An electric distribution company shall be eligible to recover its prudently incurred costs consistent with the principles set forth in section 16-19e for any generation project approved pursuant to this section.

(b) On or before January 1, 2008, the authority shall initiate a contested case proceeding to determine the costs and benefits of the state serving as the builder of last resort for the shortfall of megawatts from said request for proposal process.

(P.A. 07-242, S. 117; P.A. 11-80, S. 1, 40.)

History: P.A. 07-242 effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 11-80 amended Subsec. (a) to change date from on and after July 1, 2009, to on and after July 1, 2011, to change “Department of Public Utility Control” to “Public Utilities Regulatory Authority”, to change reference to plan to reference to integrated resources plan and to change “department” to “authority” and amended Subsec. (b) to change “department” to “authority”, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-3d. Comprehensive energy plan. (a) On or before July 1, 2012, and every three years thereafter, the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection, in consultation with the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board, shall prepare a comprehensive energy plan. Such plan shall reflect the legislative findings and policy stated in section 16a-35k and shall incorporate (1) an assessment and plan for all energy needs in the state, including, but not limited to, electricity, heating, cooling, and transportation, (2) the findings of the integrated resources plan, (3) the findings of the plan for energy efficiency adopted pursuant to section 16-245m, and (4) the findings of the plan for renewable energy adopted pursuant to section 16-245n. Such plan shall further include, but not be limited to, (A) an assessment of current energy supplies, demand and costs, (B) identification and evaluation of the factors likely to affect future energy supplies, demand and costs, (C) a statement of progress made toward achieving the goals and milestones set in the preceding comprehensive energy plan, (D) a statement of energy policies and long-range energy planning objectives and strategies appropriate to achieve, among other things, a sound economy, the least-cost mix of energy supply sources and measures that reduce demand for energy, giving due regard to such factors as consumer price impacts, security and diversity of fuel supplies and energy generating methods, protection of public health and safety, environmental goals and standards, conservation of energy and energy resources and the ability of the state to compete economically, (E) recommendations for administrative and legislative actions to implement such policies, objectives and strategies, (F) an assessment of the potential costs savings and benefits to ratepayers, including, but not limited to, carbon dioxide emissions reductions or voluntary joint ventures to repower some or all of the state’s coal-fired and oil-fired generation facilities built before 1990, and (G) the benefits, costs, obstacles and solutions related to the expansion and use and availability of natural gas in Connecticut. If the department finds that such expansion is in the public interest, it shall develop a plan to increase the use and availability of natural gas for transportation purposes.

(b) In adopting the comprehensive energy plan, the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection, or the commissioner’s designee, shall conduct a proceeding and such proceeding shall not be considered a contested case under chapter 54, provided a hearing pursuant to chapter 54 shall be held. The commissioner shall give not less than fifteen days’ notice of such proceeding by electronic publication on the department’s Internet web site. Notice of such hearing may also be published in one or more newspapers if deemed necessary by the commissioner. Such notice shall state the date, time, and place of the meeting, the subject matter of the meeting, the statutory authority for the proposed plan and the location where a copy of the proposed plan may be obtained or examined in addition to posting the plan on the department’s Internet web site. The Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall comment on the plan’s impact on ratepayers and any other person may comment on the proposed plan. The commissioner shall provide a time period of not less than forty-five days from the date the notice is published on the department’s Internet web site for public review and comment. The commissioner shall consider fully, after all public meetings, all written and oral comments concerning the proposed plan and shall post on the department’s Internet web site and notify by electronic mail each person who requests such notice. The commissioner shall make available the electronic text of the final plan or an Internet web site where the final plan is posted, and a report summarizing (1) all public comments, and (2) the changes made to the final plan in response to such comments and the reasons therefore.

(c) The commissioner shall submit the final plan electronically to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and the environment.

(d) The commissioner may, in consultation with the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board, modify the comprehensive energy plan in accordance with the procedures outlined in subsections (b) and (c) of this section. The commissioner may approve or reject such plan with comments.

(e) The decisions of the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority shall be guided by the goals of the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, as listed in section 22a-2d, and by the goals of the comprehensive energy plan and the integrated resources plan approved pursuant to section 16a-3a and shall be based on the evidence in the record of each proceeding.

(f) All electric distribution companies’ reasonable costs associated with the development of the resource assessment shall be recoverable through the systems benefits charge.

(P.A. 11-80, S. 51.)

History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-3e. Integrated resources plan; requirements. New generation sources. Report. (a) The integrated resources plan, developed pursuant to section 16a-3a, to be adopted in 2012 and annually thereafter, shall (1) indicate specific options to reduce the price of electricity. Such options may include the procurement of new sources of generation. In the review of new sources of generation, the integrated resources plan shall indicate whether the private wholesale market can supply such additional sources or whether state financial assistance, long-term purchasing of electricity contracts or other interventions are needed to achieve the goal; (2) analyze in-state renewable sources of electricity in comparison to transmission line upgrades or new projects and out-of-state renewable energy sources, provided such analysis also considers the benefits of additional jobs and other economic impacts and how they are created and subsidized; (3) include an examination of average consumption and other states’ best practices to determine why electricity rates are lower elsewhere in the region; (4) assess and compare the cost of transmission line projects, new power sources, renewable sources of electricity, conservation and distributed generation projects to ensure the state pursues only the least-cost alternative projects; (5) continually monitor supply and distribution systems to identify potential need for transmission line projects early enough to identify alternatives; and (6) assess the least-cost alternative to address reliability concerns, including, but not limited to, lowering electricity demand through conservation and distributed generation projects before an electric distribution company submits a proposal for transmission lines or transmission line upgrades to the independent system operator or the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, provided no provision of such plan shall be deemed to prohibit an electric distribution company from making any filing required by law or regulation.

(b) If, on and after July 1, 2012, the 2012 integrated resources plan or any subsequent plan contains an option to procure new sources of generation, the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall pursue the most cost-effective approach. If the department seeks new sources of generation, it shall issue a notice of interest for generation without any financial assistance, including, but not limited to, long-term contract financing or ratepayer guarantees. If the department fails to receive any responsive cost-effective proposal, it shall issue a request for proposals that may include such financial assistance.

(c) On or before February 1, 2012, the department shall report to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy regarding state policy and legislative changes the department feels would most likely lower the state’s electricity rates.

(P.A. 11-80, S. 90.)

History: P.A. 11-80 effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-4. Office of Policy and Management. Staff. Regulations. The Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management shall employ, subject to the provisions of chapter 67, such staff as is required for the proper discharge of duties of the office as set forth in this chapter and sections 4-5, 4-124l, 8-3b, 8-32a, 8-33a, 8-35a and 8-189, subsection (b) of section 8-206 and sections 16a-20, 16a-102, 22a-352 and 22a-353. The secretary may adopt, pursuant to chapter 54, such regulations as are necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 5, 20; P.A. 75-537, S. 2, 55; P.A. 77-614, S. 42, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 89, 136; P.A. 81-330, S. 10, 13; P.A. 88-248, S. 2; P.A. 03-140, S. 20; P.A. 11-80, S. 41.)

