CHAPTER 815t
JUVENILE MATTERS

Table of Contents

Sec. 46b-120. (Formerly Sec. 51-301). *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Definitions.
Sec. 46b-121. (Formerly Sec. 51-302). *(See end of section for amended version of subsection (a) and effective date.) "Juvenile matters" defined. Authority of court.
Sec. 46b-122. (Formerly Sec. 51-303). Juvenile matters separated from other court business when practicable. Exclusion of persons from hearing. Exceptions.
Secs. 46b-123c to 46b-123e. Commission on Child Protection; membership; duties. Chief Child Protection Attorney; duties; contracts for legal services. Eligibility for counsel in family relations or juvenile matters; procedure for appointment or assignment.
Sec. 46b-124. (Formerly Sec. 51-305). Confidentiality of records of juvenile matters. Exceptions.
Sec. 46b-127. (Formerly Sec. 51-308). *(See end of section for amended versions of subsections (c) and (f) and effective date.) Transfer of child charged with a felony to the regular criminal docket. Transfer of youth age sixteen to docket for juvenile matters.
Sec. 46b-129. (Formerly Sec. 51-310). Commitment of child or youth. Petition for neglected, uncared-for or abused child or youth. Hearing re temporary custody, order to appear or petition. Review of permanency plan. Cost of care and maintenance of child or youth; reimbursement. Revocation of commitment. Applicability of provisions re placement of child from another state and Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children.
Sec. 46b-129a. Examination by physician, psychiatrist or psychologist. Counsel and guardian ad litem. Testimony. Evidence.
Sec. 46b-130. (Formerly Sec. 51-311). Reimbursement for expense of care and maintenance. Assignment of right of support to Commissioner of Children and Families. Parents' assistance in pursuing support.
Sec. 46b-133. (Formerly Sec. 51-314). Arrest of child. Notice of arrest. Release or detention of arrested child. Alcohol or drug testing or treatment as condition of release. Report re suspected abuse or neglect. Admission of child to juvenile detention center.
Sec. 46b-135. (Formerly Sec. 51-316). Right to counsel and cross-examination.
Sec. 46b-136. (Formerly Sec. 51-317). Appointment of attorney to represent child or youth and parent or guardian.
Sec. 46b-137. (Formerly Sec. 51-318). *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Admissibility of admission, confession or statement in juvenile proceedings. Exception.
Sec. 46b-140. (Formerly Sec. 51-321). Disposition upon conviction of child as delinquent.
Sec. 46b-141. (Formerly Sec. 51-322). Length of commitments. Motion for extension of commitment. Permanency hearing. Permanency plan. Reopening and termination.
Sec. 46b-150d. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Effect of emancipation.

PART I
GENERAL PROVISIONS

      Sec. 46b-120. (Formerly Sec. 51-301). *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Definitions. The terms used in this chapter shall, in its interpretation and in the interpretation of other statutes, be defined as follows:

      (1) "Child" means any person under eighteen years of age who has not been legally emancipated, except that (A) for purposes of delinquency matters and proceedings, "child" means any person (i) under seventeen years of age who has not been legally emancipated, or (ii) seventeen years of age or older who, prior to attaining seventeen years of age, has committed a delinquent act or, subsequent to attaining seventeen years of age, (I) violates any order of the Superior Court or any condition of probation ordered by the Superior Court with respect to a delinquency proceeding, or (II) wilfully fails to appear in response to a summons under section 46b-133 or at any other court hearing in a delinquency proceeding of which the child had notice, and (B) for purposes of family with service needs matters and proceedings, child means a person under seventeen years of age;

      (2) (A) "Youth" means any person sixteen or seventeen years of age who has not been legally emancipated, and (B) "youth in crisis" means any person seventeen years of age who has not been legally emancipated and who, within the last two years, (i) has without just cause run away from the parental home or other properly authorized and lawful place of abode, (ii) is beyond the control of the youth's parents, guardian or other custodian, or (iii) has four unexcused absences from school in any one month or ten unexcused absences in any school year;

      (3) A child may be found "mentally deficient" who, by reason of a deficiency of intelligence that has existed from birth or from early age, requires, or will require, for such child's protection or for the protection of others, special care, supervision and control;

      (4) (A) A child may be convicted as "delinquent" who has, while under sixteen years of age, (i) violated any federal or state law, except section 53a-172, 53a-173, 53a-222, 53a-222a, 53a-223 or 53a-223a, or violated a municipal or local ordinance, except an ordinance regulating behavior of a child in a family with service needs, (ii) wilfully failed to appear in response to a summons under section 46b-133 or at any other court hearing in a delinquency proceeding of which the child had notice, (iii) violated any order of the Superior Court in a delinquency proceeding, except as provided in section 46b-148, or (iv) violated conditions of probation in a delinquency proceeding as ordered by the court;

      (B) A child may be convicted as "delinquent" who has (i) while sixteen years of age, violated any federal or state law, other than (I) an infraction, except an infraction under subsection (d) of section 21a-267, (II) a violation, except a violation under subsection (a) of section 21a-279a, (III) a motor vehicle offense or violation under title 14, (IV) a violation of a municipal or local ordinance, or (V) a violation of section 51-164r, 53a-172, 53a-173, 53a-222, 53a-222a, 53a-223 or 53a-223a, (ii) while sixteen years of age or older wilfully failed to appear in response to a summons under section 46b-133 or at any other court hearing in a delinquency proceeding of which the child had notice, (iii) while sixteen years of age or older, violated any order of the Superior Court in a delinquency proceeding, except as provided in section 46b-148, or (iv) while sixteen years of age or older, violated conditions of probation in a delinquency proceeding as ordered by the court;

      (5) "Family with service needs" means a family that includes a child under seventeen years of age who (A) has without just cause run away from the parental home or other properly authorized and lawful place of abode, (B) is beyond the control of the child's or youth's parent, parents, guardian or other custodian, (C) has engaged in indecent or immoral conduct, (D) is a truant or habitual truant or who, while in school, has been continuously and overtly defiant of school rules and regulations, or (E) is thirteen years of age or older and has engaged in sexual intercourse with another person and such other person is thirteen years of age or older and not more than two years older or younger than such child or youth;

      (6) A child or youth may be found "neglected" who (A) has been abandoned, (B) is being denied proper care and attention, physically, educationally, emotionally or morally, or (C) is being permitted to live under conditions, circumstances or associations injurious to the well-being of the child or youth, except no child or youth may be found neglected solely because the child or youth is impoverished;

      (7) A child or youth may be found "abused" who (A) has been inflicted with physical injury or injuries other than by accidental means, (B) has injuries that are at variance with the history given of them, or (C) is in a condition that is the result of maltreatment, including, but not limited to, malnutrition, sexual molestation or exploitation, deprivation of necessities, emotional maltreatment or cruel punishment;

      (8) A child or youth may be found "uncared for" who is homeless or whose home cannot provide the specialized care that the physical, emotional or mental condition of the child or youth requires. For the purposes of this section, the treatment of any child or youth by an accredited Christian Science practitioner, in lieu of treatment by a licensed practitioner of the healing arts, shall not of itself constitute neglect or maltreatment;

      (9) "Delinquent act" means (A) the violation by a child under the age of sixteen of any federal or state law, except the violation of section 53a-172, 53a-173, 53a-222, 53a-222a, 53a-223 or 53a-223a, or the violation of a municipal or local ordinance, except an ordinance regulating behavior of a child in a family with service needs, (B) the violation by a child sixteen years of age of any federal or state law, other than (i) an infraction, except an infraction under subsection (d) of section 21a-267, (ii) a violation, except a violation under subsection (a) of section 21a-279a, (iii) a motor vehicle offense or violation under title 14, (iv) the violation of a municipal or local ordinance, or (v) the violation of section 51-164r, 53a-172, 53a-173, 53a-222, 53a-222a, 53a-223 or 53a-223a, (C) the wilful failure of a child, including a child who has attained the age of seventeen, to appear in response to a summons under section 46b-133 or at any other court hearing in a delinquency proceeding of which the child has notice, (D) the violation of any order of the Superior Court in a delinquency proceeding by a child, including a child who has attained the age of seventeen, except as provided in section 46b-148, or (E) the violation of conditions of probation in a delinquency proceeding by a child, including a child who has attained the age of seventeen, as ordered by the court;

      (10) "Serious juvenile offense" means (A) the violation of, including attempt or conspiracy to violate, section 21a-277, 21a-278, 29-33, 29-34, 29-35, subdivision (2) or (3) of subsection (a) of section 53-21, 53-80a, 53-202b, 53-202c, 53-390 to 53-392, inclusive, 53a-54a to 53a-57, inclusive, 53a-59 to 53a-60c, inclusive, 53a-64aa, 53a-64bb, 53a-70 to 53a-71, inclusive, 53a-72b, 53a-86, 53a-92 to 53a-94a, inclusive, 53a-95, 53a-100aa, 53a-101, 53a-102a, 53a-103a or 53a-111 to 53a-113, inclusive, subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 53a-122, subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of section 53a-123, section 53a-134, 53a-135, 53a-136a or 53a-167c, subsection (a) of section 53a-174, or section 53a-196a, 53a-211, 53a-212, 53a-216 or 53a-217b, or (B) running away, without just cause, from any secure placement other than home while referred as a delinquent child to the Court Support Services Division or committed as a delinquent child to the Commissioner of Children and Families for a serious juvenile offense;

      (11) "Serious juvenile offender" means any child convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious juvenile offense;

      (12) "Serious juvenile repeat offender" means any child charged with the commission of any felony if such child has previously been convicted as delinquent or otherwise convicted at any age for two violations of any provision of title 21a, 29, 53 or 53a that is designated as a felony;

      (13) "Alcohol-dependent" means a psychoactive substance dependence on alcohol as that condition is defined in the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"; and

      (14) "Drug-dependent" means a psychoactive substance dependence on drugs as that condition is defined in the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders". No child shall be classified as drug-dependent who is dependent (A) upon a morphine-type substance as an incident to current medical treatment of a demonstrable physical disorder other than drug dependence, or (B) upon amphetamine-type, ataractic, barbiturate-type, hallucinogenic or other stimulant and depressant substances as an incident to current medical treatment of a demonstrable physical or psychological disorder, or both, other than drug dependence.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2802; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 52; 1967, P.A. 630, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 72, S. 14; P.A. 75-602, S. 1, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 668, 681; P.A. 77-577, S. 4; P.A. 79-567, S. 1, 7; 79-581, S. 1; P.A. 80-401, S. 4; P.A. 85-226, S. 1; P.A. 87-373, S. 13; P.A. 90-161, S. 1, 6; 90-240, S. 2, 6; 90-325, S. 19, 32; P.A. 91-303, S. 11, 22; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-1, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-3; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; 93-340, S. 16; P.A. 95-225, S. 9; P.A. 97-319, S. 18, 22; P.A. 98-256, S. 1; P.A. 00-177, S. 1, 5; P.A. 02-109, S. 1; 02-132, S. 18; P.A. 05-250, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 73; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 69, 82; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 28; P.A. 11-71, S. 7, 8; 11-157, S. 9-11; 11-240, S. 2.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2012, this section, as amended by section 82 of public act 09-7 of the September special session, sections 9 and 10 of public act 11-71, section 12 of public act 11-157 and section 3 of public act 11-240, is to read as follows:

      "Sec. 46b-120. (Formerly Sec. 51-301). Definitions. The terms used in this chapter shall, in its interpretation and in the interpretation of other statutes, be defined as follows:

      (1) "Child" means any person under eighteen years of age who has not been legally emancipated, except that (A) for purposes of delinquency matters and proceedings, "child" means any person (i) under eighteen years of age who has not been legally emancipated, or (ii) eighteen years of age or older who, prior to attaining eighteen years of age, has committed a delinquent act or, subsequent to attaining eighteen years of age, (I) violates any order of the Superior Court or any condition of probation ordered by the Superior Court with respect to a delinquency proceeding, or (II) wilfully fails to appear in response to a summons under section 46b-133 or at any other court hearing in a delinquency proceeding of which the child had notice, and (B) for purposes of family with service needs matters and proceedings, child means a person under eighteen years of age;

      (2) "Youth" means any person sixteen or seventeen years of age who has not been legally emancipated;

      (3) A child may be found "mentally deficient" who, by reason of a deficiency of intelligence that has existed from birth or from early age, requires, or will require, for such child's protection or for the protection of others, special care, supervision and control;

      (4) (A) A child may be convicted as "delinquent" who has, while under sixteen years of age, (i) violated any federal or state law, except section 53a-172, 53a-173, 53a-222, 53a-222a, 53a-223 or 53a-223a, or violated a municipal or local ordinance, except an ordinance regulating behavior of a child in a family with service needs, (ii) wilfully failed to appear in response to a summons under section 46b-133 or at any other court hearing in a delinquency proceeding of which the child had notice, (iii) violated any order of the Superior Court in a delinquency proceeding, except as provided in section 46b-148, or (iv) violated conditions of probation in a delinquency proceeding as ordered by the court;

      (B) A child may be convicted as "delinquent" who has (i) while sixteen or seventeen years of age, violated any federal or state law, other than (I) an infraction, except an infraction under subsection (d) of section 21a-267, (II) a violation, except a violation under subsection (a) of section 21a-279a, (III) a motor vehicle offense or violation under title 14, (IV) a violation of a municipal or local ordinance, or (V) a violation of section 51-164r, 53a-172, 53a-173, 53a-222, 53a-222a, 53a-223 or 53a-223a, (ii) while sixteen years of age or older, wilfully failed to appear in response to a summons under section 46b-133 or at any other court hearing in a delinquency proceeding of which the child had notice, (iii) while sixteen years of age or older, violated any order of the Superior Court in a delinquency proceeding, except as provided in section 46b-148, or (iv) while sixteen years of age or older, violated conditions of probation in a delinquency proceeding as ordered by the court;

      (5) "Family with service needs" means a family that includes a child under eighteen years of age who (A) has without just cause run away from the parental home or other properly authorized and lawful place of abode, (B) is beyond the control of the child's or youth's parent, parents, guardian or other custodian, (C) has engaged in indecent or immoral conduct, (D) is a truant or habitual truant or who, while in school, has been continuously and overtly defiant of school rules and regulations, or (E) is thirteen years of age or older and has engaged in sexual intercourse with another person and such other person is thirteen years of age or older and not more than two years older or younger than such child or youth;

      (6) A child or youth may be found "neglected" who, for reasons other than being impoverished, (A) has been abandoned, (B) is being denied proper care and attention, physically, educationally, emotionally or morally, or (C) is being permitted to live under conditions, circumstances or associations injurious to the well-being of the child or youth;

      (7) A child or youth may be found "abused" who (A) has been inflicted with physical injury or injuries other than by accidental means, (B) has injuries that are at variance with the history given of them, or (C) is in a condition that is the result of maltreatment, including, but not limited to, malnutrition, sexual molestation or exploitation, deprivation of necessities, emotional maltreatment or cruel punishment;

      (8) A child or youth may be found "uncared for" who is homeless or whose home cannot provide the specialized care that the physical, emotional or mental condition of the child or youth requires. For the purposes of this section, the treatment of any child or youth by an accredited Christian Science practitioner, in lieu of treatment by a licensed practitioner of the healing arts, shall not of itself constitute neglect or maltreatment;

      (9) "Delinquent act" means (A) the violation by a child under the age of sixteen of any federal or state law, except the violation of section 53a-172, 53a-173, 53a-222, 53a-222a, 53a-223 or 53a-223a, or the violation of a municipal or local ordinance, except an ordinance regulating behavior of a child in a family with service needs, (B) the violation by a child sixteen or seventeen years of age of any federal or state law, other than (i) an infraction, except an infraction under subsection (d) of section 21a-267, (ii) a violation, except a violation under subsection (a) of section 21a-279a, (iii) a motor vehicle offense or violation under title 14, (iv) the violation of a municipal or local ordinance, or (v) the violation of section 51-164r, 53a-172, 53a-173, 53a-222, 53a-222a, 53a-223 or 53a-223a, (C) the wilful failure of a child, including a child who has attained the age of eighteen, to appear in response to a summons under section 46b-133 or at any other court hearing in a delinquency proceeding of which the child has notice, (D) the violation of any order of the Superior Court in a delinquency proceeding by a child, including a child who has attained the age of eighteen, except as provided in section 46b-148, or (E) the violation of conditions of probation in a delinquency proceeding by a child, including a child who has attained the age of eighteen, as ordered by the court;

      (10) "Serious juvenile offense" means (A) the violation of, including attempt or conspiracy to violate, section 21a-277, 21a-278, 29-33, 29-34, 29-35, subdivision (2) or (3) of subsection (a) of section 53-21, 53-80a, 53-202b, 53-202c, 53-390 to 53-392, inclusive, 53a-54a to 53a-57, inclusive, 53a-59 to 53a-60c, inclusive, 53a-64aa, 53a-64bb, 53a-70 to 53a-71, inclusive, 53a-72b, 53a-86, 53a-92 to 53a-94a, inclusive, 53a-95, 53a-100aa, 53a-101, 53a-102a, 53a-103a or 53a-111 to 53a-113, inclusive, subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 53a-122, subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of section 53a-123, section 53a-134, 53a-135, 53a-136a or 53a-167c, subsection (a) of section 53a-174, or section 53a-196a, 53a-211, 53a-212, 53a-216 or 53a-217b, or (B) running away, without just cause, from any secure placement other than home while referred as a delinquent child to the Court Support Services Division or committed as a delinquent child to the Commissioner of Children and Families for a serious juvenile offense;

      (11) "Serious juvenile offender" means any child convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious juvenile offense;

      (12) "Serious juvenile repeat offender" means any child charged with the commission of any felony if such child has previously been convicted as delinquent or otherwise convicted at any age for two violations of any provision of title 21a, 29, 53 or 53a that is designated as a felony;

      (13) "Alcohol-dependent" means a psychoactive substance dependence on alcohol as that condition is defined in the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"; and

      (14) "Drug-dependent" means a psychoactive substance dependence on drugs as that condition is defined in the most recent edition of the American Psychiatric Association's "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders". No child shall be classified as drug-dependent who is dependent (A) upon a morphine-type substance as an incident to current medical treatment of a demonstrable physical disorder other than drug dependence, or (B) upon amphetamine-type, ataractic, barbiturate-type, hallucinogenic or other stimulant and depressant substances as an incident to current medical treatment of a demonstrable physical or psychological disorder, or both, other than drug dependence."