History: P.A. 75-537 replaced Connecticut energy agency and its administrator with department and commissioner of planning and energy policy, deleted provisions re appointment by governor and exemption from classified service, and required that assistance be given the state planning council in Subsec. (a), restated Subsec. (b) and deleted Subsec. (c) which had provided for disposition of agency; P.A. 77-614 replaced department and commissioner of planning and energy policy with office of policy and management and its secretary, deleted references to state planning council and deleted Subsec. (b); P.A. 78-303 deleted references to repealed Secs. 4-60a and 4-60b; P.A. 81-330 deleted reference to Sec. 16a-19; P.A. 88-248 deleted reference to Sec. 2-73; (Revisor’s note: In 1993 an obsolete reference to repealed Sec. 16-340 was deleted editorially by the Revisors); P.A. 03-140 deleted provision re providing the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board with assistance, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 11-80 deleted reference to Sec. 4-124p, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-4a. Office of Policy and Management. Duties and powers. The Office of Policy and Management shall:

(1) Formulate and prepare state-wide or interregional plans for the physical, social and economic development of the state. Such plans may be prepared jointly or in consultation with other state, interstate, federal, regional or local agencies. Such plans may include, but need not be limited to, (A) demographic projections, (B) economic projections, (C) land use and water considerations, (D) transportation requirements, (E) environmental considerations, (F) energy capabilities and requirements, (G) public facilities, (H) labor needs and skills, (I) educational objectives, (J) housing needs and (K) health needs;

(2) Receive for review, information and recommendations, plans proposed by any state agency acting alone or jointly which has among its duties planning responsibilities relating to those considerations set forth in subdivision (1) of this section or similar subjects;

(3) Coordinate regional and state planning activities and accomplish such planning review activities as may be necessary;

(4) Designate or redesignate logical planning regions within the state and promote and assist in the promotion and continuation of regional planning agencies under chapter 127. Such planning regions shall be redesignated in accordance with section 16a-4c;

(5) Provide for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning agencies established under chapter 127 or any regional council of elected officials in any region without a regional planning agency or any regional council of governments organized under sections 4-124i to 4-124p, inclusive, under such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon by the secretary;

(6) Accept from any source funds, revenue or other consideration available to this state for interstate, state, regional, interregional or area planning activities or projects and provide for the administration of such funds, revenues or other consideration;

(7) Make available to the public, for a reasonable fee, all reports, testing results and other material developed or procured as a result of activities authorized by this section, section 16a-14 and section 16a-14b; and

(8) Provide technical assistance to municipalities that want to aggregate electric generation services.

(P.A. 75-537, S. 3, 55; P.A. 77-614, S. 43, 610; P.A. 79-576, S. 2, 7; P.A. 91-343, S. 7, 11; P.A. 98-28, S. 59, 117; P.A. 08-182, S. 8.)

History: P.A. 77-614 replaced department and commissioner of planning and energy policy with office of policy and management and its secretary and deleted requirement that plans be submitted to state planning council; P.A. 79-576 added Subdivs. (7) to (9); P.A. 91-343 repealed former Subdivs. (8) and (9) re duties re energy-related products and services; P.A. 98-28 added new Subdiv. (8) re technical assistance to municipalities that want to aggregate electric generation services, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 08-182 amended Subdiv. (4) to require redesignation of planning regions to be in accordance with Sec. 16a-4c (Revisor’s note: In codifying section 8 of public act 08-182, a reference to “section 11 of this act” was deemed by the Revisors to be a reference to section 9 of that act and therefore cited as “section 16a-4c”).

Sec. 16a-4b. Municipalities may petition for redesignation of planning region. Procedure. Any town, city or borough which has been included in any planning region as designated or defined by the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management, or his predecessor, under the provisions of subsection (4) of section 16a-4a, may petition, upon a vote of its legislative body, the secretary for a redefinition or redesignation as part of a different planning region. The secretary shall determine the time and place for a hearing upon such petition and shall give notice thereof. In determining the appropriateness of such redesignation, the secretary shall consider, among other factors, whether or not the services that such petitioner needs can be better or more logically provided by a planning region other than the one to which it has been previously assigned.

(P.A. 77-325; 77-614, S. 19, 610; P.A. 83-164.)

History: P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner of planning and energy policy with secretary of the office of policy and management; P.A. 83-164 removed provision allowing petitioner to appeal to the state planning council.

See chapter 127 (Sec. 8-31a et seq.) re regional planning agencies.

Sec. 16a-4c. Redesignation of planning regions by the secretary. Procedure. Voluntary consolidation. (a) On or before January 1, 2014, and at least every twenty years thereafter, the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management, within available appropriations, and in consultation with regional planning organizations, as defined in section 4-124i, the Connecticut Conference of Municipalities, the Connecticut Council of Small Towns and the chairpersons and ranking members of the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to planning and development, shall conduct an analysis of the boundaries of logical planning regions designated or redesignated under section 16a-4a. As part of such analysis, the secretary shall evaluate opportunities for coordinated planning and the regional delivery of state and local services. Such analysis shall include, but not be limited to, an evaluation of (1) economic regions, including regional economic development districts established pursuant to chapter 588ff; (2) comprehensive economic development strategies developed by such regional economic development districts; (3) labor market areas and workforce investment regions; (4) natural boundaries, including watersheds, coastlines, ecosystems and habitats; (5) relationships between urban, suburban and rural areas, including central cities and areas outside of the state; (6) census and other demographic information; (7) political boundaries, including municipal boundaries and congressional, senate and assembly districts; (8) transportation corridors, connectivity and boundaries, including the boundaries of metropolitan planning agencies; (9) current federal, state and municipal service delivery regions, including, but not limited to, regions established to provide emergency, health, transportation or human services; and (10) the current capacity of each regional planning organization to deliver diverse state and local services. Such analysis shall also establish a minimum size for logical planning areas that takes into consideration the number of municipalities, total population, total square mileage and whether the proposed planning region will have the capacity to successfully deliver necessary regional services. The secretary may enter into such contractual agreements as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(b) Any two or more contiguous planning regions that contain a total of fourteen or more municipalities and voluntarily consolidate to form a single regional council of governments or regional council of elected officials shall be exempt from redesignation pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, provided the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management formally redesignates such planning regions prior to January 1, 2014. The secretary may, in his or her discretion, waive the requirement that such redesignated planning region contain a total of fourteen or more municipalities.

(c) (1) The secretary shall, not later than January 1, 2014, notify the chief executive officer of each municipality located in a planning region in which the boundaries are proposed for redesignation. If the legislative body of the municipality objects to such proposed redesignation, the chief executive officer of the municipality may, not later than thirty days after the date of receipt of the notice of redesignation, petition the secretary to attend a meeting of such legislative body. The petition shall specify the location, date and time of the meeting. The meeting shall be held not later than sixty days after the date of the petition. The secretary shall make a reasonable attempt to appear at the meeting, or at a meeting on another date within the sixty-day period. If the secretary is unable to attend a meeting within the sixty-day period, the secretary and the chief executive officer of the municipality shall jointly schedule a date and time for the meeting, provided such meeting shall be held not later than two hundred ten days after the date of the notice to the chief executive officer. At such meeting, the legislative body of the municipality shall inform the secretary of the objections to the proposed redesignation of the planning area boundaries. The secretary shall consider fully the oral and written objections of the legislative body and may redesignate the boundaries. Not later than sixty days after the date of the meeting, the secretary shall notify the chief executive officer of the determination concerning the proposed redesignation. The notice of determination shall include the reasons for such determination. As used in this subsection, “municipality” means a town, city or consolidated town and borough; “legislative body” means the board of selectmen, town council, city council, board of alderman, board of directors, board of representatives or board of the warden and burgesses of a municipality; and “secretary” means the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management or the designee of the secretary.

(2) Any revision to the boundaries of a planning area, based on the analysis completed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section or due to a modification by the secretary in accordance with this subsection, shall be effective on January 1, 2015.

(P.A. 08-182, S. 9; P.A. 10-32, S. 56; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 12-1, S. 189.)

History: P.A. 10-32 made a technical change in Subsec. (b)(1), effective May 10, 2010; June 12 Sp. Sess. P.A. 12-1 amended Subsec. (a) by changing “January 1, 2012” to “January 1, 2014”, adding provisions requiring secretary to consult with certain persons and entities and evaluate opportunities for coordinated planning and delivery of services, replacing former Subdivs. (1) and (2) re criteria to evaluate with new Subdivs. (1) to (10) re information to evaluate, and adding provisions requiring secretary to consider whether planning region has capacity to deliver regional services and authorizing secretary to enter into contracts, added new Subsec. (b) re voluntary consolidation of planning regions, redesignated existing Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (c) and amended same by changing “January 1, 2012” to “January 1, 2014”, changing “forty-five days” to “sixty days”, changing “one hundred twenty days” to “two hundred ten days” and changing “board of the major” to “board of the warden” in Subdiv. (1) and by substituting “January 1, 2015” for “the first day of July following the date of completion such modification or analysis” in Subdiv. (2), and made technical changes, effective June 15, 2012.

Sec. 16a-4d. State agency energy efficiency or renewable energy technology test program. (a) If, in the exercise of the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection’s powers pursuant to this title, the commissioner finds that the use of a certain technology, product or process would promote energy conservation, energy efficiency or renewable energy technology, the commissioner may direct a state agency to test such technology, product or process by using it in the operations of such agency on a trial basis. The purpose of such test program shall be to validate the effectiveness of such technology, product or process in reducing energy usage and costs or reducing dependence on fossil fuels or green house gas emissions. No agency shall undertake such testing of any technology, product or process unless the business manufacturing or marketing the technology, product or process demonstrates that (1) the use of such technology, product or process by the state agency will not adversely affect safety, (2) a certified independent third party or accredited laboratory has found that the technology, product or process reduces energy consumption and cost, and (3) the technology, product or process is presently available for commercial sale and distribution or has potential for commercialization not later than two years following the completion of any test program by a state agency pursuant to this section.

(b) If the commissioner finds that using such technology, product or process would be feasible in the operations of a state agency and would not have any detrimental effect on such operations, the commissioner, notwithstanding the requirements of chapter 58, may direct a state agency to accept delivery of such technology, product or process and to undertake such a test program. Any costs associated with the acquisition and use of such technology, product or process by the testing agency for the test period shall be borne by the manufacturer, the marketer or any investor or participant in such business. The acquisition of any technology, product or process for purposes of the test program established pursuant to this section shall not be deemed to be a purchase under the provisions of state procurement law. The manufacturer, the marketer or any investor or participant in such business shall maintain records related to such test program, as required by the commissioner. All proprietary information derived from such test program shall be exempt from the provisions of subsection (a) of section 1-210.

(c) If the commissioner determines that the test program sufficiently demonstrates that the technology, product or process reduces energy usage and costs or reduces dependence on fossil fuels or green house gas emissions, the testing agency may request that the Commissioner of Administrative Services (1) procure such technology for use by any or all state agencies, and (2) make such procurement pursuant to subsection (b) of section 4a-58.

(Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 63; P.A. 11-80, S. 1.)

History: Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 effective October 5, 2009; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management” and “secretary” were changed editorially by the Revisors to “Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection” and “commissioner”, respectively, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-5. Secretary’s investigatory and subpoena powers. (a) The Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management, with the assistance of any other state agency, if needed, shall investigate violations of chapter 296 and, in connection with the performance of his duties under this chapter and chapter 296, shall have the power to hold hearings, issue subpoenas and summon and examine witnesses under oath and issue subpoenas duces tecum for the production of books, records, vouchers, memoranda, documents, letters, tapes or other recordings or other papers or items. If any person refuses to obey a subpoena, the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford, or any judge of the court if it is not in session, shall, upon application of the secretary, have jurisdiction to issue to the person an order requiring him to appear before the secretary or to produce the books, records, vouchers, memoranda, documents, letters, tapes or other recordings or other papers or items requested.

(b) The secretary may, in connection with the performance of his duties under any other statute or act, apply to the superior court for the judicial district of Hartford, or to a judge of the court if the court is not in session, for a subpoena to compel the attendance and testimony under oath of witnesses or the production of books, records, vouchers, memoranda, documents, letters, tapes or other recordings or other papers or items. The court or judge shall, before issuing the subpoena, provide adequate opportunity for the secretary and the party against whom the subpoena is requested to be heard. No such subpoena shall be issued unless the court or judge finds that the attendance and testimony of the witness or the production of the requested material is reasonably necessary to carry out the purposes of such other statute or act and that the secretary has made reasonable efforts to secure the attendance, testimony and requested material without recourse to compulsory process. Such subpoena shall be served by a proper officer or indifferent person.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 6, 20; P.A. 75-537, S. 4, 55; P.A. 77-614, S. 19, 610; P.A. 78-268, S. 2, 5; 78-280, S. 6, 127; 78-303, S. 90, 136; P.A. 81-330, S. 1, 13; 81-457, S. 11; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; P.A. 95-220, S. 4–6.)

History: P.A. 75-537 replaced “administrator”, i.e. of energy agency, with “commissioner”, i.e. of planning and energy policy; P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner of planning and energy policy with secretary of the office of policy and management; P.A. 78-268 deleted reference to repealed Sec. 4-91 and replaced “his” with “said secretary’s” for clarity; P.A. 78-280 replaced Hartford county with judicial district of Hartford-New Britain; P.A. 78-303 deleted reference to repealed Secs. 4-60a, 4-60b and 4-70a; P.A. 81-330 terminated board’s subpoena power, gave secretary subpoena powers in connection with his duties under chapters 295 and 296 and divided section into two subsections; P.A. 81-457 removed the reference to Sec. 5-211, which was repealed by the same public act; P.A. 88-230 replaced “judicial district of Hartford-New Britain” with “judicial district of Hartford”, effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 90-98 changed effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995.

Sec. 16a-6. Cooperation of other state agencies. License for sale of gasoline. Each department, office, board, commission, council or other agency of the state and each officer or employee shall cooperate with the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection and shall furnish him such information, personnel and assistance as may be necessary or appropriate in the discharge of the responsibilities of said commissioner and the board under this chapter and sections 4-5, 4-124l, 4-124p, 8-3b, 8-32a, 8-33a, 8-35a and 8-189, subsection (b) of section 8-206 and sections 16a-20, 16a-102, 22a-352 and 22a-353. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall require each person applying for a license under section 14-319 to submit in his application the information which persons registering under section 16a-22d are required to submit. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall furnish the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection with such information.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 7, 20; P.A. 75-537, S. 5, 55; P.A. 77-614, S. 19, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 91, 136; P.A. 81-330, S. 5, 13; P.A. 88-248, S. 3; P.A. 11-80, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 75-537 replaced energy agency administrator with commissioner of planning and energy policy; P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner with secretary of the office of policy and management; P.A. 78-303 deleted reference to repealed Secs. 4-60a and 4-60b; P.A. 81-330 struck reference to Sec. 16a-19 and added requirement that license applicants under Sec. 14-319 include information required under Sec. 16a-22d and that this information be furnished to secretary; P.A. 88-248 deleted obsolete reference to Sec. 2-73; (Revisor’s note: In 1993 an obsolete reference to repealed Sec. 16-340 was deleted editorially by the Revisors); pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management” and “secretary” were changed editorially by the Revisors to “Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection” and “commissioner”, respectively, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-7. Annual report and recommendations by board. Section 16a-7 is repealed, effective July 1, 2003.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 8, 20; P.A. 82-222, S. 3, 7; P.A. 03-140, S. 25.)