      (1949 Rev., S. 2802; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 52; 1967, P.A. 630, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 72, S. 14; P.A. 75-602, S. 1, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 668, 681; P.A. 77-577, S. 4; P.A. 79-567, S. 1, 7; 79-581, S. 1; P.A. 80-401, S. 4; P.A. 85-226, S. 1; P.A. 87-373, S. 13; P.A. 90-161, S. 1, 6; 90-240, S. 2, 6; 90-325, S. 19, 32; P.A. 91-303, S. 11, 22; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-1, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-3; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; 93-340, S. 16; P.A. 95-225, S. 9; P.A. 97-319, S. 18, 22; P.A. 98-256, S. 1; P.A. 00-177, S. 1, 5; P.A. 02-109, S. 1; 02-132, S. 18; P.A. 05-250, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 73; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 69, 82; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 28; P.A. 11-71, S. 7-10; 11-157, S. 9-12; 11-240, S. 2, 3.)

      History: 1959 act amended definition of child and substituted circuit court for town, city, police or borough courts; 1967 act changed definition of dependent child's home from "poverty" to "financial instability" for "specialized care" and redefined child; 1969 act redefined "delinquent" child, substituted "financial inability" for "financial instability" in definition of "dependent" child, substituted educational and emotional deprivation for mental neglect in definition of "neglected" child and deleted reference to living under evil associations of home conditions and redefined "uncared for" child to delete reference to child whose home is unsuitable or who cannot support himself legally or without subjecting himself to conditions prejudicial to normal development; 1971 act redefined "child" to omit those between 16 and 18 years old who have been transferred from circuit court to superior court jurisdiction; P.A. 75-602 defined "youth", added reference to "neglected" youths and "uncared for" youths and redefined "uncared for" to include reference to home which cannot perform specialized care needed and to specify that treatment by Christian Science practitioner does not constitute neglect or maltreatment; P.A. 76-436 replaced reference to juvenile court with reference to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-577 defined "abused" and added reference to abused child in definition of "neglected" child; P.A. 79-567 defined "family with service needs" and amended definition of "delinquent" child accordingly; P.A. 79-581 defined "serious juvenile offense" and "serious juvenile offender"; Sec. 17-53 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-301 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-120 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-53; P.A. 80-401 changed effective date of P.A. 79-567 from July 1, 1980 to July 1, 1981; P.A. 85-226 amended definition of "delinquent" by deleting exception for order entered in matter relating to a family with service needs; P.A. 87-373 redefined "serious juvenile offense" to include a violation of Sec. 21a-277 or 21a-278; P.A. 90-161 added definitions re "alcohol-dependent child" and "drug-dependent child"; P.A. 90-240 substituted "mentally deficient" for "defective", deleted the phrase "defect of intelligence" and substituted "truant or habitual truant", as defined, for "habitually truant"; P.A. 90-325 changed effective date of P.A. 90-240 from July 1, 1990, to July 1, 1991; P.A. 91-303 removed a cite to Sec. 10-198a for the definition of truant and habitual truant; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-1 amended definition of "serious juvenile offense" to include a violation of Sec. 53a-217b; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-3 amended definition of "serious juvenile offense" to include violations of Secs. 29-35, 53a-94a, 53a-102a, 53a-103a, 53a-212 and 53a-216; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-340 amended definition of "family with service needs" to add Subpara. (E) re a child who is 13 years of age or older and has engaged in sexual intercourse with another person within a certain age range; P.A. 95-225 inserted Subdiv. indicators, revising Subpara. indicators accordingly for statutory consistency, added definition of "delinquent act", amended the definition of "serious juvenile offense" to include violations of Secs. 29-33, 29-34, 53-21, 53-202b and 53-202c and include running away from any secure placement other than home while "referred as a delinquent child to the Office of Alternative Sanctions", amended the definition of "serious juvenile offender" to replace "adjudicated a delinquent child" with "convicted as delinquent" and added definition of "serious juvenile repeat offender"; P.A. 97-319 redefined "abused" to include exploitation of a child or youth, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-256 amended the definition of "child" in Subdiv. (1) to add definition of child for purposes of delinquency matters, amended the definition of a child found "delinquent" in Subdiv. (5) to replace "found" with "convicted as" and to include a child who has violated conditions of probation ordered by the court and amended the definition of "serious juvenile offense" in Subdiv. (11) to include a violation of Sec. 53a-136a; P.A. 00-177 added new Subdiv. (3) defining "youth in crisis", renumbered Subdivs. (3) to (15), inclusive, as (4) to (16), and made changes throughout section for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-109 redefined "youth" in Subdiv. (2) by replacing "sixteen to eighteen" with "sixteen or seventeen" years of age, redefined "youth in crisis" in Subdiv. (3) by inserting "youth" in place of a specific age range and made technical changes, effective June 7, 2002; P.A. 02-132 made technical changes throughout and replaced "Office of Alternative Sanctions" with "Court Support Services Division" in Subdiv. (12); P.A. 05-250 added exception re provisions of Sec. 46b-148 in Subdiv. (6)(B) and made technical changes, effective October 1, 2007; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4 redefined "child" for purposes of delinquency matters and proceedings to include children under "eighteen" years of age, instead of "sixteen", and rewrote provisions, deleted definition of "youth in crisis" in former Subdiv. (3) and renumbered existing Subdivs. accordingly, redefined a child who may be convicted as "delinquent", "delinquent act", "serious juvenile offense", and "serious juvenile repeat offender", substituted "alcohol-dependent" for "alcohol-dependent child" and "drug-dependent" for "drug-dependent child", and made technical changes, effective January 1, 2010; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 redefined "child", "youth", "youth in crisis", "convicted as delinquent", "family with service needs" and "delinquent act" and made technical changes, effective January 1, 2010, and further amended said definitions to include children 17 years of age and deleted definition of "youth in crisis", effective July 1, 2012 (Revisor's note: In Subdiv. (2), the words "who has not been legally emancipated" were inadvertently dropped from the version effective July 1, 2012, and were restored editorially by the Revisors for accuracy); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1 redefined "child" in Subdiv. (1), child who may be convicted as "delinquent" in Subdiv. (5), "family with service needs" in Subdiv. (7), "delinquent act" in Subdiv. (10), and "serious juvenile offense" in Subdiv. (11), effective June 22, 2010; P.A. 11-71 amended Subdiv. (5) re definition of child who may be convicted as "delinquent" to add exception in Subpara. (B)(i)(I) for infraction under Sec. 21a-267(d) and exception in Subpara. (B)(i)(II) for violation under Sec. 21a-279a(a), and amended Subdiv. (10) re definition of "delinquent act" to add exception in Subpara. (B)(i) for infraction under Sec. 21a-267(d) and exception in Subpara. (B)(ii) for violation under Sec. 21a-279a(a), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-157 amended Subdivs. (5) and (10) to add reference to Secs. 53a-222, 53a-222a, 53a-223 and 53a-223a, amended Subdiv. (10)(C) to (E) to delete "or older" re age of 17, and amended Subdiv. (11) to add reference to Secs. 53a-64aa, 53a-64bb and 53a-100aa, effective October 1, 2011, and further amended section to redefine "child" in Subdiv. (1), child who may be convicted as "delinquent" in Subdiv. (5), "family with service needs" in Subdiv. (7), "delinquent act" in Subdiv. (10), and "serious juvenile offense" in Subdiv. (11), effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 11-240 deleted former Subdiv. (3) re definition of "abused" and renumbered existing Subdivs. (4) and (5) as Subdivs. (3) and (4), deleted former Subdiv. (6) re definition of "dependent" and renumbered existing Subdivs. (7) and (8) as Subdivs. (5) and (6), amended Subdiv. (6) by deleting former Subpara. (D) re abused child or youth and adding exception for impoverished child or youth, added new Subdiv. (7) restating definition of "abused", and renumbered existing Subdivs. (9) to (15) as Subdivs. (8) to (14), effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 46b-121. (Formerly Sec. 51-302). *(See end of section for amended version of subsection (a) and effective date.) "Juvenile matters" defined. Authority of court. *(a)(1) Juvenile matters in the civil session include all proceedings concerning uncared-for, neglected or abused children and youths within this state, termination of parental rights of children committed to a state agency, matters concerning families with service needs, contested matters involving termination of parental rights or removal of guardian transferred from the Probate Court and the emancipation of minors, but does not include matters of guardianship and adoption or matters affecting property rights of any child or youth over which the Probate Court has jurisdiction, except that appeals from probate concerning adoption, termination of parental rights and removal of a parent as guardian shall be included.

      (2) Juvenile matters in the criminal session include all proceedings concerning delinquent children within this state and persons seventeen years of age and older who are under the supervision of a juvenile probation officer while on probation or a suspended commitment to the Department of Children and Families, for purposes of enforcing any court orders entered as part of such probation or suspended commitment.

      (b) (1) In juvenile matters, the Superior Court shall have authority to make and enforce such orders directed to parents, including any person who acknowledges before the court paternity of a child born out of wedlock, guardians, custodians or other adult persons owing some legal duty to a child or youth therein, as the court deems necessary or appropriate to secure the welfare, protection, proper care and suitable support of a child or youth subject to the court's jurisdiction or otherwise committed to or in the custody of the Commissioner of Children and Families. The Superior Court may order a local or regional board of education to provide to the court educational records of a child or youth for the purpose of determining the need for services or placement of the child or youth. In proceedings concerning a child charged with a delinquent act or with being from a family with service needs, records produced subject to such an order shall be maintained under seal by the court and shall be released only after a hearing or with the consent of the child. Educational records obtained pursuant to this section shall be used only for dispositional purposes. In addition, with respect to proceedings concerning delinquent children, the Superior Court shall have authority to make and enforce such orders as the court deems necessary or appropriate to punish the child, deter the child from the commission of further delinquent acts, assure that the safety of any other person will not be endangered and provide restitution to any victim. The Superior Court shall also have authority to grant and enforce temporary and permanent injunctive relief in all proceedings concerning juvenile matters.

      (2) If any order for the payment of money is issued by the Superior Court, including any order assessing costs issued under section 46b-134 or 46b-136, the collection of such money shall be made by the court, except orders for support of children committed to any state agency or department, which orders shall be made payable to and collected by the Department of Administrative Services. If the Superior Court after due diligence is unable to collect such moneys within six months, the court shall refer such case to the Department of Administrative Services for collection as a delinquent account. In juvenile matters, the Superior Court shall have authority to make and enforce orders directed to persons liable hereunder on petition of the Department of Administrative Services made to the court in the same manner as is provided in section 17b-745, in accordance with the provisions of section 17b-81 or 17b-223, subsection (b) of section 17b-179 or section 17a-90, 46b-129 or 46b-130, and all of the provisions of section 17b-745 shall be applicable to such proceedings. Any judge hearing a juvenile matter may make any other order in connection therewith that a judge of the Superior Court is authorized to grant and such order shall have the same force and effect as any other order of the Superior Court. No commitment to the Department of Children and Families may be ordered or continued for a delinquent child who has attained the age of twenty. Notwithstanding the terms of any order in effect on October 1, 2011, any commitment to the Department of Children and Families in a delinquency proceeding pursuant to this chapter shall terminate not later than the date the child attains the age of twenty.

      (3) In the enforcement of the court's orders, in connection with any juvenile matter, the court may issue process for the arrest of any person, compel attendance of witnesses and punish for contempt by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six months.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2805; 1953, 1955, S. 1576d; 1969, P.A. 483; P.A. 75-171, S. 1, 2; 75-602, S. 3, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 14, 681; P.A. 77-576, S. 41, 65; 77-614, S. 71, 610; P.A. 79-567, S. 2, 7; P.A. 80-70, S. 3; 80-401, S. 4; P.A. 82-472, S. 128, 183; P.A. 87-421, S. 9, 13; P.A. 89-219, S. 2, 10; 89-273, S. 1; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-225, S. 10; 95-254, S. 2; P.A. 98-256, S. 10; P.A. 00-170, S. 33, 42; 00-177, S. 2, 5; P.A. 06-196, S. 172; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 74; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 70, 83; P.A. 11-157, S. 13; 11-240, S. 5.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2012, subsection (a) of this section, as amended by section 83 of public act 09-7 of the September special session and section 6 of public act 11-240, is to read as follows:

      "(a)(1) Juvenile matters in the civil session include all proceedings concerning uncared-for, neglected or abused children and youths within this state, termination of parental rights of children committed to a state agency, matters concerning families with service needs, contested matters involving termination of parental rights or removal of guardian transferred from the Probate Court and the emancipation of minors, but does not include matters of guardianship and adoption or matters affecting property rights of any child or youth over which the Probate Court has jurisdiction, except that appeals from probate concerning adoption, termination of parental rights and removal of a parent as guardian shall be included.

      (2) Juvenile matters in the criminal session include all proceedings concerning delinquent children within this state and persons eighteen years of age and older who are under the supervision of a juvenile probation officer while on probation or a suspended commitment to the Department of Children and Families, for purposes of enforcing any court orders entered as part of such probation or suspended commitment."

      (1949 Rev., S. 2805; 1953, 1955, S. 1576d; 1969, P.A. 483; P.A. 75-171, S. 1, 2; 75-602, S. 3, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 14, 681; P.A. 77-576, S. 41, 65; 77-614, S. 71, 610; P.A. 79-567, S. 2, 7; P.A. 80-70, S. 3; 80-401, S. 4; P.A. 82-472, S. 128, 183; P.A. 87-421, S. 9, 13; P.A. 89-219, S. 2, 10; 89-273, S. 1; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-225, S. 10; 95-254, S. 2; P.A. 98-256, S. 10; P.A. 00-170, S. 33, 42; 00-177, S. 2, 5; P.A. 06-196, S. 172; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 74; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 70, 83; P.A. 11-157, S. 13; 11-240, S. 5, 6.)

      History: 1969 act added exception re collection of money under support order by central collections division of finance and control department for children committed to care of welfare commissioner and added provision re petitions to juvenile court made by central collections division; P.A. 75-171 referred to children committed to "any state agency or department" rather than specifically to welfare commissioner; P.A. 75-602 added references to youths, made specific reference to children and youths in custody of children and youth services commissioner and specified that court has power to grant and enforce injunctive relief; P.A. 76-436 amended section to transfer juvenile court's powers to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-576 included termination of parental rights of children committed to state agency and contested termination of parental rights transferred from probate court as juvenile matters; P.A. 77-614 replaced central collections division of finance and control department with department of administrative services; P.A. 79-567 specified that matters concerning families with service needs are to be considered as juvenile matters; Sec. 17-59 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-302 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-121 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-59; P.A. 80-70 updated sections referred to in provisions re petition to court; P.A. 80-401 changed effective date of P.A. 79-567 from July 1, 1980, to July 1, 1981; P.A. 82-472 replaced obsolete reference to "division" with "department of administrative services"; P.A. 87-421 removed a reference to Sec. 17-295a which was repealed by the same act; P.A. 89-219 added provision requiring the assessment of a fee of $200 whenever the services of the probation staff for juvenile matters is required; P.A. 89-273 included any order assessing costs issued under Sec. 46b-134 or 46b-136 among orders for the payment of money which the court is responsible for collecting on, required the court to refer any case where after due diligence it is unable to collect the moneys due within six months to the department of administrative services for collection as a delinquent account, and added provision re the authority of the court to enforce its orders through issuing process for the arrest of a person, compelling the attendance of witnesses and punishing for contempt, formerly Sec. 46b-148(a); P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-225 inserted Subsec. indicators, amended Subsec. (a) to provide that the matters specified constitute juvenile matters "in the civil session", delete proceedings concerning "delinquent children" from such matters, include proceedings concerning "the emancipation of minors" in such matters and add provision that juvenile matters in the criminal session include all proceedings concerning delinquent children in the state and amended Subsec. (b) to add provision authorizing the court in proceedings concerning delinquent children to make and enforce orders to punish the child, deter the child from the commission of further delinquent acts, assure that the safety of any other person will not be endangered and provide restitution to any victim; P.A. 95-254 added provision including probate appeals re matters involving termination of parental rights, removal of parent as guardian and adoption; P.A. 98-256 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that juvenile matters in the criminal session include proceedings concerning "persons sixteen years of age and older who are under the supervision of a juvenile probation officer while on probation or a suspended commitment to the Department of Children and Families, for purposes of enforcing any court orders entered as part of such probation or suspended commitment"; P.A. 00-170 amended Subsec. (b) to delete a requirement that the court impose a fee for probation staff services, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 00-177 extended provisions of section to youth in crisis and made technical changes in Subsec. (b) for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 06-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective June 7, 2006; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4 inserted Subdiv. designators (1) and (2) in Subsecs. (a) and (b), deleted references to "youth in crisis", substituted "eighteen years of age" for "sixteen years of age", and made technical changes, effective January 1, 2010; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to substitute "seventeen years of age" for "eighteen years of age" and amended Subsec. (b)(1) to add provisions re court orders for local or regional boards of education to provide educational records, and re maintenance, release and use of such records, effective January 1, 2010, and further amended Subsec. (a)(2) to substitute "eighteen years of age" for "seventeen years of age", effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 11-157 amended Subsec. (b) to provide in Subdiv. (2) that no commitment to Department of Children and Families be ordered or continued for child who has attained age of 20, and that any commitment in effect on October 1, 2011, terminate not later than age 20, and to redesignate existing provisions re enforcement of court's orders as Subdiv. (3); P.A. 11-240 amended Subsec. (a)(1) by replacing "dependent" with "abused", effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 46b-122. (Formerly Sec. 51-303). Juvenile matters separated from other court business when practicable. Exclusion of persons from hearing. Exceptions. (a) All matters which are juvenile matters, as defined in section 46b-121, shall be kept separate and apart from all other business of the Superior Court as far as is practicable, except matters transferred under the provisions of section 46b-127, which matters shall be transferred to the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court.

      (b) Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, any judge hearing a juvenile matter may, during such hearing, exclude from the room in which such hearing is held any person whose presence is, in the court's opinion, not necessary, except that in delinquency proceedings, any victim shall not be excluded unless, after hearing from the parties and the victim and for good cause shown, which shall be clearly and specifically stated on the record, the judge orders otherwise. For the purposes of this section, "victim" means a person who is the victim of a delinquent act, a parent or guardian of such person, the legal representative of such person or a victim advocate for such person under section 54-220.

      (c) Any judge hearing a juvenile matter, in which a child is alleged to be uncared for, neglected, abused or dependent or in which a child is the subject of a petition for termination of parental rights, may permit any person whom the court finds has a legitimate interest in the hearing or the work of the court to attend such hearing. Such person may include a party, foster parent, relative related to the child by blood or marriage, service provider or any person or representative of any agency, entity or association, including a representative of the news media. The court may, for the child's safety and protection and for good cause shown, prohibit any person or representative of any agency, entity or association, including a representative of the news media, who is present in court from further disclosing any information that would identify the child, the custodian or caretaker of the child or the members of the child's family involved in the hearing.

      (d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect the confidentiality of records of cases of juvenile matters as set forth in section 46b-124 or the right of foster parents to be heard pursuant to subsection (o) of section 46b-129.

      (P.A. 76-436, S. 8, 681; P.A. 77-576, S. 42, 65; P.A. 78-379, S. 10, 27; P.A. 95-225, S. 11; P.A. 03-202, S. 7; P.A. 05-169, S. 1; P.A. 09-194, S. 5; P.A. 10-43, S. 30; P.A. 11-51, S. 30; 11-240, S. 7.)

      History: P.A. 77-576 deleted requirement that juvenile matters be dealt with in facilities separate from other superior court business and authorized hearing of family matters in same facilities as juvenile matters but at separate times to protect confidentiality; P.A. 78-379 deleted provision which authorized hearing of family matters in same facilities as juvenile matters and added provisions which authorized judge to exclude from hearing room persons whose presence is unnecessary and prohibited use of room regularly used for criminal business for hearing of juvenile matter; Sec. 51-303 transferred to Sec. 46b-122 in 1979 and other sections referred to in provisions revised where necessary to reflect their transfer; P.A. 95-225 deleted reference to matters transferred under Sec. "46b-126", reflecting elimination of transfer provisions from Sec. 46b-126 by same public act, added provision prohibiting exclusion in delinquency proceedings of any victim of the delinquent act, the parents or guardian of the victim and any victim advocate unless the judge specifically orders otherwise, deleted prohibition on hearing a juvenile matter in a room regularly used for the transaction of criminal business and deleted obsolete provisions re transfer of matters from the juvenile court; P.A. 03-202 replaced "shall" with "may" re excluding persons from hearing room and made technical changes; P.A. 05-169 amended exception re exclusion of persons from hearing room by replacing provision re victim of delinquent act, parents or guardian of victim and victim advocate with provision re victim, adding provision re hearing from the parties and the victim and re good cause shown and stated on the record, defining "victim" to mean a person who is the victim of a delinquent act, a parent, guardian or legal representative of such person or an advocate appointed for such person, and making technical changes; P.A. 09-194 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a), added exception therein for Subsec. (b), added Subsec. (b) establishing pilot program increasing public access to proceedings in which child is allegedly uncared for, neglected, abused or dependent or subject of petition for termination of parental rights and added Subsec. (c) re confidentiality of records of juvenile matters; P.A. 10-43 amended Subsec. (a) to replace "an advocate appointed for such person pursuant to section 54-221" with "a victim advocate for such person under section 54-220"; P.A. 11-51 designated portion of Subsec. (a) re exclusion from hearing room as Subsec. (b), deleted former Subsec. (b) re pilot program, added new Subsec. (c) re attendance of persons court finds has legitimate interest and prohibitions on further disclosure of information, redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d) and amended same to add reference to right of foster parents to be heard under Sec. 46b-129(o), and made technical changes, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-240 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting reference to "dependent" and making a technical change, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Secs. 46b-123c to 46b-123e. Commission on Child Protection; membership; duties. Chief Child Protection Attorney; duties; contracts for legal services. Eligibility for counsel in family relations or juvenile matters; procedure for appointment or assignment. Sections 46b-123c to 46b-123e, inclusive, are repealed, effective July 1, 2011.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 44-46; P.A. 06-187, S. 23, 24; P.A. 07-159, S. 2-4; P.A. 11-51, S. 223.)

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      Sec. 46b-124. (Formerly Sec. 51-305). Confidentiality of records of juvenile matters. Exceptions. (a) For the purposes of this section, "records of cases of juvenile matters" includes, but is not limited to, court records, records regarding juveniles maintained by the Court Support Services Division, records regarding juveniles maintained by an organization or agency that has contracted with the Judicial Branch to provide services to juveniles, records of law enforcement agencies including fingerprints, photographs and physical descriptions, and medical, psychological, psychiatric and social welfare studies and reports by juvenile probation officers, public or private institutions, social agencies and clinics.

      (b) All records of cases of juvenile matters, as provided in section 46b-121, except delinquency proceedings, or any part thereof, and all records of appeals from probate brought to the superior court for juvenile matters pursuant to section 45a-186, shall be confidential and for the use of the court in juvenile matters, and open to inspection or disclosure to any third party, including bona fide researchers commissioned by a state agency, only upon order of the Superior Court, except that: (1) The records concerning any matter transferred from a court of probate pursuant to section 45a-623 or subsection (g) of section 45a-715 or any appeal from probate to the superior court for juvenile matters pursuant to subsection (b) of section 45a-186 shall be available to the court of probate from which such matter was transferred or from which such appeal was taken; (2) such records shall be available to (A) the attorney representing the child or youth, including the Division of Public Defender Services, in any proceeding in which such records are relevant, (B) the parents or guardian of the child or youth until such time as the child or youth reaches the age of majority or becomes emancipated, (C) an adult adopted person in accordance with the provisions of sections 45a-736, 45a-737 and 45a-743 to 45a-757, inclusive, (D) employees of the Division of Criminal Justice who in the performance of their duties require access to such records, (E) employees of the Judicial Branch who in the performance of their duties require access to such records, (F) another court under the provisions of subsection (d) of section 46b-115j, (G) the subject of the record, upon submission of satisfactory proof of the subject's identity, pursuant to guidelines prescribed by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator, provided the subject has reached the age of majority or has been emancipated, (H) the Department of Children and Families, and (I) the employees of the Division of Public Defender Services who, in the performance of their duties related to Division of Public Defender Services assigned counsel, require access to such records; and (3) all or part of the records concerning a youth in crisis with respect to whom a court order was issued prior to January 1, 2010, may be made available to the Department of Motor Vehicles, provided such records are relevant to such order. Any records of cases of juvenile matters, or any part thereof, provided to any persons, governmental and private agencies, and institutions pursuant to this section shall not be disclosed, directly or indirectly, to any third party not specified in subsection (d) of this section, except as provided by court order or in the report required under section 54-76d or 54-91a.

      (c) All records of cases of juvenile matters involving delinquency proceedings, or any part thereof, shall be confidential and for the use of the court in juvenile matters and shall not be disclosed except as provided in this section.

      (d) Records of cases of juvenile matters involving delinquency proceedings shall be available to (1) Judicial Branch employees who, in the performance of their duties, require access to such records, and (2) employees and authorized agents of state or federal agencies involved in (A) the delinquency proceedings, (B) the provision of services directly to the child, or (C) the design and delivery of treatment programs pursuant to section 46b-121j. Such employees and authorized agents include, but are not limited to, law enforcement officials, state and federal prosecutorial officials, school officials in accordance with section 10-233h, court officials including officials of both the regular criminal docket and the docket for juvenile matters and officials of the Division of Criminal Justice, the Division of Public Defender Services, the Department of Children and Families, the Court Support Services Division and agencies under contract with the Judicial Branch. Such records shall also be available to (i) the attorney representing the child, including the Division of Public Defender Services, in any proceeding in which such records are relevant, (ii) the parents or guardian of the child, until such time as the subject of the record reaches the age of majority, (iii) the subject of the record, upon submission of satisfactory proof of the subject's identity, pursuant to guidelines prescribed by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator, provided the subject has reached the age of majority, (iv) law enforcement officials and prosecutorial officials conducting legitimate criminal investigations, (v) a state or federal agency providing services related to the collection of moneys due or funding to support the service needs of eligible juveniles, provided such disclosure shall be limited to that information necessary for the collection of and application for such moneys, and (vi) members and employees of the Board of Pardons and Paroles and employees of the Department of Correction who, in the performance of their duties, require access to such records, provided the subject of the record has been convicted of a crime in the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court and such records are relevant to the performance of a risk and needs assessment of such person while such person is incarcerated, the determination of such person's suitability for release from incarceration or for a pardon, or the determination of the supervision and treatment needs of such person while on parole or other supervised release. Records disclosed pursuant to this subsection shall not be further disclosed, except that information contained in such records may be disclosed in connection with bail or sentencing reports in open court during criminal proceedings involving the subject of such information.

      (e) Records of cases of juvenile matters involving delinquency proceedings, or any part thereof, may be disclosed upon order of the court to any person who has a legitimate interest in the information and is identified in such order. Records disclosed pursuant to this subsection shall not be further disclosed, except as specifically authorized by a subsequent order of the court.

      (f) Records of cases of juvenile matters involving delinquency proceedings, or any part thereof, shall be available to the victim of the crime committed by such child to the same extent as the record of the case of a defendant in a criminal proceeding in the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court is available to a victim of the crime committed by such defendant. The court shall designate an official from whom such victim may request such information. Records disclosed pursuant to this subsection shall not be further disclosed, except as specifically authorized by a subsequent order of the court.

      (g) Information concerning a child who has escaped from a detention center or from a facility to which he has been committed by the court or for whom an arrest warrant has been issued with respect to the commission of a felony may be disclosed by law enforcement officials.

      (h) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit any person employed by the Judicial Branch from disclosing any records, information or files in his possession to any person employed by the Division of Criminal Justice as a prosecutorial official, inspector or investigator who, in the performance of his duties, requests such records, information or files, or to prohibit any such employee of said division from disclosing any records, information or files in his possession to any such employee of the Judicial Branch who, in the performance of his duties, requests such records, information or files.

      (i) A state's attorney shall disclose to the defendant or his counsel in a criminal prosecution, without the necessity of a court order, exculpatory information and material contained in any record disclosed to such state's attorney pursuant to this section and may disclose, without a court order, information and material contained in any such record which could be the subject of a disclosure order.

      (j) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d) of this section, any information concerning a child that is obtained during any mental health screening or assessment of such child, during the provision of services pursuant to subsection (b) of section 46b-149, or during the performance of an educational evaluation pursuant to subsection (e) of section 46b-149, shall be used solely for planning and treatment purposes and shall otherwise be confidential and retained in the files of the entity providing such services or performing such screening, assessment or evaluation. Such information may be further disclosed only for the purposes of any court-ordered evaluation or treatment of the child or provision of services to the child, or pursuant to sections 17a-101 to 17a-101e, inclusive, 17b-450, 17b-451 or 51-36a. Such information shall not be subject to subpoena or other court process for use in any other proceeding or for any other purpose.

      (k) Records of cases of juvenile matters involving delinquency proceedings, or any part thereof, containing information that a child has been convicted as delinquent for a violation of subdivision (e) of section 1-1h, subsection (c) of section 14-147, subsection (a) of section 14-215, section 14-222, subsection (b) of section 14-223, subsection (a), (b) or (c) of section 14-224, section 30-88a or subsection (b) of section 30-89, shall be disclosed to the Department of Motor Vehicles for administrative use in determining whether administrative sanctions regarding such child's motor vehicle operator's license are warranted. Records disclosed pursuant to this subsection shall not be further disclosed.

      (1969, P.A. 794, S. 3; P.A. 75-602, S. 2, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 13, 681; P.A. 77-246, S. 11; 77-486, S. 1, 2, 5; P.A. 78-280, S. 92, 127; 78-318, S. 27; P.A. 79-456; P.A. 80-165, S. 1; P.A. 81-472, S. 82, 159; P.A. 82-140, S. 1; P.A. 93-48; P.A. 94-221, S. 15; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2, S. 10; P.A. 95-225, S. 12; 95-254, S. 3; 95-261, S. 1; P.A. 96-246, S. 35; P.A. 98-70, S. 1; P.A. 99-185, S. 35, 40; P.A. 02-132, S. 22; P.A. 03-202, S. 8; P.A. 04-234, S. 2; P.A. 05-152, S. 9; P.A. 06-187, S. 75; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 81; Jan. Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1, S. 23; P.A. 08-86, S. 4; P.A. 10-32, S. 140; 10-43, S. 31; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 29; P.A. 11-51, S. 15; 11-157, S. 14, 15.)