Sec. 16a-7a. Annual comprehensive energy plan. Section 16a-7a is repealed, effective July 1, 2007.

(P.A. 03-140, S. 17; P.A. 04-236, S. 15; P.A. 07-242, S. 129.)

Sec. 16a-7b. Infrastructure criteria guidelines. (a) Not later than December 1, 2004, the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board shall develop infrastructure criteria guidelines for the evaluation process under subsection (f) of section 16a-7c, which guidelines shall be consistent with state environmental policy, state economic development policy, and the state’s policy regarding the restructuring of the electric industry, as set forth in section 16-244, and shall include, but not be limited to, the following: (1) Environmental preference standards; (2) efficiency standards, including, but not limited to, efficiency standards for transmission, generation and demand-side management; (3) generation preference standards; (4) electric capacity, use trends and forecasted resource needs; (5) natural gas capacity, use trends and forecasted resource needs; and (6) national and regional reliability criteria applicable to the regional bulk power grid, as determined in consultation with the regional independent system operator, as defined in section 16-1. In developing environmental preference standards, the board shall consider the recommendations and findings of the task force established pursuant to section 25-157a and Executive Order Number 26 of Governor John G. Rowland.

(b) No municipality other than a municipality operating a plant pursuant to chapter 101 or any special act and acting for purposes thereto may take an action to condemn, in whole or in part, or restrict the operation of any existing and currently operating energy facility, if such facility is first determined by the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, following a contested case proceeding, held in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to comprise a critical, unique and unmovable component of the state’s energy infrastructure, unless the municipality first receives written approval from the department, the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board and the Connecticut Siting Council that such taking would not have a detrimental impact on the state’s or region’s ability to provide a particular energy resource to its citizens.

(P.A. 03-140, S. 18; P.A. 04-191, S. 1; P.A. 07-242, S. 77, 110; P.A. 11-80, S. 1, 42.)

History: P.A. 03-140 effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 04-191 added provision re consideration of recommendations and findings of task force in developing environmental preference standards, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 07-242 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (b) re limitation on ability of municipality to condemn or restrict operation of existing and operating energy facility, effective June 4, 2007, and deleted reference to the comprehensive energy plan prepared pursuant to Sec. 16a-7a, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 11-80 amended Subsec. (b) to replace reference to Department of Public Utility Control with reference to Public Utilities Regulatory Authority and delete reference to Office of Policy and Management, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-7c. Request for proposal: Solicitation, submission, evaluation, report, net energy analysis. (a) Not later than fifteen days after receiving information pursuant to subsection (e) of section 16-50l, the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board shall publish such information in one or more newspapers or periodicals, as selected by the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection.

(b) On or after December 1, 2004, not later than fifteen days after the filing of an application pursuant to subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 16-50i, except for an application for a facility described in subdivision (5) or (6) of subsection (a) of section 16-50i, the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board shall issue a request for proposal to seek alternative solutions to the need that will be addressed by the proposed facility in such application. Such request for proposal shall, where relevant, solicit proposals that include distributed generation or energy efficiency measures. The board shall publish such request for proposal in one or more newspapers or periodicals, as selected by the board. Any facility generating not more than five megawatts and any electric transmission line, electric generation facility or electric substation otherwise constituting a facility as described in subsection (a) of section 16-50i that, as part of the proceeding conducted pursuant to section 8 of public act 07-242* and in accordance with this subsection, shall be determined by the Connecticut Siting Council and the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority to be required for the reliability of electric supply to critical national defense and homeland security infrastructure shall be exempt from the request for proposal process described in this subsection and exempt from the municipal participation fee requirements of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 16-50l. Such determination shall be made on or before December 31, 2007. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, the board, by a vote of two-thirds of the members present and voting, may determine that a request for proposal is unnecessary for a specific application because the process is not likely to result in a reasonable alternative to the proposed facility. On or before December 1, 2007, after seeking public comment, the board shall approve additional criteria for considering whether a request for proposal process should not be required for a specific application. Any determination that a request for proposal is not required shall include the board’s reasons for such determination.

(c) The board may issue a request for proposal for solutions to a need for new energy resources, new energy transmission facilities in the state, and new energy conservation initiatives in the state identified in regional energy system planning processes conducted by the regional independent system operator, as defined in section 16-1. Such request for proposal shall, where relevant, solicit proposals that include distributed generation or energy efficiency measures. The board shall publish such request for proposal in one or more newspapers or periodicals, as selected by the board.

(d) Not later than sixty days after the first date of publication of a request for proposal, a person or any legal entity may submit a proposal by filing with the board information as such person or entity may consider relevant to such proposal. The board may request further information from the person or entity that it deems necessary to evaluate the proposal pursuant to subsection (f) of this section.

(e) Upon the submission of a proposal pursuant to a request for proposal, the person or entity submitting the proposal shall consult with the municipality in which the facility may be located and with any other municipality that would be required to be served with a copy of an application for such proposal under subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of section 16-50l concerning the proposed and alternative sites of the facility. Such consultation with the municipality shall include, but not be limited to, good faith efforts to meet with the chief elected official of the municipality. At the time of the consultation, the person or entity submitting the proposal shall provide the chief elected official with any technical reports concerning the public need, the site selection process and the environmental effects of the proposed facility. The municipality may conduct public hearings and meetings as it deems necessary for it to advise the person or entity submitting the proposal of its recommendations concerning the proposed facility. Within sixty days of the initial consultation, the municipality shall issue its recommendations to the person or entity submitting the proposal. If a person or entity chooses to file an application pursuant to subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of section 16-50l, then such person or entity shall provide to the Connecticut Siting Council a summary of the consultations with the municipality, including all recommendations issued by the municipality. A person or entity that has complied with this subsection shall be exempt from the provisions of subsection (e) of section 16-50l.

(f) Not later than forty-five days after the deadline for submissions in response to a request for proposal, the board shall issue a report that evaluates each proposal received, including any proposal contained in an application to the council that initiated a request for proposal, based on the materials received pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, or information contained in the application, as required by section 16-50l, for conformance with the infrastructure criteria guidelines created pursuant to section 16a-7b. The board shall forward the results of such evaluation process to the Connecticut Siting Council.

(g) When evaluating submissions pursuant to subsection (f) of this section for a generation facility described in subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of section 16-50i that are in excess of sixty-five megawatts, the board shall perform a net energy analysis for each proposal. Such analysis shall include calculations of all embodied energy requirements used in the materials for initial construction of the facility over its projected useful lifetime. The analysis shall be expressed in a dimensionless unit as an energy profit ratio of energy generated by the facility to the calculated net energy expended in plant construction, maintenance and total fuel cycle energy requirements over the projected useful lifetime of the facility. The boundary for both the net energy calculations of the fuel cycle and materials for the facility construction and maintenance shall both be at the point of primary material extraction and include the energy consumed through the entire supply chain to final, but not be limited to, such subsequent steps as transportation, refinement and energy for delivery to the end consumer. The results of said net energy analysis shall be included in the results forwarded to the Connecticut Siting Council pursuant to subsection (f) of this section. For purposes of this subsection, “facility net energy” means the heat energy delivered by the facility contained in a fuel minus the life cycle energy used to produce the facility. “Fuel net energy” means the heat energy contained in a fuel minus the energy used to extract the fuel from the environment, refine it to a socially useful state and deliver it to consumers, and “embodied energy” means the total energy used to build and maintain a process, expressed in calorie equivalents of one type of energy.