      History: P.A. 75-602 added reference to youths; P.A. 76-436 replaced references to juvenile court with references to superior court and juvenile matters and added Subsec. (b) re confidentiality of complaint or information transferred from circuit to juvenile court before October 1, 1971, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-246 required that records be available to adult adopted persons; P.A. 77-486 added provisions requiring that records be available to judges and adult probation officers for consideration in sentencing or granting youthful offender status for person under twenty-one; P.A. 78-280 added exception re Sec. 54-76d or 54-109 in provision prohibiting disclosure to third party; P.A. 78-318 authorized disclosure to another court in custody proceedings; P.A. 79-456 required superior court order for disclosure of records to "bona fide researchers commissioned by a state agency"; Sec. 17-57a temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-305 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-124 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-57a) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 80-165 authorized disclosure of information concerning disposition of criminal case to the victim of the crime if juvenile's identity is not revealed; P.A. 81-472 made technical corrections; P.A. 82-140 amended Subsec. (a) to permit disclosure of identity of child or youth to victim if the victim intends to bring a civil action for damages or if the child or youth is adjudicated delinquent; P.A. 93-48 added provision in Subsec. (a) re disclosure of records concerning adjudications re child abuse to state's attorney and added Subsec. (c) re disclosure of exculpatory information and material contained in disclosed record by state's attorney to defendant; P.A. 94-221 added Subsecs. (a)(4) re availability of information on the identity of a child arrested for a felony and the nature of the offense and (a)(5) re availability of information on the identity of a child adjudicated a delinquent as a result of a felony; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2 added Subsec. (a)(4) re availability to a state's attorney of records concerning adjudications involving certain firearm-related offenses, renumbering the remaining Subdivs. accordingly, and amended Subsec. (c) to add reference to said Subdiv. (4); P.A. 95-225 substantially revised section by amending Subsec. (a) to add exception for proceedings concerning delinquent children, deleting former Subdivs. (2) to (6), inclusive, re specific exceptions to the prohibition on disclosure, deleting provision making delinquency records of any person who has not attained the age of 21 available to a judge and an adult probation officer in certain circumstances and provide that the prohibition on disclosure to a third party applies to a third party "not specified in subsection (c) of this section", deleting former Subsec. (b) re confidentiality of records transferred from the Circuit Court to the Juvenile Court prior to October 1, 1971, adding new Subsec. (b) re confidentiality of records of cases of juvenile matters involving proceedings concerning delinquent children, adding new Subsec. (c) re disclosure of delinquency records to certain individuals and agencies, adding Subsec. (d) re disclosure of delinquency records to persons with a legitimate interest therein upon order of the court, adding Subsec. (e) re availability of delinquency records to the victim of the crime, adding Subsec. (f) re disclosure of information concerning a child who has escaped or for whom an arrest warrant has been issued, adding Subsec. (g) re exchange of information between certain employees of the Judicial Department and the Division of Criminal Justice, and redesignating former Subsec. (c) re disclosure of information by a state's attorney to the defendant or his counsel as Subsec. (h) and amended said Subsec. to make technical changes; P.A. 95-254 amended Subsec. (a) by applying provisions to records of appeals from probate brought to Juvenile Court pursuant to Sec. 45a-186(b) and to add provision making such records available to court of probate from which such appeal was taken; P.A. 95-261 would have amended Subsec. (a) specifying Office of Adult Probation and Office of the Bail Commission as agencies which may obtain delinquency records where previous availability was limited to adult probation officers, but failed to take effect, P.A. 95-225 having repealed language on which the changes relied; P.A. 96-246 added Subsec. (a)(3) re psychological evaluations being available to Commissioner of Children and Families for purposes of diagnosing, caring for or treating child; P.A. 98-70 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting "concerning delinquent children" and adding "delinquency" and by deleting former Subdiv. (3) and adding availability of records to attorney, including public defender, for child or youth, parents or guardian, employees of Division of Criminal Justice, employees of judicial branch, another court, the subject of the record, provided subject provides proof of identity and has reached the age of majority or is emancipated, and the Department of Children and Families; amended Subsec. (b) by deleting "concerning delinquent children" and adding "delinquency"; amended Subsec. (c) by providing availability of records re delinquency proceedings to judicial branch employees, employees and certain authorized agents of state or federal agencies, including Division of Public Defender Services, Office of Adult Probation, Office of Bail Commissioner, Board of Parole and agencies under contract with Office of Alternative Sanctions, to parent or guardian, to the subject of the record upon proof of identity and reaching age of majority and to a state or federal agency providing funding to support needs of eligible juveniles, and by adding provision re disclosure in connection with bail or sentencing reports; amended Subsecs. (d) and (e) by deleting "concerning a delinquent child" and adding "delinquency"; and amended Subsec. (g) by deleting "as a juvenile prosecutor, inspector or investigator"; P.A. 99-185 amended Subsec. (a)(2) by changing reference to Sec. 46b-111 to Sec. 46b-115j(d), effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 02-132 amended Subsec. (c) by replacing "Office of Adult Probation, the Office of the Bail Commissioner" with "Court Support Services Division", replacing "Office of Alternative Sanctions" with "Judicial Department" and making a technical change; P.A. 03-202 added new Subsec. (a) defining "records of cases of juvenile matters", redesignated existing Subsecs. (a) to (h) as Subsecs. (b) to (i), replaced references to "Judicial Department" with references to "judicial branch" and made technical and conforming changes; P.A. 04-234 replaced Board of Parole with Board of Pardons and Paroles, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 05-152 amended Subsec. (a) by inserting "juvenile" in reference to "probation officers", amended Subsec. (b) by making technical changes and adding Subdiv. (3) re records concerning youth in crisis made available to Department of Motor Vehicles, and added Subsec. (j) re information obtained during mental health screening or assessment of a child; P.A. 06-187 amended Subsec. (b)(2) by adding Subpara. (I) permitting records of cases of juvenile matters to be made available to employees of Commission on Child Protection in performance of duties requiring access to such records; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4 amended Subsec. (b)(3) to insert "was issued prior to January 1, 2010," and delete reference to Sec. 46b-150f(c)(1), effective January 1, 2010; Jan. Sp. Sess. P.A. 08-1 amended Subsec. (d) to delete officials of Board of Pardons and Paroles from list of employees and authorized agents to whom records are available and add clause (vi) re availability of records to members and employees of Board of Pardons and Paroles and employees of Department of Correction, effective January 25, 2008; P.A. 08-86 amended Subsec. (j) to add provisions re information obtained during the provision of services pursuant to Sec. 46b-149(b) or performance of an educational evaluation pursuant to Sec. 46b-149(e); P.A. 10-32 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective May 10, 2010; P.A. 10-43 amended Subsec. (d) to delete advocate appointed pursuant to Sec. 54-221 for victim of a crime committed by the child from list of employees and authorized agents to whom records are available and make technical changes; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1 added Subsec. (k) re disclosure of delinquency conviction for violation of enumerated sections to Department of Motor Vehicles for administrative use re child's license, effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-51 amended Subsec. (b)(2)(I) to substitute "Division of Public Defender Services" for "Commission on Child Protection" and add "related to Division of Public Defender Services assigned counsel" re duties, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-157 amended Subsecs. (e) and (f) to add "except as specifically authorized by a subsequent order of the court", and amended Subsec. (k) to add reference to Sec. 14-224(a).

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      Sec. 46b-127. (Formerly Sec. 51-308). *(See end of section for amended versions of subsections (c) and (f) and effective date.) Transfer of child charged with a felony to the regular criminal docket. Transfer of youth age sixteen to docket for juvenile matters. (a) The court shall automatically transfer from the docket for juvenile matters to the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court the case of any child charged with the commission of a capital felony, a class A or B felony or a violation of section 53a-54d, provided such offense was committed after such child attained the age of fourteen years and counsel has been appointed for such child if such child is indigent. Such counsel may appear with the child but shall not be permitted to make any argument or file any motion in opposition to the transfer. The child shall be arraigned in the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court at the next court date following such transfer, provided any proceedings held prior to the finalization of such transfer shall be private and shall be conducted in such parts of the courthouse or the building wherein court is located as shall be separate and apart from the other parts of the court which are then being held for proceedings pertaining to adults charged with crimes. The file of any case so transferred shall remain sealed until the end of the tenth working day following such arraignment unless the state's attorney has filed a motion pursuant to this subsection, in which case such file shall remain sealed until the court makes a decision on the motion. A state's attorney may, not later than ten working days after such arraignment, file a motion to transfer the case of any child charged with the commission of a class B felony or a violation of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53a-70 to the docket for juvenile matters for proceedings in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. The court sitting for the regular criminal docket shall, after hearing and not later than ten working days after the filing of such motion, decide such motion.

      (b) Upon motion of a prosecutorial official and order of the court, the case of any child charged with the commission of a class C or D felony or an unclassified felony shall be transferred from the docket for juvenile matters to the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court, provided such offense was committed after such child attained the age of fourteen years and the court finds ex parte that there is probable cause to believe the child has committed the act for which he is charged. The file of any case so transferred shall remain sealed until such time as the court sitting for the regular criminal docket accepts such transfer. The court sitting for the regular criminal docket may return any such case to the docket for juvenile matters not later than ten working days after the date of the transfer for proceedings in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. The child shall be arraigned in the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court by the next court date following such transfer, provided any proceedings held prior to the finalization of such transfer shall be private and shall be conducted in such parts of the courthouse or the building wherein court is located as shall be separate and apart from the other parts of the court which are then being held for proceedings pertaining to adults charged with crimes.

      *(c) Upon the effectuation of the transfer, such child shall stand trial and be sentenced, if convicted, as if such child were seventeen years of age. Such child shall receive credit against any sentence imposed for time served in a juvenile facility prior to the effectuation of the transfer. A child who has been transferred may enter a guilty plea to a lesser offense if the court finds that such plea is made knowingly and voluntarily. Any child transferred to the regular criminal docket who pleads guilty to a lesser offense shall not resume such child's status as a juvenile regarding such offense. If the action is dismissed or nolled or if such child is found not guilty of the charge for which such child was transferred or of any lesser included offenses, the child shall resume such child's status as a juvenile until such child attains the age of seventeen years.

      (d) Any child transferred to the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court who is detained shall be in the custody of the Commissioner of Correction upon the finalization of such transfer. A transfer shall be final (1) upon the expiration of ten working days after the arraignment if no motion has been filed by the state's attorney pursuant to subsection (a) of this section or, if such motion has been filed, upon the decision of the court to deny such motion, or (2) upon the court accepting the transfer pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. Any child returned to the docket for juvenile matters who is detained shall be in the custody of the Judicial Department.

      (e) The transfer of a child to a Department of Correction facility shall be limited to the provisions of subsection (d) of this section and said subsection shall not be construed to permit the transfer of or otherwise reduce or eliminate any other population of juveniles in detention or confinement within the Judicial Department or the Department of Children and Families.

      *(f) Upon the motion of any party or upon the court's own motion, the case of any youth age sixteen, except a case that has been transferred to the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court pursuant to subsection (a) or (b) of this section, which is pending on the youthful offender docket, regular criminal docket of the Superior Court or any docket for the presentment of defendants in motor vehicle matters, where the youth is charged with committing any offense or violation for which a term of imprisonment may be imposed, other than a violation of section 14-227a or 14-227g, may, before trial or before the entry of a guilty plea, be transferred to the docket for juvenile matters if (1) the youth is alleged to have committed such offense or violation on or after January 1, 2010, and (2) after a hearing considering the facts and circumstances of the case and the prior history of the youth, the court determines that the programs and services available pursuant to a proceeding in the superior court for juvenile matters would more appropriately address the needs of the youth and that the youth and the community would be better served by treating the youth as a delinquent. Upon ordering such transfer, the court shall vacate any pleas entered in the matter and advise the youth of the youth's rights, and the youth shall (A) enter pleas on the docket for juvenile matters in the jurisdiction where the youth resides, and (B) be subject to prosecution as a delinquent child. The decision of the court concerning the transfer of a youth's case from the youthful offender docket, regular criminal docket of the Superior Court or any docket for the presentment of defendants in motor vehicle matters shall not be a final judgment for purposes of appeal.

      (P.A. 75-620, S. 1-4; P.A. 76-194, S. 3; 76-436, S. 18, 19, 20, 681; P.A. 79-581, S. 3; P.A. 83-402, S. 2; P.A. 86-185, S. 2; P.A. 90-136, S. 2; 90-187, S. 2, 3; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2, S. 6; P.A. 95-225, S. 13; P.A. 97-4, S. 1, 2; 97-319, S. 21, 22; P.A. 98-256, S. 3; P.A. 04-127, S. 2; 04-148, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 75; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 71, 122; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 30.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2012, subsection (c) of this section, as amended by section 84 of public act 09-7 of the September special session, is to read as follows:

      "(c) Upon the effectuation of the transfer, such child shall stand trial and be sentenced, if convicted, as if such child were eighteen years of age. Such child shall receive credit against any sentence imposed for time served in a juvenile facility prior to the effectuation of the transfer. A child who has been transferred may enter a guilty plea to a lesser offense if the court finds that such plea is made knowingly and voluntarily. Any child transferred to the regular criminal docket who pleads guilty to a lesser offense shall not resume such child's status as a juvenile regarding such offense. If the action is dismissed or nolled or if such child is found not guilty of the charge for which such child was transferred or of any lesser included offenses, the child shall resume such child's status as a juvenile until such child attains the age of eighteen years."

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2012, subsection (f) of this section, as amended by section 18 of public act 11-157, is to read as follows:

      "(f) Upon the motion of any party or upon the court's own motion, the case of any youth age sixteen or seventeen, except a case that has been transferred to the regular criminal docket of the Superior Court pursuant to subsection (a) or (b) of this section, which is pending on the youthful offender docket, regular criminal docket of the Superior Court or any docket for the presentment of defendants in motor vehicle matters, where the youth is charged with committing any offense or violation for which a term of imprisonment may be imposed, other than a violation of section 14-227a or 14-227g, may, before trial or before the entry of a guilty plea, be transferred to the docket for juvenile matters if (1) the youth is alleged to have committed such offense or violation on or after January 1, 2010, while sixteen years of age, or is alleged to have committed such offense or violation on or after July 1, 2012, while seventeen years of age, and (2) after a hearing considering the facts and circumstances of the case and the prior history of the youth, the court determines that the programs and services available pursuant to a proceeding in the superior court for juvenile matters would more appropriately address the needs of the youth and that the youth and the community would be better served by treating the youth as a delinquent. Upon ordering such transfer, the court shall vacate any pleas entered in the matter and advise the youth of the youth's rights, and the youth shall (A) enter pleas on the docket for juvenile matters in the jurisdiction where the youth resides, and (B) be subject to prosecution as a delinquent child. The decision of the court concerning the transfer of a youth's case from the youthful offender docket, regular criminal docket of the Superior Court or any docket for the presentment of defendants in motor vehicle matters shall not be a final judgment for purposes of appeal."

      (P.A. 75-620, S. 1-4; P.A. 76-194, S. 3; 76-436, S. 18, 19, 20, 681; P.A. 79-581, S. 3; P.A. 83-402, S. 2; P.A. 86-185, S. 2; P.A. 90-136, S. 2; 90-187, S. 2, 3; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2, S. 6; P.A. 95-225, S. 13; P.A. 97-4, S. 1, 2; 97-319, S. 21, 22; P.A. 98-256, S. 3; P.A. 04-127, S. 2; 04-148, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 75; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 71, 84, 122; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 30; P.A. 11-157, S. 18.)

      History: P.A. 76-194 required that child "be sentenced, if convicted" as if he were sixteen; P.A. 76-436 revised provisions to reflect transfer of juvenile court duties to superior court, substituting references to criminal and juvenile dockets for references to said courts, etc., effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 79-581 clarified and qualified circumstances under which matters transferred from juvenile to criminal docket and deleted requirements that transfer is contingent upon investigation finding that no suitable institution for care of children exists to which child in question may be committed and that court facilities for criminal sessions and institutions for those sixteen or over are suitable for child's care and confinement and deleted former Subsecs. (b) and (c) re establishment of maximum security facility for care and treatment of children under superior court jurisdiction and re court-ordered evaluation to determine whether institutions for children or institutions for those sixteen and over are more suitable for care and treatment of child in question; Sec. 17-60b temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-308 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-127 in 1979; P.A. 83-402 qualified reference to commission of murder in Subdiv. (1) by specifying murder "under sections 53a-54a to 53a-54d, inclusive" and required that written findings be made rather than an investigation prior to transfer; P.A. 86-185 added provision that a transfer order shall be a final judgment for purposes of appeal; P.A. 90-136 excluded from the provisions of Subdiv. (2) a child referred for the commission of the class A felony of murder, added provisions re the rights of the child and the procedure applicable at the hearing, authorized credit against any sentence imposed for time served in a juvenile facility prior to transfer, authorized a child to plead guilty to a lesser offense and provided that a child who so pleads shall not resume his juvenile status re said offense, and replaced a reference to a finding of "innocent" with a finding of "not guilty"; P.A. 90-187 added provision requiring a transferred child to be maintained in a facility for children and youth rather than in a correctional facility until he is 16 years of age or sentenced, whichever occurs first, effective July 1, 1991; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-2 designated existing provisions re children required to be transferred to the regular criminal docket as Subsec. (a) and amended said Subsec. to add a new Subdiv. (2) requiring the transfer of any child referred for the violation of certain firearm-related offenses, renumbering the remaining Subdivs. accordingly, to exclude from Subdivs. (3) and (4) any child referred for a violation of any provision specified in Subdiv. (2), to add provision requiring the prosecuting authority for juvenile matters to consider whether the child is a person with mental retardation or suffers from a substantial mental disorder in deciding whether to seek the transfer of the child under Subdiv. (2) and to add provision authorizing the child to file a notice of intent to request a hearing under Subsec. (c), designated existing provisions re probable cause hearing as Subsec. (b), added Subsec. (c) re a hearing for a child referred pursuant to Subsec. (a)(2) at which he may present evidence that he should not be transferred to the regular criminal docket and the factors that must be proven at such hearing to avoid such a transfer, deleted the provision that a transfer order is a final judgment for purposes of appeal and designated existing provisions re post-transfer procedures as Subsec. (d); P.A. 95-225 substantially revised section by deleting former Subsecs. (a), (b) and (c), adding new Subsec. (a) re automatic transfer of a child charged with the commission of a capital felony, a class A or B felony or a violation of section 53a-54d, adding new Subsec. (b) re transfer of a child charged with a class C or D felony or an unclassified felony and redesignating former Subsec. (d) re post-transfer procedures as Subsec. (c); P.A. 97-4 amended Subsec. (c) to delete provision that prohibited a child being placed in a correctional facility and required the child to be maintained in a facility for children and youth until he attains the age of 16 years or until he is sentenced, whichever occurs first, added Subsec. (d) providing that a child transferred to the regular criminal docket shall be in the custody of the Commissioner of Correction upon the finalization of the transfer and specifying when a transfer is final, and added Subsec. (e) limiting the transfer of children and juveniles to a Department of Correction facility, effective March 20, 1997; P.A. 97-319 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provision re appointment of counsel for indigent child, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-256 amended Subsec. (a) to require the file of a transferred case to remain sealed "until the end of the tenth working day following such arraignment" rather than "until the tenth day following such arraignment" and to replace "disposition" with "proceedings", amended Subsec. (b) to provide that the case shall be transferred upon "order of the court" rather than upon "approval by the court", to establish a deadline for a court to return a case to the docket for juvenile matters of "not later than ten working days after the date of the transfer" and to require arraignment "by the next court date" rather than "at the next court date" and amended Subsec. (c) to make provision mandating that a child resume his status as a juvenile when found not guilty of the transferred charge also apply when found not guilty of any lesser included offenses; P.A. 04-127 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) by adding provisions re privacy and location of proceedings held prior to finalization of transfer and made a technical change in Subsec. (a); P.A. 04-148 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize the transfer of the case of a child charged with a violation of Sec. 53a-70(a)(2) to the docket for juvenile matters; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4 amended Subsec. (c) to substitute "eighteen years" for "sixteen years" re age of child and make technical changes, effective January 1, 2010; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 amended Subsec. (b) to replace "juvenile prosecutor" with "prosecutorial official", effective October 5, 2009, amended Subsec. (c) to substitute "seventeen years" for "eighteen years" re age of child, effective January 1, 2010, and further amended Subsec. (c) to substitute "eighteen years" for "seventeen years" re age of child, effective July 1, 2012; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1 added Subsec. (f) re transfer of case of youth age 16 from youthful offender docket, regular criminal docket or docket for motor vehicle matters to docket for juvenile matters, effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-157 amended Subsec. (f) to make provisions applicable to case of any youth age 17 and, in Subdiv. (1), to include an offense or violation committed on or after July 1, 2012, while 17 years of age, effective July 1, 2012.

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      Sec. 46b-129. (Formerly Sec. 51-310). Commitment of child or youth. Petition for neglected, uncared-for or abused child or youth. Hearing re temporary custody, order to appear or petition. Review of permanency plan. Cost of care and maintenance of child or youth; reimbursement. Revocation of commitment. Applicability of provisions re placement of child from another state and Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children. (a) Any selectman, town manager, or town, city or borough welfare department, any probation officer, or the Commissioner of Social Services, the Commissioner of Children and Families or any child-caring institution or agency approved by the Commissioner of Children and Families, a child or such child's representative or attorney or a foster parent of a child, having information that a child or youth is neglected, uncared-for or abused may file with the Superior Court that has venue over such matter a verified petition plainly stating such facts as bring the child or youth within the jurisdiction of the court as neglected, uncared-for or abused within the meaning of section 46b-120, the name, date of birth, sex and residence of the child or youth, the name and residence of such child's parents or guardian, and praying for appropriate action by the court in conformity with the provisions of this chapter. Upon the filing of such a petition, except as otherwise provided in subsection (k) of section 17a-112, the court shall cause a summons to be issued requiring the parent or parents or the guardian of the child or youth to appear in court at the time and place named, which summons shall be served not less than fourteen days before the date of the hearing in the manner prescribed by section 46b-128, and the court shall further give notice to the petitioner and to the Commissioner of Children and Families of the time and place when the petition is to be heard not less than fourteen days prior to the hearing in question.

      (b) If it appears from the specific allegations of the petition and other verified affirmations of fact accompanying the petition and application, or subsequent thereto, that there is reasonable cause to believe that (1) the child or youth is suffering from serious physical illness or serious physical injury or is in immediate physical danger from the child's or youth's surroundings, and (2) that as a result of said conditions, the child's or youth's safety is endangered and immediate removal from such surroundings is necessary to ensure the child's or youth's safety, the court shall either (A) issue an order to the parents or other person having responsibility for the care of the child or youth to appear at such time as the court may designate to determine whether the court should vest the child's or youth's temporary care and custody in a person related to the child or youth by blood or marriage or in some other person or suitable agency pending disposition of the petition, or (B) issue an order ex parte vesting the child's or youth's temporary care and custody in a person related to the child or youth by blood or marriage or in some other person or suitable agency. A preliminary hearing on any ex parte custody order or order to appear issued by the court shall be held not later than ten days after the issuance of such order. The service of such orders may be made by any officer authorized by law to serve process, or by any probation officer appointed in accordance with section 46b-123, investigator from the Department of Administrative Services, state or local police officer or indifferent person. Such orders shall include a conspicuous notice to the respondent written in clear and simple language containing at least the following information: (i) That the order contains allegations that conditions in the home have endangered the safety and welfare of the child or youth; (ii) that a hearing will be held on the date on the form; (iii) that the hearing is the opportunity to present the parents' position concerning the alleged facts; (iv) that an attorney will be appointed for parents who cannot afford an attorney; (v) that such parents may apply for a court-appointed attorney by going in person to the court address on the form and are advised to go as soon as possible in order for the attorney to prepare for the hearing; (vi) that such parents, or a person having responsibility for the care and custody of the child or youth, may request the Commissioner of Children and Families to investigate placing the child or youth with a person related to the child or youth by blood or marriage who might serve as a licensed foster parent or temporary custodian for such child or youth. The commissioner, where practicable, shall investigate such relative or relatives prior to the preliminary hearing and provide a report to the court at such hearing as to such relative's suitability; and (vii) if such parents have any questions concerning the case or appointment of counsel, any such parent is advised to go to the court or call the clerk's office at the court as soon as possible. Upon application for appointed counsel, the court shall promptly determine eligibility and, if the respondent is eligible, promptly appoint counsel. The expense for any temporary care and custody shall be paid by the town in which such child or youth is at the time residing, and such town shall be reimbursed for such expense by the town found liable for the child's or youth's support, except that where a state agency has filed a petition pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, the agency shall pay such expense. The agency shall give primary consideration to placing the child or youth in the town where such child or youth resides. The agency shall file in writing with the clerk of the court the reasons for placing the child or youth in a particular placement outside the town where the child or youth resides. Upon issuance of an ex parte order, the court shall provide to the commissioner and the parent or guardian specific steps necessary for each to take to address the ex parte order for the parent or guardian to retain or regain custody of the child or youth. Upon the issuance of such order, or not later than sixty days after the issuance of such order, the court shall make a determination whether the Department of Children and Families made reasonable efforts to keep the child or youth with his or her parents or guardian prior to the issuance of such order and, if such efforts were not made, whether such reasonable efforts were not possible, taking into consideration the child's or youth's best interests, including the child's or youth's health and safety.

      (c) The preliminary hearing on the order of temporary custody or order to appear or the first hearing on a petition filed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall be held in order for the court to: (1) Advise the parent or guardian of the allegations contained in all petitions and applications that are the subject of the hearing and the parent's or guardian's right to counsel pursuant to subsection (b) of section 46b-135; (2) assure that an attorney, and where appropriate, a separate guardian ad litem has been appointed to represent the child or youth in accordance with subsection (b) of section 51-296a and sections 46b-129a and 46b-136; (3) upon request, appoint an attorney to represent the respondent when the respondent is unable to afford representation, in accordance with subsection (b) of section 51-296a; (4) advise the parent or guardian of the right to a hearing on the petitions and applications, to be held not later than ten days after the date of the preliminary hearing if the hearing is pursuant to an order of temporary custody or an order to show cause; (5) accept a plea regarding the truth of such allegations; (6) make any interim orders, including visitation, that the court determines are in the best interests of the child or youth. The court, after a hearing pursuant to this subsection, shall order specific steps the commissioner and the parent or guardian shall take for the parent or guardian to regain or to retain custody of the child or youth; (7) take steps to determine the identity of the father of the child or youth, including, if necessary, inquiring of the mother of the child or youth, under oath, as to the identity and address of any person who might be the father of the child or youth and ordering genetic testing, and order service of the petition and notice of the hearing date, if any, to be made upon him; (8) if the person named as the father appears, and admits that he is the father, provide him and the mother with the notices that comply with section 17b-27 and provide them with the opportunity to sign a paternity acknowledgment and affirmation on forms that comply with section 17b-27. Such documents shall be executed and filed in accordance with chapter 815y and a copy delivered to the clerk of the superior court for juvenile matters; (9) in the event that the person named as a father appears and denies that he is the father of the child or youth, advise him that he may have no further standing in any proceeding concerning the child, and either order genetic testing to determine paternity or direct him to execute a written denial of paternity on a form promulgated by the Office of the Chief Court Administrator. Upon execution of such a form by the putative father, the court may remove him from the case and afford him no further standing in the case or in any subsequent proceeding regarding the child or youth until such time as paternity is established by formal acknowledgment or adjudication in a court of competent jurisdiction; (10) identify any person or persons related to the child or youth by blood or marriage residing in this state who might serve as licensed foster parents or temporary custodians and order the Commissioner of Children and Families to investigate and report to the court, not later than thirty days after the preliminary hearing, the appropriateness of placement of the child or youth with such relative or relatives; and (11) in accordance with the provisions of the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children pursuant to section 17a-175, identify any person or persons related to the child or youth by blood or marriage residing out of state who might serve as licensed foster parents or temporary custodians, and order the Commissioner of Children and Families to investigate and determine, within a reasonable time, the appropriateness of placement of the child or youth with such relative or relatives.

      (d) (1) (A) If not later than thirty days after the preliminary hearing, or within a reasonable time when a relative resides out of state, the Commissioner of Children and Families determines that there is not a suitable person related to the child or youth by blood or marriage who can be licensed as a foster parent or serve as a temporary custodian, and the court has not granted temporary custody to a person related to the child or youth by blood or marriage, any person related to the child or youth by blood or marriage may file, not later than ninety days after the date of the preliminary hearing, a motion to intervene for the limited purpose of moving for temporary custody of such child or youth. If a motion to intervene is timely filed, the court shall grant such motion except for good cause shown.

      (B) Any person related to a child or youth may file a motion to intervene for purposes of seeking temporary custody of a child or youth more than ninety days after the date of the preliminary hearing. The granting of such motion shall be solely in the court's discretion, except that such motion shall be granted absent good cause shown whenever the child's or youth's most recent placement has been disrupted or is about to be disrupted.

      (C) A relative shall appear in person, with or without counsel, and shall not be entitled to court appointed counsel or the assignment of counsel by the office of Chief Public Defender, except as provided in section 46b-136.

      (2) Upon the granting of intervenor status to such relative of the child or youth, the court shall issue an order directing the Commissioner of Children and Families to conduct an assessment of such relative and to file a written report with the court not later than forty days after such order, unless such relative resides out of state, in which case the assessment shall be ordered and requested in accordance with the provisions of the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children, pursuant to section 17a-175. The court may also request such relative to release such relative's medical records, including any psychiatric or psychological records and may order such relative to submit to a physical or mental examination. The expenses incurred for such physical or mental examination shall be paid as costs of commitment are paid. Upon receipt of the assessment, the court shall schedule a hearing on such relative's motion for temporary custody not later than fifteen days after the receipt of the assessment. If the Commissioner of Children and Families, the child's or youth's attorney or guardian ad litem, or the parent or guardian objects to the vesting of temporary custody in such relative, the agency or person objecting at such hearing shall be required to prove by a fair preponderance of the evidence that granting temporary custody of the child or youth to such relative would not be in the best interests of such child or youth.

      (3) If the court grants such relative temporary custody during the period of such temporary custody, such relative shall be subject to orders of the court, including, but not limited to, providing for the care and supervision of such child or youth and cooperating with the Commissioner of Children and Families in the implementation of treatment and permanency plans and services for such child or youth. The court may, on motion of any party or the court's own motion, after notice and a hearing, terminate such relative's intervenor status if such relative's participation in the case is no longer warranted or necessary.

      (4) Any person related to a child or youth may file a motion to intervene for purposes of seeking permanent guardianship of a child or youth more than ninety days after the date of the preliminary hearing. The granting of such motion to intervene shall be solely in the court's discretion, except that such motion shall be granted absent good cause shown whenever the child's or youth's most recent placement has been disrupted or is about to be disrupted. The court may, in the court's discretion, order the Commissioner of Children and Families to conduct an assessment of such relative granted intervenor status pursuant to this subdivision.

      (5) Any relative granted intervenor status pursuant to this subsection shall not be entitled to court-appointed counsel or representation by Division of Public Defender Services assigned counsel, except as provided in section 46b-136.

      (e) If any parent or guardian fails, after service of such order, to appear at the preliminary hearing, the court may enter or sustain an order of temporary custody.

      (f) Upon request, or upon its own motion, the court shall schedule a hearing on the order for temporary custody or the order to appear to be held not later than ten days after the date of the preliminary hearing. Such hearing shall be held on consecutive days except for compelling circumstances or at the request of the parent or guardian.

      (g) At a contested hearing on the order for temporary custody or order to appear, credible hearsay evidence regarding statements of the child or youth made to a mandated reporter or to a parent may be offered by the parties and admitted by the court upon a finding that the statement is reliable and trustworthy and that admission of such statement is reasonably necessary. A signed statement executed by a mandated reporter under oath may be admitted by the court without the need for the mandated reporter to appear and testify unless called by a respondent or the child, provided the statement: (1) Was provided at the preliminary hearing and promptly upon request to any counsel appearing after the preliminary hearing; (2) reasonably describes the qualifications of the reporter and the nature of his contact with the child; and (3) contains only the direct observations of the reporter, and statements made to the reporter that would be admissible if the reporter were to testify to them in court and any opinions reasonably based thereupon. If a respondent or the child gives notice at the preliminary hearing that he intends to cross-examine the reporter, the person filing the petition shall make the reporter available for such examination at the contested hearing.

      (h) If any parent or guardian fails, after due notice of the hearing scheduled pursuant to subsection (g) of this section and without good cause, to appear at the scheduled date for a contested hearing on the order of temporary custody or order to appear, the court may enter or sustain an order of temporary custody.

      (i) When a petition is filed in said court for the commitment of a child or youth, the Commissioner of Children and Families shall make a thorough investigation of the case and shall cause to be made a thorough physical and mental examination of the child or youth if requested by the court. The court after hearing may also order a thorough physical or mental examination, or both, of a parent or guardian whose competency or ability to care for a child or youth before the court is at issue. The expenses incurred in making such physical and mental examinations shall be paid as costs of commitment are paid.

      (j) Upon finding and adjudging that any child or youth is uncared-for, neglected or abused the court may commit such child or youth to the Commissioner of Children and Families. Such commitment shall remain in effect until further order of the court, except that such commitment may be revoked or parental rights terminated at any time by the court, or the court may vest such child's or youth's legal guardianship in any private or public agency that is permitted by law to care for neglected, uncared-for or abused children or youths or with any other person or persons found to be suitable and worthy of such responsibility by the court, including, but not limited to, any relative of such child or youth by blood or marriage. If the court determines that the commitment should be revoked and the child's or youth's legal guardianship should vest in someone other than the respondent parent, parents or former guardian, or if parental rights are terminated at any time, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that an award of legal guardianship upon revocation to, or adoption upon termination of parental rights by, any relative who is licensed as a foster parent for such child or youth, or who is, pursuant to an order of the court, the temporary custodian of the child or youth at the time of the revocation or termination, shall be in the best interests of the child or youth and that such relative is a suitable and worthy person to assume legal guardianship upon revocation or to adopt such child or youth upon termination of parental rights. The presumption may be rebutted by a preponderance of the evidence that an award of legal guardianship to, or an adoption by, such relative would not be in the child's or youth's best interests and such relative is not a suitable and worthy person. The court shall order specific steps that the parent must take to facilitate the return of the child or youth to the custody of such parent. The commissioner shall be the guardian of such child or youth for the duration of the commitment, provided the child or youth has not reached the age of eighteen years or, in the case of a child or youth in full-time attendance in a secondary school, a technical school, a college or a state-accredited job training program, provided such child or youth has not reached the age of twenty-one years, by consent of such youth, or until another guardian has been legally appointed, and in like manner, upon such vesting of the care of such child or youth, such other public or private agency or individual shall be the guardian of such child or youth until such child or youth has reached the age of eighteen years or, in the case of a child or youth in full-time attendance in a secondary school, a technical school, a college or a state-accredited job training program, until such child or youth has reached the age of twenty-one years or until another guardian has been legally appointed. The commissioner may place any child or youth so committed to the commissioner in a suitable foster home or in the home of a person related by blood or marriage to such child or youth or in a licensed child-caring institution or in the care and custody of any accredited, licensed or approved child-caring agency, within or without the state, provided a child shall not be placed outside the state except for good cause and unless the parents or guardian of such child are notified in advance of such placement and given an opportunity to be heard, or in a receiving home maintained and operated by the Commissioner of Children and Families. In placing such child or youth, the commissioner shall, if possible, select a home, agency, institution or person of like religious faith to that of a parent of such child or youth, if such faith is known or may be ascertained by reasonable inquiry, provided such home conforms to the standards of said commissioner and the commissioner shall, when placing siblings, if possible, place such children together. As an alternative to commitment, the court may place the child or youth in the custody of the parent or guardian with protective supervision by the Commissioner of Children and Families subject to conditions established by the court. Upon the issuance of an order committing the child or youth to the Commissioner of Children and Families, or not later than sixty days after the issuance of such order, the court shall determine whether the Department of Children and Families made reasonable efforts to keep the child or youth with his or her parents or guardian prior to the issuance of such order and, if such efforts were not made, whether such reasonable efforts were not possible, taking into consideration the child's or youth's best interests, including the child's or youth's health and safety.