(P.A. 03-140, S. 19; P.A. 07-242, S. 54; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 117; P.A. 11-80, S. 1, 43.)

*Note: Section 8 of public act 07-242 is special in nature and therefore has not been codified but remains in full force and effect according to its terms.

History: P.A. 03-140 effective October 1, 2004; P.A. 07-242 amended Subsec. (b) to exempt certain facilities deemed required for reliability of electric supply to critical national defense and homeland security infrastructure from request for proposal process and from municipal participation fee requirements of Sec. 16-50l(a)(1), deleted reference to comprehensive energy report in Subsec. (c) and added Subsec. (g) re performing net energy analysis for facilities in excess of 65 megawatts, effective July 1, 2007; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4 amended Subsec. (g) to specify applicability to “generation” facilities, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 11-80 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, rather than the board, to select newspapers and periodicals, effective July 1, 2011; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “Department of Public Utility Control” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Public Utilities Regulatory Authority” in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-8. Programs to foster cooperative effort. The board shall encourage programs to foster cooperative efforts by and among Connecticut business, industry, utilities, the academic community and government to develop new sources of energy.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 9, 20; P.A. 03-140, S. 21.)

History: P.A. 03-140 deleted provision re inclusion of recommendations in report pursuant to Sec. 16a-7, effective July 1, 2003.

Sec. 16a-9. Energy emergency plan. Amendments. (a) There shall continue to be an energy emergency plan. Said plan may include, but not be limited to, the following: (1) Establishment of programs, controls, standards, priorities and quotas for the allocation, rationing, conservation, distribution and consumption of available energy resources, (2) suspension and modification of existing statutes, standards and requirements affecting or affected by the use of energy resources, (3) adoption of measures affecting the type and composition and production and distribution of energy resources, (4) imposition of price restrictions on energy resources, (5) adoption of measures affecting the hours and days on which public buildings and commercial and industrial establishments may be or are required to remain open or closed, and (6) establishment and implementation of regional programs and agreements for the purpose of coordinating energy resource programs and actions of the state with those of the federal government and of other states and localities. Said plan shall include such levels of energy emergency as the commissioner shall establish.

(b) The commissioner shall prepare or cause to be prepared such amendments to the energy emergency plan as he may deem necessary. Such amendments shall be submitted to the General Assembly no later than fifteen days after the convening of any regular session of the General Assembly following the preparation of such amendments and shall be referred by the speaker of the House of Representatives and the president pro tempore of the Senate to the joint standing committee having cognizance of matters relating to energy. Said committee shall review such amendments and report its recommendations within fifteen days to the General Assembly. The General Assembly may by joint resolution disapprove or reject any section or sections of such amendments within forty-five days after the submittal of such amendments.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 10, 20; P.A. 75-537, S. 6, 55; P.A. 79-572, S. 1, 10; P.A. 88-220, S. 2, 11; P.A. 91-367, S. 4; P.A. 11-80, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 75-537 continued existence of emergency plan, deleting provision which had called for administrator to prepare one, and deleted Subsec. (b) re submission of plan for general assembly’s approval; P.A. 79-572 required plan to include levels of emergency established by secretary of office of policy and management and added Subsecs. (b) and (c) re amendments to plan; P.A. 88-220 deleted the 1980 reporting requirement formerly in Subsec. (c); P.A. 91-367 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize the plan to include the imposition of price restrictions on energy resources; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “secretary” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “commissioner”, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-10. Joint legislative committee established. There is established a joint legislative committee consisting of the president pro tempore of the Senate, the speaker of the House of Representatives, the majority and minority leaders of both houses of the General Assembly, and the cochairpersons and the ranking minority members of the committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy. All records of meetings of said committee shall be a matter of public record.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 11, 20; P.A. 79-572, S. 2, 10.)

History: P.A. 79-572 included as committee members cochairpersons and ranking minority members of energy committee.

Sec. 16a-11. Governor’s proclamation of energy emergency. Order implementing plan. Review and disapproval. Termination. (a) In the event of an energy emergency, the Governor may proclaim that such emergency exists and designate by order all or any part of the energy emergency plan he intends to implement and the effective date thereof, provided during any such energy emergency, the Governor may designate by order additional parts of said energy emergency plan to be implemented and the effective dates thereof. Any such order by the Governor pursuant to this section shall become effective upon filing said proclamation and designation in the office of the Secretary of the State. Such proclamation and any such designation shall be published in full at least once in a newspaper having general circulation in each county, provided failure to publish shall not impair the validity of such proclamation or designation.

(b) Any proclamation may be disapproved by the joint legislative committee established under section 16a-10 at a meeting which shall be held within seventy-two hours after the filing of such proclamation in the office of the Secretary of the State. Such disapproval shall be by a majority vote, provided at least one of the minority leaders shall vote for such disapproval. Notwithstanding such disapproval, such proclamation and any order pursuant to this section shall be valid and effective from the time the Governor files such proclamation until such time as said committee files its disapproval in the office of the Secretary of the State. Any proclamation not disapproved shall remain in effect until the Governor proclaims the end of the energy emergency or until three hundred days after the date of the proclamation of the energy emergency. The joint legislative committee shall meet to review the proclamation of an energy emergency every sixty days until such emergency ends and may disapprove such proclamation by a simple majority vote. Any order or designation shall remain in effect until termination by further order by the Governor, which termination shall become effective upon filing such order in the office of the Secretary of the State. Such order shall be published in full at least once in a newspaper having general circulation in each county, provided failure to publish shall not impair the validity of such order.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 12, 20; P.A. 79-572, S. 3, 10.)

History: P.A. 79-572 provided that proclamation ceases to have effect 300 days after date emergency was proclaimed, required review of proclamation every 60 days and provided for disapproval by majority vote in Subsec. (b).

Sec. 16a-12. Energy emergency not covered by state plan. Review and disapproval. Termination. (a) In the event of an emergency not covered by said plan, the Governor may proclaim an energy emergency and in connection therewith issue orders such as are permitted pursuant to chapter 517 and such orders may include (1) establishment of programs, controls, standards, priorities and quotas for the allocation, rationing, conservation, distribution and consumption of available energy resources, (2) suspension and modification of existing statutes, standards and requirements affecting or affected by the use of energy resources, (3) adoption of measures affecting the type and composition and production and distribution of energy resources, (4) imposition of price restrictions on energy resources, (5) adoption of measures affecting the hours and days on which public buildings and commercial and industrial establishments may be or are required to remain open or closed and (6) establishment and implementation of regional programs and agreements for the purpose of coordinating energy resource programs and actions of the state with those of the federal government and of other states and localities. Prior to the issuance of such an order, the Governor shall make written findings that there is an energy emergency and that the order is necessary to assure the health, safety and welfare of the people of the state. Any such orders shall be promulgated in the same manner as provided in subsection (a) of section 16a-11.

(b) Any proclamation or order issued or promulgated pursuant to subsection (a) of this section may be disapproved by the joint legislative committee established under section 16a-10 within seventy-two hours of the filing of such proclamation or order in the office of the Secretary of the State. Such disapproval shall be by a majority vote, provided at least one of the minority leaders shall vote for such disapproval. Notwithstanding such disapproval, such proclamation or any order shall be valid and effective from the time the Governor files such proclamation or order until such time as said committee files its disapproval in the office of the Secretary of the State. Any proclamation not disapproved shall remain in effect until the Governor proclaims the end of the energy emergency or until three hundred days after the date of the proclamation of the energy emergency. The joint legislative committee shall meet to review the proclamation of an energy emergency every sixty days until such emergency ends and may disapprove such proclamation by a simple majority vote. Such order shall remain in effect until termination by further order by the Governor, which termination shall become effective upon filing such order in the office of the Secretary of the State. Such order shall be published in full at least once in a newspaper having general circulation in each county, provided failure to publish shall not impair the validity of such order.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 13, 20; P.A. 75-537, S. 7, 55; P.A. 79-572, S. 4, 10; P.A. 91-367, S. 5.)

History: P.A. 75-537 removed obsolete reference to emergencies prior to adoption of plan in Subsec. (a); P.A. 79-572 added provisions re expiration of proclamation after 300 days, 60-day reviews and disapproval by majority vote; P.A. 91-367 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize the imposition of price restrictions on energy resources and to require the governor, before issuing an order, to make written findings re the existence of an energy emergency and the necessity of the order.

Sec. 16a-13. Aggrieved parties. Petition for exemption. Penalty for false statement. Exemptions. Appeal. Regulations. (a)(1) Any person aggrieved by any order issued under section 16a-11 or 16a-12 may file a petition with the commissioner requesting an exemption. The petition shall be in such form as the commissioner may prescribe. The person filing the petition shall be subject to the penalty for making a false statement under section 53a-157b.

(2) The commissioner may grant an exemption to any person who due to certain circumstances is unable to comply with such order without suffering inordinate hardship beyond that hardship suffered by persons generally, including, but not limited to, circumstances where in the absence of such exemption the petitioner would: (A) Be prevented from performing activities essential to the pursuit of his regular occupation or profession, (B) suffer adverse medical effects or be unable to obtain necessary medical treatment, or (C) incur permanent and substantial injury to person or property. The commissioner may also grant an exemption to any person who performs an essential public service and who would be prevented from performing such service or would be impaired in his performance in the absence of such exemption.

(3) In making a determination pursuant to this subsection, the commissioner may compare the relevant circumstances of the petitioner with (A) other users of the same fuel, users of other fuels, or both, or (B) other persons in the same economic sector or subsector, persons in other economic sectors or subsectors, or both, as determined by the commissioner to be most appropriate in terms of the specific energy resource availability situation existing or forecast at the time such comparison is made.

(b) The commissioner may investigate any such petition and consider in his decision any relevant factual finding resulting from such investigation. The commissioner may accept submissions from third parties relevant to such petition, provided the petitioner is afforded the opportunity to respond to such third party submissions. The commissioner may also consider any other sources of relevant information in deciding the petition before him. The commissioner may hold an informal hearing, if, in his opinion, such hearing is advisable.

(c) If the commissioner determines that there is insufficient information upon which to base a decision and if upon request the required additional information is not furnished, the petition may be dismissed without prejudice. The commissioner shall grant, deny or dismiss without prejudice such petition not more than thirty days after receipt of such petition. The commissioner may make his decision granting an exemption conditional upon the petitioner’s taking actions specified in such decision. Upon the granting, denying or dismissal of such petition, the commissioner shall notify the petitioner, in writing, the reasons for his decision.

(d) The commissioner may reconsider and alter any decision under this section as he deems necessary to implement such plan, or any provision of such plan or any order adopted pursuant to section 16a-11 or 16a-12. The commissioner may suspend or revoke any exemption for any reason including but not limited to: (1) Changed circumstances where the grounds for granting an exemption to the petitioner have ceased to exist, (2) failure on the part of the petitioner to comply with conditions specified in the commissioner’s decision granting the exemption, or (3) where the exemption was issued by mistake or on the basis of misrepresentation or false pretenses on the part of the petitioner.

(e) The provisions of sections 4-176e to 4-181a, inclusive, shall not apply to any proceeding held pursuant to subsections (a) to (d), inclusive, of this section. Any person aggrieved by the decision of the commissioner may appeal such decision in accordance with the provisions of sections 4-183 and 4-184.

(f) The commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, establishing administrative procedures to implement the provisions of this section with respect to petitions for exemption.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 14, 20; P.A. 75-156; 75-537, S. 8, 55; 75-567, S. 75, 80; P.A. 77-614, S. 19, 610; P.A. 79-572, S. 5, 10; P.A. 80-125, S. 1, 3; 80-483, S. 67, 186; P.A. 81-330, S. 2, 13; P.A. 88-317, S. 65, 107; P.A. 11-80, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 75-156 added provision re exemptions in Subsec. (a); P.A. 75-537 and 75-567 replaced energy agency administrator with commissioner of planning and energy policy; P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner with secretary of the office of policy and management; P.A. 79-572 replaced energy use sectors with economic sectors or subsectors in Subsec. (a) and clarified procedure for determining whether exemption warranted, replaced Sec. 4-180 with Sec. 4-181 in Subsec. (e) and added Subsec. (f) re adoption of regulations governing exemption petitions; P.A. 80-125 restated and expanded exemption provisions in Subsec. (a), added provision in Subsec. (c) re conditional exemption and added provisions in Subsec. (d) re suspension or revocation of exemption; P.A. 80-483 made technical changes; P.A. 81-330 added provision in Subsec. (a) subjecting person filing petition to penalty for false statement; P.A. 88-317 amended reference to Secs. 4-177 to 4-181 in Subsec. (e) to include new sections added to Ch. 54, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “secretary” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “commissioner”, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-13a. Levels of energy consumption considered in grant or denial of exemption. Regulations. (a) The commissioner, in granting or denying an exemption under section 16a-13, may take into account past levels of energy consumption or changes therein on the part of the person seeking such exemption.

(b) The commissioner may adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, which establish procedures for documenting past levels of energy consumption or changes therein for the purposes of an exemption under said section 16a-13.

(c) The commissioner may grant an exemption if he determines that the person seeking the exemption has fulfilled the conditions contained in such regulations. The regulations shall permit exemption: (1) In cases where the applicant documents an absolute reduction in energy consumption over such periods of time as the regulations may establish, which periods may vary for different categories of persons, and the reduction is the result of physical or behavioral changes or adjustments undertaken for energy conservation purposes and not from changes or modifications undertaken for other purposes, such as alterations in building size, extent or type of production capacity or utilization thereof, or changes in the nature or number of work force employed, which changes were not undertaken for energy conservation purposes; or (2) in cases where the applicant documents that his consumption of energy is substantially less than that of other persons in like circumstances over such period of time as the regulations may establish, which periods may vary for different categories of persons, and the level of consumption is due to physical or behavioral factors, changes or adjustments, undertaken for energy conservation purposes and not from factors, changes or modifications not so related.

(d) The regulations may provide that reductions in or levels of energy consumption which occur subsequent to the proclamation of an energy emergency pursuant to section 16a-11 or section 16a-12 shall not constitute the basis for exemption unless the reductions are due solely to actions undertaken prior to such proclamation.

(P.A. 79-572, S. 6, 10; P.A. 11-80, S. 1.)

History: Pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “secretary” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “commissioner”, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-13b. Responsibilities of the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection in energy emergency activities. (a) The commissioner shall: (1) Be responsible for the conduct and administration of energy emergency planning and preparedness activities generally, including the coordination of such activities under this title with other state emergency planning conducted under any other provisions of the general statutes or special acts and with energy emergency planning or preparedness activities undertaken by the federal government, other states and regional or interstate organizations, and (2) coordinate, under the direction of the office of the Governor, the adoption and implementation of emergency measures by state departments during any energy emergency proclaimed under section 16a-11 or section 16a-12, including the coordination of state, federal, regional and interstate activities.