      (k) (1) Nine months after placement of the child or youth in the care and custody of the commissioner pursuant to a voluntary placement agreement, or removal of a child or youth pursuant to section 17a-101g or an order issued by a court of competent jurisdiction, whichever is earlier, the commissioner shall file a motion for review of a permanency plan. Nine months after a permanency plan has been approved by the court pursuant to this subsection, the commissioner shall file a motion for review of the permanency plan. Any party seeking to oppose the commissioner's permanency plan, including a relative of a child or youth by blood or marriage who has intervened pursuant to subsection (d) of this section and is licensed as a foster parent for such child or youth or is vested with such child's or youth's temporary custody by order of the court, shall file a motion in opposition not later than thirty days after the filing of the commissioner's motion for review of the permanency plan, which motion shall include the reason therefor. A permanency hearing on any motion for review of the permanency plan shall be held not later than ninety days after the filing of such motion. The court shall hold evidentiary hearings in connection with any contested motion for review of the permanency plan. The commissioner shall have the burden of proving that the proposed permanency plan is in the best interests of the child or youth. After the initial permanency hearing, subsequent permanency hearings shall be held not less frequently than every twelve months while the child or youth remains in the custody of the Commissioner of Children and Families. The court shall provide notice to the child or youth, the parent or guardian of such child or youth, and any intervenor of the time and place of the court hearing on any such motion not less than fourteen days prior to such hearing.

      (2) At a permanency hearing held in accordance with the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection, the court shall approve a permanency plan that is in the best interests of the child or youth and takes into consideration the child's or youth's need for permanency. The child's or youth's health and safety shall be of paramount concern in formulating such plan. Such permanency plan may include the goal of (A) revocation of commitment and reunification of the child or youth with the parent or guardian, with or without protective supervision; (B) transfer of guardianship; (C) long-term foster care with a relative licensed as a foster parent; (D) filing of termination of parental rights and adoption; or (E) another planned permanent living arrangement ordered by the court, provided the Commissioner of Children and Families has documented a compelling reason why it would not be in the best interest of the child or youth for the permanency plan to include the goals in subparagraphs (A) to (D), inclusive, of this subdivision. Such other planned permanent living arrangement may include, but not be limited to, placement of a child or youth in an independent living program or long term foster care with an identified foster parent.

      (3) At a permanency hearing held in accordance with the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection, the court shall review the status of the child, the progress being made to implement the permanency plan, determine a timetable for attaining the permanency plan, determine the services to be provided to the parent if the court approves a permanency plan of reunification and the timetable for such services, and determine whether the commissioner has made reasonable efforts to achieve the permanency plan. The court may revoke commitment if a cause for commitment no longer exists and it is in the best interests of the child or youth.

      (4) If the court approves the permanency plan of adoption: (A) The Commissioner of Children and Families shall file a petition for termination of parental rights not later than sixty days after such approval if such petition has not previously been filed; (B) the commissioner may conduct a thorough adoption assessment and child-specific recruitment; and (C) the court may order that the child be photo-listed within thirty days if the court determines that such photo-listing is in the best interest of the child. As used in this subdivision, "thorough adoption assessment" means conducting and documenting face-to-face interviews with the child, foster care providers and other significant parties and "child specific recruitment" means recruiting an adoptive placement targeted to meet the individual needs of the specific child, including, but not limited to, use of the media, use of photo-listing services and any other in-state or out-of-state resources that may be used to meet the specific needs of the child, unless there are extenuating circumstances that indicate that such efforts are not in the best interest of the child.

      (l) The Commissioner of Children and Families shall pay directly to the person or persons furnishing goods or services determined by said commissioner to be necessary for the care and maintenance of such child or youth the reasonable expense thereof, payment to be made at intervals determined by said commissioner; and the Comptroller shall draw his or her order on the Treasurer, from time to time, for such part of the appropriation for care of committed children or youths as may be needed in order to enable the commissioner to make such payments. The commissioner shall include in the department's annual budget a sum estimated to be sufficient to carry out the provisions of this section. Notwithstanding that any such child or youth has income or estate, the commissioner may pay the cost of care and maintenance of such child or youth. The commissioner may bill to and collect from the person in charge of the estate of any child or youth aided under this chapter, or the payee of such child's or youth's income, the total amount expended for care of such child or youth or such portion thereof as any such estate or payee is able to reimburse, provided the commissioner shall not collect from such estate or payee any reimbursement for the cost of care or other expenditures made on behalf of such child or youth from (1) the proceeds of any cause of action received by such child or youth; (2) any lottery proceeds due to such child or youth; (3) any inheritance due to such child or youth; (4) any payment due to such child or youth from a trust other than a trust created pursuant to 42 USC 1396p, as amended from time to time; or (5) the decedent estate of such child or youth.

      (m) The commissioner, a parent or the child's attorney may file a motion to revoke a commitment, and, upon finding that cause for commitment no longer exists, and that such revocation is in the best interests of such child or youth, the court may revoke the commitment of such child or youth. No such motion shall be filed more often than once every six months.

      (n) Upon service on the parent, guardian or other person having control of the child or youth of any order issued by the court pursuant to the provisions of subsections (b) and (j) of this section, the child or youth concerned shall be surrendered to the person serving the order who shall forthwith deliver the child or youth to the person, agency, department or institution awarded custody in the order. Upon refusal of the parent, guardian or other person having control of the child or youth to surrender the child or youth as provided in the order, the court may cause a warrant to be issued charging the parent, guardian or other person having control of the child or youth with contempt of court. If the person arrested is found in contempt of court, the court may order such person confined until the person complies with the order, but for not more than six months, or may fine such person not more than five hundred dollars, or both.

      (o) A foster parent, prospective adoptive parent or relative caregiver shall receive notice and have the right to be heard for the purposes of this section in Superior Court in any proceeding concerning a foster child living with such foster parent, prospective adoptive parent or relative caregiver. A foster parent, prospective adoptive parent or relative caregiver who has cared for a child or youth shall have the right to be heard and comment on the best interests of such child or youth in any proceeding under this section which is brought not more than one year after the last day the foster parent, prospective adoptive parent or relative caregiver provided such care.

      (p) Upon motion of any sibling of any child committed to the Department of Children and Families pursuant to this section, such sibling shall have the right to be heard concerning visitation with, and placement of, any such child. In awarding any visitation or modifying any placement, the court shall be guided by the best interests of all siblings affected by such determination.

      (q) The provisions of section 17a-152, regarding placement of a child from another state, and section 17a-175, regarding the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children, shall apply to placements pursuant to this section. In any proceeding under this section involving the placement of a child or youth in another state where the provisions of section 17a-175 are applicable, the court shall, before ordering or approving such placement, state for the record the court's finding concerning compliance with the provisions of section 17a-175. The court's statement shall include, but not be limited to: (1) A finding that the state has received notice in writing from the receiving state, in accordance with subsection (d) of Article III of section 17a-175, indicating that the proposed placement does not appear contrary to the interests of the child, (2) the court has reviewed such notice, (3) whether or not an interstate compact study or other home study has been completed by the receiving state, and (4) if such a study has been completed, whether the conclusions reached by the receiving state as a result of such study support the placement.

      (r) In any proceeding under this section, the Department of Children and Families shall provide notice to every attorney of record for each party involved in the proceeding when the department seeks to transfer a child or youth in its care, custody or control to an out-of-state placement.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2634, subs. (a)-(e); 1949, 1953, 1955, S. 1469d, subs. (a)-(e); 1957, P.A. 50; 1959, P.A. 293; 1967, P.A. 698; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 7; 1971, P.A. 150; 184; 231; 253; 1972, P.A. 127, S. 24; 294, S. 18; P.A. 73-205, S. 5; 73-546, S. 2; 73-625, S. 3, 4; P.A. 74-251, S. 10, 11; P.A. 75-420, S. 4, 6; 75-492, S. 1, 2; 75-602, S. 4, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 16, 668, 681; P.A. 77-272; 77-273; 77-614, S. 71, 521, 587, 610; P.A. 78-223, S. 1, 2; 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 79-423; 79-579; 79-631, S. 84, 111; P.A. 80-483, S. 121, 186; P.A. 82-181, S. 1, 2; P.A. 84-449, S. 5, 7; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; 93-262, S. 1, 87; P.A. 95-238, S. 4; P.A. 96-246, S. 20, 21; P.A. 97-319, S. 19, 22; P.A. 98-185; 98-241, S. 5, 18; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 102, 121; P.A. 00-137, S. 2, 3, 15; P.A. 01-142, S. 6-8; 01-149, S. 1; 01-195, S. 37, 38, 181; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-2, S. 33, 69; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9, S. 129, 131; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-7, S. 29, 30; P.A. 03-243, S. 2; P.A. 06-102, S. 9; 06-196, S. 173; P.A. 07-159, S. 5; 07-174, S. 3; 07-203, S. 1; P.A. 09-185, S. 3; 09-194, S. 4; P.A. 10-26, S. 6; 10-43, S. 38; P.A. 11-51, S. 16; 11-116, S. 3; 11-180, S. 3; 11-240, S. 8.)

      History: 1959 act specified that commissioner is to pay cost of child's care and maintenance and collect cost of care and maintenance from child's estate or income in Subsec. (d); 1967 act added "dependent child" to classification of children within section and added custody by private or public agency to Subsec. (c); 1969 act rephrased provisions and rearranged Subsecs., authorized filing in Subsec. (a) by town manager, local welfare department and commission on youth services, deleting authority for parent or guardian, Long Lane School and Connecticut State Farm for Women to file and added provisions in Subsec. (c) re physical and/or mental examinations of parents or guardians; 1971 acts authorized application by person who acknowledges paternity of a child born out of wedlock in Subsec. (f), added Subsec. (g) re surrender of child upon court order, rephrased provision in Subsec. (e) re recovery of costs of child's care and maintenance and specified in Subsec. (b) who may serve orders for temporary custody; 1972 acts changed age at which child's guardianship terminates from 21 to 18, reflecting changed age of majority, in Subsec. (d) and referred to annual rather than biennial budgets in Subsec. (e); P.A. 73-205 authorized court to order child's parent or person responsible for child to show cause why temporary custody should not be vested in suitable agency or person pending hearing and specified that hearing must be held within 10 days from issuance of order in Subsec. (b); P.A. 73-546 rephrased provision in Subsec. (e) re recovery of costs of child's care and maintenance; P.A. 73-625 extended period of guardianship until child is twenty-one where he is in full-time attendance in secondary or technical school, college or state-accredited job training program in Subsec. (d); P.A. 74-251 authorized commitments to commissioner of children and youth services after April 1, 1975, in Subsecs. (a) and (d); P.A. 75-420 replaced welfare commissioner with commissioner of social services generally; P.A. 75-492 deleted reference to welfare commissioner and authorized filing by child, his representative, attorney or foster parent in Subsec. (a); P.A. 75-602 applied provisions to youths, included in Subsec. (a) reference to "dependent" children and substituted children and youth services commissioner for welfare commissioner in Subsec. (c); P.A. 76-436 deleted references to superior court for references to juvenile court where appearing, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-272 added proviso in Subsec. (d) re conditions which must be met for out-of-state placements; P.A. 77-273 added Subsec. (h) re standing of foster parent; P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 replaced central collections division of finance and control department with department of administrative services in Subsec. (b) and, effective January 1, 1979, replaced references to social services commissioner with references to human resources commissioner; P.A. 78-223 specified commissioner in Subsec. (e) as commissioner "of the department to which the child or youth is committed"; P.A. 79-423 added exception in Subsec. (b) re payment of expenses of temporary care and custody by state agencies; P.A. 79-579 deleted reference to human resources commissioner in Subsec. (d), placed limitations on period of commitment in that Subsec., inserted new Subsec. (e) re procedure when expiration of commitment period is near to revoke or extend commitment or terminate parental rights, relettering former Subsecs. (e) to (h) accordingly, and amended Subsec. (i), formerly (h), to apply with regard to revocation of commitments; P.A. 79-631 and P.A. 80-483 made technical changes to reflect final deletion of extraneous references to commissioner of human resources; Sec. 17-62 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-310 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-129 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-62) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 82-181 amended Subsecs. (d) and (e) by reducing the maximum period of commitment from 2 years to 18 months; P.A. 84-449 amended Subsec. (a) by adding "except as otherwise provided in subsection (e) of section 17-43a"; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-262 authorized substitution of commissioner and department of social services for commissioner and department of human resources, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-238 amended Subsecs. (d) and (e) to change the maximum period of commitment from 18 months to 12 months and amended Subsec. (e) to require that the court determine the appropriateness of continued efforts to reunify the child or youth with his family; P.A. 96-246 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision requiring court to provide commissioner and parent with specific steps for parent to facilitate return of child to custody of parent or maintain custody of child and amended Subsec. (g) by permitting attorney who represented child in prior or pending hearing, attorney appointed by Superior Court and attorney retained by child over fourteen to make application for revocation of commitment; P.A. 97-319 amended Subsec. (d) to add provision re court orders of steps the parent must take to facilitate return of a child or youth to the custody of the parent and provision re placement of siblings and alternatives to commitment, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-185 amended Subsec. (i) by providing standing to foster parents to comment on the best interest of the child or youth; P.A. 98-241 substantially revised section, amending provisions re allegations of petition, preliminary hearing on ex parte custody order or hearing on petition, notice re rights of parents re hearing, consideration of placement of child in town where child resides, necessary steps for parent to regain custody of child, intervention by grandparents, and contested hearing on order of temporary custody, adding new Subsecs. (c) to (h), inclusive, and redesignating former Subsecs. (c), (d), (f), (h) and (i) as Subsecs. (i), (j), (l), (n) and (o); replaced former Subsec. (e) with new Subsec. (k) re filing of permanency plan and motion to extend or revoke commitment by Commissioner of Children and Families, basis for determination by court, and determination by court, and replaced former Subsec. (g) with new Subsec. (m) re motion to revoke commitment; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 made technical changes in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 00-137 changed reference in Subsec. (a) from Subsec. (d) to Subsec. (k) of Sec. 17a-112, made technical changes in Subsec. (d), and in Subsec. (e) deleted "and enter a default" after "order of temporary custody" and added Subsec. (k)(3)(F) providing that if permanency plan identifies adoption as option, thorough adoption assessment and child specific recruitment is required, and defining "thorough adoption assessment" and "child specific recruitment", relettered former (F) as (G), and added provision to Subsec. (k)(3)(G) that at permanency plan hearing, court shall review status of child, progress made to implement permanency plan and determine timetable for attaining permanency plan, and deleted Subsec. (k)(4) re revocation of commitment by operation of law, following dismissal of termination petition, or denial of motion to transfer guardianship; P.A. 01-142 amended Subsec. (j) by deleting provisions re 12-month commitment period and extension, providing that commitment shall remain in effect until further order of the court pursuant to Subsec. (k), and making technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, amended Subsec. (k) by changing review of permanency plan to 9 months after placement in custody of commissioner or removal of child or youth by order of court whichever is earlier, deleting former provisions re 10 and 12-month periods and extension, giving party 30 days to file motion in opposition to permanency plan or the maintaining or revocation of commitment and requiring hearing to be held within 90 days of filing motion, requiring evidentiary hearing re any contested motion, adding provisions re burden of proof and subsequent permanency hearings, requiring court to find by clear and convincing evidence that efforts to reunite child with parents is inappropriate, making child or youth's health and safety to be of paramount concern in formulating permanency plan, deleting provisions re thorough adoption assessment and child specific recruitment, requiring commissioner to document compelling reason why goals in Subdiv. (3)(A) to (D) are not in best interest of child, requiring permanency hearing to determine whether commissioner has made reasonable efforts to achieve permanency plan and making conforming and technical changes, amended Subsec. (o) by changing "standing" to "right to be heard" for foster parents in matters re placement or revocation of commitment of foster child; P.A. 01-149 added Subsec. (p) re right to be heard of sibling of child committed to Department of Children and Families concerning visitation with and placement of such child and re court guided by best interest of all siblings in awarding visitation or modifying placement; P.A. 01-195 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (k), effective July 11, 2001; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-2 amended Subsec. (k) by adding provisions, designated as Subdiv. (5), thorough adoption assessment and child-specific recruitment; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9 revised effective date of June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-2 but without affecting this section; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-7 amended Subsec. (b) to add provision requiring the court upon issuance of order, or not later than 60 days thereafter, to make a determination whether the Department of Children and Families made reasonable efforts to keep the child or youth with his or her parents or guardian prior to the issuance of such order and, if such efforts were not made, whether such reasonable efforts were not possible considering the best interests of the child or youth and to make technical changes and amended Subsec. (j) to add provision requiring the court upon issuance of an order committing the child or youth to the Commissioner of Children and Families, or not later than 60 days thereafter, to make a determination whether the Department of Children and Families made reasonable efforts to keep the child or youth with his or her parents or guardian prior to the issuance of such order and, if such efforts were not made, whether such reasonable efforts were not possible considering the best interests of the child or youth and to make technical changes, effective August 15, 2002; P.A. 03-243 added Subsec. (q) re application of Secs. 17a-152 and 17a-175 to placements pursuant to section; P.A. 06-102 made technical changes, amended Subsec. (j) to delete reference to provisions of Subsec. (k) re order of the court, amended Subsec. (k)(1) to delete references to motion to maintain or revoke commitment, require that motion for review include reason therefor, and substitute burden of proving that permanency plan is in best interests of child or youth for burden of establishing that commitment should be maintained, deleted former Subsec. (k)(2) re court hearing on reunification, redesignated existing Subsec. (k)(3) to (5) as (k)(2) to (4), amended Subsec. (k)(2) to substitute "reunification" for "placement", amended Subsec. (k)(3) to require court to determine services to be provided to parent if court approves permanency plan of reunification and timetable for services, delete provision re court to maintain commitment if in best interests of child or youth, and substitute "may" for "shall" re revocation of commitment, amended Subsec. (k)(4) to require commissioner to petition for termination of parental rights not later than 60 days after permanency plan of adoption is approved if petition not previously filed, amended Subsec. (m) to substitute "interests" for "interest and welfare", and amended Subsec. (o) to reference motion for review of permanency plan (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (j), the word "youth" in the phrase "neglected, uncared-for or dependent children or youth" was replaced editorially by the Revisors with "youths" for consistency with P.A. 06-196); P.A. 06-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (l), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 07-159 amended Subsec. (d) by adding provision re parent's or guardian's right to counsel pursuant to Sec. 46b-135(b) in Subdiv. (1) and references to Sec. 46b-123e(b) in Subdivs. (2) and (3) and by deleting "as determined by the court" in Subdiv. (3), effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 07-174 amended Subsec. (o) to apply provisions to prospective adoptive parents and relative caregivers, change right to notice and to be heard "on a motion for review of a permanency plan and in matters concerning the placement or revocation of commitment of a foster child" to "in any proceeding concerning a foster child living with such foster parent, prospective adoptive parent or relative caregiver", and eliminate requirement that former foster parent must have cared for a child or youth for "not less than six months" in order to have right to be heard and comment on best interests of the child or youth; P.A. 07-203 amended Subsec. (l) by adding proviso limiting commissioner's ability to collect reimbursement from the estate of a child or youth for his or her care and maintenance and making a conforming change, effective July 10, 2007; P.A. 09-185 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provisions re placement of a child with person related by blood or marriage and re investigation of the suitability of placement with a relative, and by expanding notice to respondent on orders for a preliminary hearing re placement with a relative, deleted former Subsec. (c) re grandparent motion to intervene, redesignated existing Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (c) and amended same by adding Subdivs. (10) and (11) re court's responsibilities during a preliminary hearing re identification of relatives who might serve as foster parents or temporary custodians, added new Subsec. (d) re procedures for a relative to intervene in temporary custody or permanent guardianship proceeding, standard for granting motion to intervene, assessment of a relative granted intervenor status, requirements for a relative granted temporary custody and termination of a relative's intervenor status, amended Subsec. (f) by replacing "show cause" with "appear", amended Subsec. (j) by replacing "care and personal custody" with "legal guardianship", adding provisions re standard for awarding legal guardianship to a relative and inserting reference to persons related by marriage, amended Subsec. (k) by adding provision re ability of certain relatives to oppose a permanency plan and deleting reference to certified relative caregiver, and made conforming and technical changes, effective June 29, 2009; P.A. 09-194 added Subsec. (r) re notification to attorneys of record of department's motion to transfer a child or youth to out-of-state placement, effective October 1, 2010; P.A. 10-26 made technical changes in Subsec. (d)(1)(B) and (4), effective May 10, 2010; P.A. 10-43 amended Subsec. (c)(7) to authorize court to inquire of mother, under oath, as to identity and address of any person who might be the father of the child or youth; P.A. 11-51 amended Subsec. (c)(2) and (3) to substitute reference to Sec. 51-296a for reference to Sec. 46b-123e, and amended Subsec. (d) to substitute "office of Chief Public Defender" for "Chief Child Protection Attorney" and add Subdiv. (5) to provide that a relative granted intervenor status is not entitled to counsel, except as provided in Sec. 46b-136, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-116 amended Subsec. (c)(10) by adding requirement that commissioner report to the court re placement with a relative; P.A. 11-180 amended Subsec. (q) by adding provision re placement of child or youth in another state; P.A. 11-240 amended Subsecs. (a) and (j) by replacing "dependent" with "abused", effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 46b-129a. Examination by physician, psychiatrist or psychologist. Counsel and guardian ad litem. Testimony. Evidence. In proceedings in the Superior Court under section 46b-129:

      (1) The court may order the child, the parents, the guardian, or other persons accused by a competent witness of abusing the child, to be examined by one or more competent physicians, psychiatrists or psychologists appointed by the court;

      (2) (A) A child shall be represented by counsel knowledgeable about representing such children who shall be assigned to represent the child by the office of Chief Public Defender, or appointed by the court if there is an immediate need for the appointment of counsel during a court proceeding. The court shall give the parties prior notice of such assignment or appointment. Counsel for the child shall act solely as attorney for the child.

      (B) If a child requiring assignment of counsel in a proceeding under section 46b-129 is represented by an attorney for a minor child in an ongoing probate or family matter proceeding, the court may appoint the attorney to represent the child in the proceeding under section 46b-129, provided (i) such counsel is knowledgeable about representing such children, and (ii) the court notifies the office of Chief Public Defender of the appointment. Any child who is subject to an ongoing probate or family matters proceeding who has been appointed a guardian ad litem in such proceeding shall be assigned a separate guardian ad litem in a proceeding under section 46b-129 if it is deemed necessary pursuant to subparagraph (D) of this subdivision.

      (C) The primary role of any counsel for the child shall be to advocate for the child in accordance with the Rules of Professional Conduct.

      (D) If the court, based on evidence before it, or counsel for the child, determines that the child cannot adequately act in his or her own best interests and the child's wishes, as determined by counsel, if followed, could lead to substantial physical, financial or other harm to the child unless protective action is taken, counsel may request and the court may order that a separate guardian ad litem be assigned for the child, in which case the court shall either appoint a guardian ad litem to serve on a voluntary basis or notify the office of Chief Public Defender who shall assign a separate guardian ad litem for the child. The guardian ad litem shall perform an independent investigation of the case and may present at any hearing information pertinent to the court's determination of the best interests of the child. The guardian ad litem shall be subject to cross-examination upon the request of opposing counsel. The guardian ad litem is not required to be an attorney-at-law but shall be knowledgeable about the needs and protection of children and relevant court procedures. If a separate guardian ad litem is assigned, the person previously serving as counsel for the child shall continue to serve as counsel for the child and a different person shall be assigned as guardian ad litem, unless the court for good cause also determines that a different person should serve as counsel for the child, in which case the court shall notify the office of Chief Public Defender who shall assign a different person as counsel for the child. No person who has served as both counsel and guardian ad litem for a child shall thereafter serve solely as the child's guardian ad litem.

      (E) The counsel and guardian ad litem's fees, if any, shall be paid by the office of Chief Public Defender unless the parents or guardian, or the estate of the child, are able to pay, in which case the court shall assess the rate the parent or guardian is able to pay and the office of Chief Public Defender may seek reimbursement for the costs of representation from the parents, guardian or estate of the child;

      (3) The privilege against the disclosure of communications between husband and wife shall be inapplicable and either may testify as to any relevant matter; and

      (4) Evidence that the child has been abused or has sustained a nonaccidental injury shall constitute prima facie evidence that shall be sufficient to support an adjudication that such child is uncared for or neglected.

      (P.A. 96-246, S. 13; P.A. 01-148, S. 1; P.A. 11-51, S. 17.)

      History: P.A. 01-148 amended Subdiv. (2) re guardian ad litem, including provisions re primary role, when court appoints another guardian ad litem and guardian ad litem not required to be attorney; P.A. 11-51 amended Subdiv. (2) to insert Subpara. designators, to add provisions re assignment of counsel by office of Chief Public Defender in Subpara. (A), to add Subpara. (B) re appointment of attorney for child in an ongoing probate or family matter proceeding, to delete provisions re counsel who also serves as guardian ad litem and re conflict between child's wishes and position of counsel in Subpara. (C), to add provisions re assignment, investigation by and cross-examination of guardian ad litem and knowledge of relevant court procedures in Subpara. (D), to add provisions re payment of counsel and guardian ad litem's fees by office of Chief Public Defender, unless parents or guardian or estate of child are able to pay, in Subpara. (E), and to make technical changes, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 46b-130. (Formerly Sec. 51-311). Reimbursement for expense of care and maintenance. Assignment of right of support to Commissioner of Children and Families. Parents' assistance in pursuing support. The parents of a minor child for whom care or support of any kind has been provided under the provisions of this chapter shall be liable to reimburse the state for such care or support to the same extent, and under the same terms and conditions, as are the parents of recipients of public assistance. Upon receipt of foster care maintenance payments under Title IV-E of the Social Security Act by a minor child, the right of support, past, present and future, from a parent of such child shall, by this section, be assigned to the Commissioner of Children and Families, and the parents shall assist the commissioner in pursuing such support. On and after October 1, 2008, such assignment shall apply only to such support rights as accrue during the period of assistance, not to exceed the total amount of assistance provided to the child under Title IV-E. Referral by the commissioner shall promptly be made to the Bureau of Child Support Enforcement of the Department of Social Services for pursuit of support for such minor child in accordance with the provisions of section 17b-179. Any child who reimburses the state under the provisions of subsection (l) of section 46b-129 for any care or support such child received shall have a right of action to recover such payments from such child's parents.

      (P.A. 73-546, S. 1; P.A. 85-548, S. 6; P.A. 90-230, S. 64, 101; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; 93-262, S. 1, 87; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-2, S. 106, 165; P.A. 98-241, S. 13, 18; P.A. 06-196, S. 277; P.A. 11-214, S. 9; 11-219, S. 5.)

      History: Sec. 17-62a temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-311 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-130 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-62a) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 85-548 added provision re assignment of support rights of minor child receiving foster care maintenance payments under Title IV-E of the Social Security Act; P.A. 90-230 corrected an internal reference; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-262 authorized substitution of commissioner and department of social services for commissioner and department of human resources, effective July 1, 1993; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-2 made a technical change, deleting various references to sections in title 17b, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-241 changed reference from Subsec. (f) to Subsec. (k) of Sec. 46b-129, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 06-196 made technical changes, effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 11-214 added provisions re parents to assist commissioner in pursuing support and re on and after October 1, 2008, assignment to apply only to support rights that accrue during period of assistance, not to exceed total assistance provided under Title IV-E, and made technical changes; P.A. 11-219 substituted "Bureau of Child Support Enforcement" for "Child Support Enforcement Unit" and made a technical change.

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      Sec. 46b-133. (Formerly Sec. 51-314). Arrest of child. Notice of arrest. Release or detention of arrested child. Alcohol or drug testing or treatment as condition of release. Report re suspected abuse or neglect. Admission of child to juvenile detention center. (a) Nothing in this part shall be construed as preventing the arrest of a child, with or without a warrant, as may be provided by law, or as preventing the issuance of warrants by judges in the manner provided by section 54-2a, except that no child shall be taken into custody on such process except on apprehension in the act, or on speedy information, or in other cases when the use of such process appears imperative. Whenever a child is arrested and charged with a crime, such child may be required to submit to the taking of his photograph, physical description and fingerprints. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 46b-124, the name, photograph and custody status of any child arrested for the commission of a capital felony or class A felony may be disclosed to the public.

      (b) Whenever a child is brought before a judge of the Superior Court, such judge shall immediately have the case proceeded upon as a juvenile matter. Such judge may admit the child to bail or release the child in the custody of the child's parent or parents, the child's guardian or some other suitable person to appear before the Superior Court when ordered. If detention becomes necessary, such detention shall be in the manner prescribed by this chapter, provided the child shall be placed in the least restrictive environment possible in a manner consistent with public safety.

      (c) Upon the arrest of any child by an officer, such officer may (1) release the child to the custody of the child's parent or parents, guardian or some other suitable person or agency, (2) at the discretion of the officer, release the child to the child's own custody, or (3) seek a court order to detain the child in a juvenile detention center. No child shall be placed in detention unless it appears from the available facts that there is probable cause to believe that the child has committed the acts alleged, there is no less restrictive alternative available and there is (A) a strong probability that the child will run away prior to the court hearing or disposition, (B) a strong probability that the child will commit or attempt to commit other offenses injurious to the child or to the community prior to the court disposition, (C) probable cause to believe that the child's continued residence in the child's home pending disposition poses a risk to the child or the community because of the serious and dangerous nature of the act or acts the child is alleged to have committed, (D) a need to hold the child for another jurisdiction, (E) a need to hold the child to assure the child's appearance before the court, in view of the child's previous failure to respond to the court process, or (F) a finding by the court that the child has violated one or more of the conditions of a suspended detention order. No child shall be held in any detention center unless an order to detain is issued by a judge of the Superior Court.

      (d) (1) When a child is arrested for the commission of a delinquent act and the child is not placed in detention or referred to a diversionary program, an officer shall serve a written complaint and summons on the child and the child's parent, guardian or some other suitable person or agency. If such child is released to the child's own custody, the officer shall make reasonable efforts to notify, and to provide a copy of a written complaint and summons to, the parent or guardian or some other suitable person or agency prior to the court date on the summons. If any person so summoned wilfully fails to appear in court at the time and place so specified, the court may issue a warrant for the child's arrest or a capias to assure the appearance in court of such parent, guardian or other person. If a child wilfully fails to appear in response to such a summons, the court may order such child taken into custody and such child may be charged with the delinquent act of wilful failure to appear under section 46b-120. The court may punish for contempt, as provided in section 46b-121, any parent, guardian or other person so summoned who wilfully fails to appear in court at the time and place so specified.

      (2) Upon the arrest of any youth by an officer for a violation of section 53a-82, such officer shall report suspected abuse or neglect to the Department of Children and Families in accordance with the provisions of sections 17a-101b to 17a-101d, inclusive.

      (e) The court or detention supervisor may turn such child over to a youth service program created for such purpose, if such course is practicable, or such child may be detained pending a hearing which shall be held on the business day next following the child's arrest. No child shall be detained after such hearing or held in detention pursuant to a court order unless it appears from the available facts there is probable cause to believe that the child has committed the acts alleged, there is no less restrictive alternative available and that there is (1) a strong probability that the child will run away prior to the court hearing or disposition, (2) a strong probability that the child will commit or attempt to commit other offenses injurious to the child or to the community prior to the court disposition, (3) probable cause to believe that the child's continued residence in the child's home pending disposition poses a risk to the child or the community because of the serious and dangerous nature of the act or acts the child is alleged to have committed, (4) a need to hold the child for another jurisdiction, (5) a need to hold the child to assure the child's appearance before the court, in view of the child's previous failure to respond to the court process, or (6) a finding by the court that the child has violated one or more of the conditions of a suspended detention order. Such probable cause may be shown by sworn affidavit in lieu of testimony. No child shall be released from detention who is alleged to have committed a serious juvenile offense except by order of a judge of the Superior Court. Any child confined in a community correctional center or lockup shall be held in an area separate and apart from any adult detainee, except in the case of a nursing infant, and no child shall at any time be held in solitary confinement. When a female child is held in custody, she shall, as far as possible, be in the charge of a woman attendant.