(b) In exercising the responsibilities under subsection (a) of this section, the commissioner shall consult with the Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection, the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, the Department of Transportation and such other state agencies as the commissioner deems appropriate. Each state agency shall assist the commissioner in carrying out the responsibilities assigned by sections 16a-9 to 16a-13d, inclusive.

(P.A. 79-572, S. 9, 10; P.A. 80-482, S. 4, 40, 345, 348; P.A. 88-135, S. 3; P.A. 04-219, S. 7; P.A. 11-51, S. 156; 11-80, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 80-482 made division of public utility control an independent department and abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 88-135 substituted office of “emergency management” for office of “civil preparedness” in Subsec. (b); P.A. 04-219 amended Subsec. (b) to substitute Department of Emergency Management and Homeland Security for Office of Emergency Management, effective January 1, 2005; P.A. 11-51 amended Subsec. (b) by replacing “Department of Emergency Management and Homeland Security, the Department of Public Safety” with “Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection”, effective July 1, 2011; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “secretary” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “commissioner” and “Department of Public Utility Control” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Public Utilities Regulatory Authority”, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-13c. Violation of energy emergency plan or order. Interference with energy emergency activities. Penalties. Any person who during the course of an energy emergency proclaimed under this chapter violates any provision of the energy emergency plan which has been implemented pursuant to section 16a-11 or any order adopted pursuant to section 16a-12, or who obtains an exemption pursuant to section 16a-13 by misrepresentation or false pretenses, or who impedes, interferes with or obstructs any lawful energy emergency activities pursuant to this chapter, or who violates any provision of this chapter, shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars or imprisoned not more than one year, or both, for each offense. Each violation and each day on which the violation occurs or continues shall be a separate offense.

(P.A. 79-572, S. 7, 10; P.A. 80-125, S. 2, 3.)

History: P.A. 80-125 included in penalty provision those who gain exemption by misrepresentation or false pretenses.

Sec. 16a-13d. Study on establishing a reserve of energy resources. Section 16a-13d is repealed.

(P.A. 79-572, S. 8, 10; P.A. 86-187, S. 9, 10; P.A. 95-217, S. 9.)

Sec. 16a-14. General powers and duties of the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection re energy matters. In addition to the duties set forth in any other law, the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection may: (1) Be designated as the state official to implement and execute any federal program, law, order, rule or regulation related to the allocation, rationing, conservation, distribution or consumption of energy resources, (2) investigate any complaint concerning the violation of any federal or state statute, rule, regulation or order pertaining to pricing, allocation, rationing, conservation, distribution or consumption of energy resources and shall transmit any evidence gathered by such investigation to the proper federal or state authorities, (3) coordinate all state and local government programs for the allocation, rationing, conservation, distribution and consumption of energy resources, (4) cooperate with the appropriate authorities of the United States government, or other state or interstate agencies with respect to allocation, rationing, conservation, distribution and consumption of energy resources, (5) conduct programs of public education regarding energy conservation, (6) carry out a program of studies, hearings, inquiries, surveys and analyses necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter and sections 4-124c, 4-124i, 4-124l, 4-124p, 8-3b, 8-31a, 8-32a, 8-33a, 8-35a, 8-37a and 8-189, subsection (b) of section 8-206 and sections 16a-20, 16a-102, 22a-352 and 22a-353, provided if an individual or business furnishing commercial or financial information concerning such individual or business requests in writing at the time such information is furnished that it be treated as confidential proprietary information, such information, to the extent that it is limited to (A) volume of sales, shipments, receipts and exchanges of energy resources, (B) inventories of energy resources, and (C) local distribution patterns of energy resources, shall be exempt from the provisions of subsection (a) of section 1-210, (7) enter into contracts with any person to do all things necessary or convenient to carry out the functions, powers and duties of the commissioner and the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection under this chapter and sections 4-5, 4-124l, 4-124p, 8-3b, 8-32a, 8-33a, 8-35a and 8-189, subsection (b) of section 8-206 and sections 16a-20, 16a-102, 22a-352 and 22a-353, (8) adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to establish standards for solar energy systems, including experimental systems, which offer practical alternatives to the use of conventional energy with regard to current technological feasibility and the climate of this state, and (9) undertake such other duties and responsibilities as may be delegated by other state statutes or by the Governor.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 15, 20; P.A. 75-537, S. 9, 55; P.A. 76-364; 76-409, S. 2; P.A. 77-614, S. 19, 610; P.A. 78-268, S. 3, 5; 78-303, S. 92, 136; P.A. 79-576, S. 3, 7; P.A. 81-330, S. 11, 13; P.A. 88-116, S. 9; 88-248, S. 4; P.A. 07-217, S. 64; P.A. 11-80, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 75-537 replaced energy agency and its administrator with department and commissioner of planning and energy policy; P.A. 76-364 replaced specific provisions re election of selectmen with statement that Sec. 9-167a applies to election of selectmen; P.A. 76-409 added Subdiv. (8) re standards for solar energy systems; P.A. 77-614 replaced department and commissioner of planning and energy policy with office of policy and management and its secretary; P.A. 78-268 deleted reference to repealed Sec. 4-91; P.A. 78-303 deleted references to repealed Secs. 4-60a, 4-60b and 4-70a; P.A. 79-576 updated section references; P.A. 81-330 deleted references to Sec. 16a-19; P.A. 88-116 deleted obsolete reference to Sec. 4-124g; P.A. 88-248 deleted obsolete references to Sec. 2-73; (Revisor’s note: In 1993 an obsolete reference to repealed Sec. 16-340 was deleted editorially by the Revisors); P.A. 07-217 made technical changes, effective July 12, 2007; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management” and “Office of Policy and Management” were changed editorially by the Revisors to “Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection” and “Department of Energy and Environmental Protection”, respectively, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-14a. Grant program for businesses involved in energy-related products and services. Section 16a-14a is repealed, effective July 1, 2011.

(P.A. 79-576, S. 4, 7; P.A. 95-250, S. 1; P.A. 96-211, S. 1, 5, 6; P.A. 11-80, S. 1, 140.)

Sec. 16a-14b. Testing programs for energy-related products. Regulations. Report. (a) The commissioner shall develop voluntary testing programs for energy-related products or categories of such products. Such testing shall be designed to protect the interests of consumers by providing reliable information on such products, and may include the evaluation of the energy efficiency, durability, reliability, health and safety aspects, life-cycle cost or other performance qualities of such products.

(b) The commissioner, in consultation with the Commissioner of Consumer Protection, shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 establishing provisions (1) for standardized procedures for the performance of such testing; (2) for categories of energy-related products to be covered by such testing procedures; (3) to differentiate between the testing of experimental energy-related products and commercial energy-related products, to determine the range of models produced by a specific manufacturer to which testing results will apply and to ensure that products submitted for testing constitute a representative sample of those produced within such range by said manufacturer; (4) for a standardized format for the compilation of information from such tests which shall include all relevant information from each type of test performed on a product; (5) for the designation of qualified state or state-certified facilities to perform such testing; provided, no person or organization which has any pecuniary interest in the manufacture, distribution or sale of energy-related products within or without the state shall be eligible for such designation; and (6) for a schedule of reasonable fees for the performance of such tests or a procedure for establishing such a schedule.

(P.A. 79-576, S. 5, 7; P.A. 88-220, S. 3, 11; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1; P.A. 11-80, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 88-220 deleted former Subsec. (c) which had contained obsolete reporting requirement; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “secretary” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “commissioner”, effective July 1, 2011.

Secs. 16a-14c and 16a-14d. Comprehensive energy plan. Technical advisory group; recommendations regarding electric energy efficiency; regulations. Sections 16a-14c and 16a-14d are repealed.

(P.A. 90-219, S. 4, 7; P.A. 92-138, S. 3; P.A. 96-23.)

Sec. 16a-14e. Purchasing pool for purchase of electricity. The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall operate a purchasing pool for the purchase of electricity for state operations. Said department shall provide the opportunity to participate in such purchasing pool to each household that includes an individual who receives means-tested assistance administered by the state or federal government. Any such household shall receive through such purchasing pool the same benefits and rate discounts available for state facilities. The Department of Energy and Environmental Protection shall use federal and state energy assistance funds to leverage the lowest practicable electric rates for households participating in such pool, provided such funds shall not be used for administrative purposes. The provisions of section 16-245 shall not apply to the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection for purposes of this section.

(P.A. 98-28, S. 60, 117; P.A. 11-80, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, “Office of Policy and Management” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “Department of Energy and Environmental Protection”, effective July 1, 2011.

Sec. 16a-15. Display of signs on fuel pumps. Display of signs posting gas price for public and members of retail membership organization. Regulations. Penalty. (a) Each person shall publicly display and maintain on each pump or other dispensing device from which any gasoline or other product intended as a fuel for aircraft, motor boats or motor vehicles is sold by such person, such signs as the Commissioner of Consumer Protection, by regulation adopted pursuant to chapter 54, may require to inform the public of the octane rating and price of such gasoline or other product. Each person selling such gasoline or other product on both a full-serve and self-serve basis and displaying the price of such gasoline or other product at a location on the premises other than at a pump or other dispensing device shall include in such display both the full-serve and self-serve prices of such gasoline or other product, in such manner as the commissioner, by regulation, may require. All signs as to price shall be the per-gallon price and shall not be the price of less or more than one gallon.

(b) Each person shall publicly display and maintain on each pump or other dispensing device from which any gasoline or other product containing more than one per cent by volume of ethanol, methanol or any other cosolvent, and intended as a fuel for aircraft, motor boats or motor vehicles is sold by such person, such signs as the Commissioner of Consumer Protection, by regulation adopted pursuant to chapter 54, may require to inform the public of the amount of methanol, ethanol or any other cosolvent contained in such gasoline or other product.

(c) Each person shall publicly display and maintain, in a like manner, size and print, on each sign on display to the general public intended to inform the public of the price of gasoline and each pump or other dispensing device from which any gasoline intended as a fuel for motor vehicles is sold by such person, such signs as the Commissioner of Consumer Protection, by regulation adopted pursuant to chapter 54, may require to inform the public of the price for such gasoline for such members of the public as any such sign that informs of the price of such gasoline for members of any club, members of any retail membership organization or persons who qualify for any special discount offer.

(d) Any manufacturer, hauler, blender, agent, jobber, consignment agent, or distributor who distributes gasoline, or other products intended as fuel for aircraft, motor boats, or motor vehicles, which contain one per cent or more alcohol by volume, shall state the percentage of alcohol and the type of alcohol on any invoice, bill of lading, shipping paper, or other documentation used in normal and customary business practices.

(e) Any person who, by himself or herself or by his or her agent or employee, violates any provision of this section or such regulations shall be fined not less than fifty dollars or more than two hundred fifty dollars.

(f) A violation of subsection (c) of this section shall constitute an unfair trade practice under subsection (a) of section 42-110b.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 17, 20; P.A. 75-537, S. 10, 55; P.A. 77-614, S. 19, 610; P.A. 80-436, S. 6, 7; P.A. 84-244, S. 1; 84-279, S. 2; P.A. 98-128, S. 6, 10; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c), (d); P.A. 04-169, S. 17; 04-189, S. 1; P.A. 05-89, S. 1; P.A. 06-29, S. 1; P.A. 07-217, S. 65.)

History: P.A. 75-537 replaced energy agency administrator with commissioner of planning and energy policy; P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner with secretary of the office of policy and management; P.A. 80-436 required that signs display per-gallon price; P.A. 84-244 divided section into Subsecs. and required persons selling gasoline or other product on both a full-serve and self-serve basis and displaying the price of the product in a place other than the pump to include in such display both the full-serve and self-serve price of the product as the commissioner of consumer protection requires; P.A. 84-279 inserted new Subsecs. (b) and (c), requiring invoices and signs to display the amount of methanol, ethanol or other cosolvent in gasoline or other fuel, designating prior provisions as Subsecs. (a) and (d) and substituting “commissioner of consumer protection” for “secretary” in Subsec. (a); P.A. 98-128 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (b), added new Subsec. (c) to establish specific requirements for the period commencing May 27, 1998, and ending on October 1, 1998 re displaying a notice to inform public of requirements of Subsec. (c) of Sec. 14-332a and redesignated existing Subsecs. (c) and (d) as Subsecs. (d) and (e), effective May 27, 1998; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 and P.A. 04-169 replaced Commissioner and Department of Consumer Protection with Commissioner and Department of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 05-89 amended Subsec. (c) by designating existing provisions as new Subdiv. (1), making technical changes therein, and adding new Subdiv. (2) re posting of gas prices for members of the public and members of any retail membership organization, effective June 7, 2005; P.A. 06-29 deleted former Subsec. (c)(1) re notice display during period from May 27, 1998, to October 1, 1998, redesignated existing Subsec. (c)(2) as new Subsec. (c) and added Subsec. (f) specifying that violation of Subsec. (c) is an unfair trade practice, effective May 8, 2006; P.A. 07-217 made technical changes in Subsec. (e), effective July 12, 2007.

Sec. 16a-15a. Notice of full-serve and self-serve fuel pumps. Notice of discounts. Handicapped drivers. The Commissioner of Consumer Protection shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 specifying the manner in which retail dealers, as defined in section 14-318, shall notify customers of the location of self-service and full-service fuel pumps or any pumps at which discounts are offered for cash payment or credit cards are accepted. The regulations shall include provision for the direction of handicapped drivers to the appropriate self-service pump as provided in section 14-325b.

(P.A. 84-244, S. 2; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1.)

History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

Sec. 16a-16. Enforcement; injunctions, damages. Remedies not exclusive. (a) This chapter may be enforced by the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management in the superior court for any judicial district in which any person who violates any provisions of this chapter resides or maintains a place of business by an ex parte temporary injunction issued by said court or a judge thereof; provided, if such injunction is issued, such person may file a motion to dissolve such injunction and a hearing upon such motion shall be held by the superior court not later than three days after service of such motion upon the Governor pursuant to an order of said court or a judge thereof. If a permanent injunction is granted, such person may be assessed damages of not more than ten thousand dollars plus court costs.

(b) The provisions of this section are not exclusive, and the remedies provided for in this section shall be in addition to any other remedy provided for in any other section of the general statutes or available under common law.

(P.A. 74-285, S. 16, 20; P.A. 75-537, S. 11, 55; P.A. 77-614, S. 19, 610; P.A. 78-280, S. 2, 127.)

History: P.A. 75-537 replaced energy agency administrator with commissioner of planning and energy policy; P.A. 77-614 replaced commissioner with secretary of the office of policy and management; P.A. 78-280 replaced “county” with “judicial district”.