      (f) The police officer who brings a child into detention shall have first notified, or made a reasonable effort to notify, the parents or guardian of the child in question of the intended action and shall file at the detention center a signed statement setting forth the alleged delinquent conduct of the child. Unless the arrest was for a serious juvenile offense or unless an order not to release is noted on the take into custody order, arrest warrant or order to detain, the child may be released by a detention supervisor to the custody of the child's parent or parents, guardian or some other suitable person or agency.

      (g) In conjunction with any order of release from detention, the court may, when it has reason to believe a child is alcohol-dependent or drug-dependent as defined in section 46b-120, and where necessary, reasonable and appropriate, order the child to participate in a program of periodic alcohol or drug testing and treatment as a condition of such release. The results of any such alcohol or drug test shall be admissible only for the purposes of enforcing the conditions of release from detention.

      (h) The detention supervisor of a juvenile detention center in charge of intake shall admit only a child who: (1) Is the subject of an order to detain or an outstanding court order to take such child into custody, (2) is ordered by a court to be held in detention, or (3) is being transferred to such center to await a court appearance.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2810; 1959, P.A. 28, S. 54; P.A. 74-183, S. 211, 291; P.A. 76-426; 76-436, S. 22, 668, 681; P.A. 77-452, S. 24, 72; P.A. 80-236; P.A. 82-220; P.A. 83-504; P.A. 84-369, S. 1; P.A. 89-273, S. 3; P.A. 90-161, S. 2, 6; P.A. 95-225, S. 15; P.A. 98-256, S. 4; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 85; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 72; P.A. 10-32, S. 165; P.A. 11-154, S. 1; 11-180, S. 1.)

      History: 1959 act substituted circuit court for city, police, borough or town court; P.A. 74-183 replaced circuit court with court of common pleas, effective December 31, 1974; P.A. 76-426 authorized juvenile court, probation officer or other officer to turn child over to youth service program; P.A. 76-436 replaced references to court of common pleas and juvenile court with references to superior court and juvenile matters, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-452 made technical grammatical change; Sec. 17-65 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-314 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-133 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-65) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 80-236 authorized turning child over to juvenile detention center and similarly authorized detention supervisor to turn child over to youth service program; P.A. 82-220 added provision re taking photograph, physical description and fingerprints of child 14 or older arrested and charged with a felony; P.A. 83-504 divided section into Subsecs. and added provision re arrest of child by an officer for the commission of a serious juvenile offense as Subsec. (e); P.A. 84-369 revised the procedures for the release or detention of an arrested child including deleting the provision allowing the police officer to set bond for a child arrested for a serious juvenile offense, providing that a child arrested for any offense may either be released to the custody of his parent, guardian or some other suitable person or agency or turned over to a detention center, requiring the detention release hearing to be held on the next business day for all arrested children who are detained, prohibiting detention unless certain findings are made including probable cause that the child has committed the acts alleged, prohibiting release from detention of a child who has committed a serious juvenile offense except by order of a judge, and requiring a police officer to notify the parents or guardian of a child whom he intends to bring into detention; P.A. 89-273 added Subsec. (f) re the criteria for the admission of a child to a juvenile detention center when the population of the center equals or exceeds its maximum capacity; P.A. 90-161 inserted new Subsec. (f) permitting the court to order child to participate in drug testing and treatment as condition of release from detention, relettering former Subsec. as (g); P.A. 95-225 amended Subsec. (a) to revise provision re taking of the photograph, physical description and fingerprints of an arrested child by making it applicable to any child who is charged with a crime, rather than only to a child 14 years of age or older who is charged with a violation of any provision of title 53a which is designated a felony, and by providing that such child "may be required to" submit to such taking, rather than "shall" submit to such taking, and add provision permitting the disclosure to the public of the photograph of any child arrested for the commission of a capital felony or a class A felony, amended Subsec. (c) to add provisions requiring an officer to serve a written complaint and summons on a child and the parent, guardian or other person having control of a child who is arrested or referred for the commission of a delinquent act and is not placed in detention, requiring such parent, guardian or other person to execute a written promise to appear in court, authorizing the court to issue a warrant for the child's arrest or a capias to assure the court appearance of the parent, guardian or other person if any person so summoned wilfully fails to appear in court and authorizing the court to punish for contempt any parent, guardian or other person who wilfully fails to appear in court and amended Subsec. (f) to authorize "alcohol" testing and treatment and allow the admissibility of the results of an "alcohol" test; P.A. 98-256 amended Subsec. (a) to revise provision authorizing the disclosure of the photograph of a child arrested for a capital felony or class A felony to also include the name and custody status of the child, amended Subsec. (c) to make requirement that an officer serve a written complaint and summons on a child arrested for a delinquent act and his parent, guardian or other person having control of the child inapplicable when the child is referred to a diversionary program and amended Subsec. (g) to add "an order to detain" in Subdiv. (2); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4 amended Subsec. (b) to require that child be placed in the least restrictive environment possible consistent with public safety, delete "or desirable" re detention and make technical changes, effective January 1, 2010; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 amended Subsec. (c) to insert Subdiv. designators (1) to (3) and insert provision in Subdiv. (2) to allow officer to release child to child's own custody, substitute "other suitable person or agency" for "other person having control of the child" re service and copy of written complaint and summons, delete provision re parent, guardian or other person executing written promise to appear, add provision re notice and copy of written complaint and summons re child released to child's own custody, and add provision re delinquent act of wilful failure to appear, amended Subsec. (d) to require that there be no less restrictive alternative available for detention of child, substitute "poses a risk to" for "will not safeguard the best interests of" re child or community in Subdiv. (3), insert Subdiv. (6) re child violating conditions of suspended detention order, and rewrite requirement re detention of child in area separate and apart from adult detainees, amended Subsec. (e) to prohibit release of child if "order not to release" is noted and add "or agency" re other suitable person, amended Subsec. (g) to substitute "shall admit only" for "shall only admit", and made technical changes, effective January 1, 2010; P.A. 10-32 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective May 10, 2010; P.A. 11-154 amended Subsec. (c) to substitute "seek a court order to detain" for requirement that child be immediately turned over to juvenile detention center, and add requirement that no child be placed in detention unless it appears from available facts that specified factors exist, designated existing portions of Subsec. (c) re child not placed in detention or referred to diversionary program as Subsec. (d), redesignated existing Subsecs. (d) to (g) as Subsecs. (e) to (h), amended Subsec. (h) to delete language re overpopulated juvenile detention center and re child charged with serious juvenile offense, and made technical and conforming changes; P.A. 11-180 added provision, codified by the Revisors as Subsec. (d)(2), re report of arrest for violation of Sec. 53a-82.

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      Sec. 46b-135. (Formerly Sec. 51-316). Right to counsel and cross-examination. (a) At the commencement of any proceeding concerning the alleged delinquency of a child, the child shall have the right to counsel and be so informed by the judge, and that if the child and the parent or parents or guardian of the child are unable to afford counsel, counsel will be provided for the child. Such counsel and the child shall have the rights of confrontation and cross-examination. If a parent fails to comply with a court order entered in the best interests of the alleged or adjudicated delinquent child and is facing potential imprisonment for contempt of court, such parent, if unable to afford counsel, shall be entitled to have counsel provided for such parent pursuant to this subsection.

      (b) At the commencement of any proceeding on behalf of a neglected, uncared-for or abused child or youth, the parent or parents or guardian of the child or youth shall have the right to counsel, and shall be so informed by the judge, and that if they are unable to afford counsel, counsel will be provided for them. Such parent or guardian of the child or youth shall have the rights of confrontation and cross-examination.

      (1967, P.A. 630, S. 8; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 11, 12; P.A. 75-602, S. 5, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 23, 681; P.A. 95-225, S. 19; P.A. 07-159, S. 6; P.A. 11-240, S. 9.)

      History: 1969 act deleted references to persons, other than parent or guardian, "having control of the child" and required that judge inform parent, guardian and child of their right to counsel and their right to have counsel provided if they cannot afford counsel themselves, both in Subsec. (a) and in new Subsec. (b); P.A. 75-602 added references to youths in Subsec. (b); P.A. 76-436 deleted references to juvenile court, effective July 1, 1978; Sec. 17-66b temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-316 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-135 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-66b; P.A. 95-225 amended Subsec. (a) to replace "proceeding on behalf of a delinquent child" with "proceeding concerning the alleged delinquency of a child" and make technical changes; P.A. 07-159 amended Subsec. (a) to provide that parent who fails to comply with a court order and is facing imprisonment for contempt is entitled to counsel pursuant to subsection and to make conforming changes and amended Subsec. (b) to delete "and such counsel" re rights of confrontation and cross-examination and to make technical changes, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 11-240 amended Subsec. (b) by replacing "dependent" with "abused", effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 46b-136. (Formerly Sec. 51-317). Appointment of attorney to represent child or youth and parent or guardian. In any proceeding in a juvenile matter, the judge before whom such proceeding is pending shall, even in the absence of a request to do so, provide an attorney to represent the child or youth, the child's or youth's parent or parents or guardian, or other person having control of the child or youth, if such judge determines that the interests of justice so require, and in any proceeding in which the custody of a child is at issue, such judge shall provide an attorney to represent the child and may authorize such attorney or appoint another attorney to represent such child or youth, parent, guardian or other person on an appeal from a decision in such proceeding. Where, under the provisions of this section, the court so appoints counsel for any such party who is found able to pay, in whole or in part, the cost thereof, the court shall assess as costs against such parents, guardian or custodian, including any agency vested with the legal custody of the child or youth, the expense so incurred and paid by the Division of Public Defender Services in providing such counsel, to the extent of their financial ability to do so. The Division of Public Defender Services shall establish the rate at which counsel provided pursuant to this section shall be compensated.

      (1967, P.A. 630, S. 9; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 10; P.A. 73-188; P.A. 75-277; 75-602, S. 6, 13; P.A. 76-235, S. 1, 2; 76-436, S. 24, 681; P.A. 07-159, S. 7; P.A. 11-51, S. 18.)

      History: 1969 act specified that judge may provide attorney to represent child "even in the absence of a request to do so" and added provisions re assessment of costs; P.A. 73-188 allowed judge to authorize attorney to represent his assigned client on an appeal to the superior court; P.A. 75-277 added provision making appointment of attorney for child in custody proceeding mandatory; P.A. 75-602 applied provisions to youths; P.A. 76-235 referred to cases where custody of child "is at issue" rather than to cases where custody "may be affected"; P.A. 76-436 replaced reference to juvenile court with reference to juvenile matters and deleted reference to superior court as appeal court, reflecting transfer of juvenile court powers to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; Sec. 17-66c temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-317 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-136 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-66c; P.A. 07-159 replaced provision re expense paid for by court with provision re expense paid by Commission on Child Protection, added provision re counsel compensation rate established by commission and made technical changes, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 11-51 substituted "Division of Public Defender Services" for "Commission on Child Protection", effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 46b-137. (Formerly Sec. 51-318). *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Admissibility of admission, confession or statement in juvenile proceedings. Exception. (a) Any admission, confession or statement, written or oral, made by a child under the age of sixteen to a police officer or Juvenile Court official shall be inadmissible in any proceeding concerning the alleged delinquency of the child making such admission, confession or statement unless made by such child in the presence of the child's parent or parents or guardian and after the parent or parents or guardian and child have been advised (1) of the child's right to retain counsel, or if unable to afford counsel, to have counsel appointed on the child's behalf, (2) of the child's right to refuse to make any statements, and (3) that any statements the child makes may be introduced into evidence against the child.

      (b) Any admission, confession or statement, written or oral, made by a child sixteen years of age to a police officer or Juvenile Court official, except an admission, confession or statement, written or oral, made by a child sixteen years of age to a police officer in connection with a case transferred to the Juvenile Court from the youthful offender docket, regular criminal docket of the Superior Court or any docket for the presentment of defendants in motor vehicle matters, shall be inadmissible in any proceeding concerning the alleged delinquency of the child making such admission, confession or statement, unless (1) the police or Juvenile Court official has made reasonable efforts to contact a parent or guardian of the child, and (2) such child has been advised that (A) the child has the right to contact a parent or guardian and to have a parent or guardian present during any interview, (B) the child has the right to retain counsel or, if unable to afford counsel, to have counsel appointed on behalf of the child, (C) the child has the right to refuse to make any statement, and (D) any statement the child makes may be introduced into evidence against the child.

      (c) The admissibility of any admission, confession or statement, written or oral, made by a child sixteen years of age to a police officer or Juvenile Court official, except an admission, confession or statement, written or oral, made by a child sixteen years of age to a police officer in connection with a case transferred to the Juvenile Court from the youthful offender docket, regular criminal docket of the Superior Court or any docket for the presentment of defendants in motor vehicle matters, shall be determined by considering the totality of the circumstances at the time of the making of such admission, confession or statement. When determining the admissibility of such admission, confession or statement, the court shall consider (1) the age, experience, education, background and intelligence of the child, (2) the capacity of the child to understand the advice concerning rights and warnings required under subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of this section, the nature of the privilege against self-incrimination under the United States and Connecticut Constitutions, and the consequences of waiving such rights and privilege, (3) the opportunity the child had to speak with a parent, guardian or some other suitable individual prior to or while making such admission, confession or statement, and (4) the circumstances surrounding the making of the admission, confession or statement, including, but not limited to, (A) when and where the admission, confession or statement was made, (B) the reasonableness of proceeding, or the need to proceed, without a parent or guardian present, and (C) the reasonableness of efforts by the police or Juvenile Court official to attempt to contact a parent or guardian.

      (d) Any confession, admission or statement, written or oral, made by the parent or parents or guardian of the child or youth after the filing of a petition alleging such child or youth to be neglected, uncared-for or abused, shall be inadmissible in any proceeding held upon such petition against the person making such admission or statement unless such person shall have been advised of the person's right to retain counsel, and that if the person is unable to afford counsel, counsel will be appointed to represent the person, that the person has a right to refuse to make any statement and that any statements the person makes may be introduced in evidence against the person, except that any statement made by the mother of any child or youth, upon inquiry by the court and under oath if necessary, as to the identity of any person who might be the father of the child or youth shall not be inadmissible if the mother was not so advised.

      (1967, P.A. 630, S. 10; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 13, 14; P.A. 75-183; 75-602, S. 7, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 591, 681; P.A. 95-225, S. 20; P.A. 98-256, S. 11; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 75; P.A. 10-43, S. 39; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 31; P.A. 11-240, S. 10.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2012, this section, as amended by section 87 of public act 09-7 of the September special session, section 40 of public act 10-43, section 19 of public act 11-157 and section 11 of public act 11-240, is to read as follows:

      "Sec. 46b-137. (Formerly Sec. 51-318). Admissibility of admission, confession or statement in juvenile proceedings. (a) Any admission, confession or statement, written or oral, made by a child under the age of sixteen to a police officer or Juvenile Court official shall be inadmissible in any proceeding concerning the alleged delinquency of the child making such admission, confession or statement unless made by such child in the presence of the child's parent or parents or guardian and after the parent or parents or guardian and child have been advised (1) of the child's right to retain counsel, or if unable to afford counsel, to have counsel appointed on the child's behalf, (2) of the child's right to refuse to make any statements, and (3) that any statements the child makes may be introduced into evidence against the child.

      (b) Any admission, confession or statement, written or oral, made by a child sixteen or seventeen years of age to a police officer or Juvenile Court official, except an admission, confession or statement, written or oral, made by a child sixteen or seventeen years of age to a police officer in connection with a case transferred to the Juvenile Court from the youthful offender docket, regular criminal docket of the Superior Court or any docket for the presentment of defendants in motor vehicle matters, shall be inadmissible in any proceeding concerning the alleged delinquency of the child making such admission, confession or statement, unless (1) the police or Juvenile Court official has made reasonable efforts to contact a parent or guardian of the child, and (2) such child has been advised that (A) the child has the right to contact a parent or guardian and to have a parent or guardian present during any interview, (B) the child has the right to retain counsel or, if unable to afford counsel, to have counsel appointed on behalf of the child, (C) the child has the right to refuse to make any statement, and (D) any statement the child makes may be introduced into evidence against the child.

      (c) The admissibility of any admission, confession or statement, written or oral, made by a child sixteen or seventeen years of age to a police officer or Juvenile Court official, except an admission, confession or statement, written or oral, made by a child sixteen or seventeen years of age to a police officer in connection with a case transferred to the Juvenile Court from the youthful offender docket, regular criminal docket of the Superior Court or any docket for the presentment of defendants in motor vehicle matters, shall be determined by considering the totality of the circumstances at the time of the making of such admission, confession or statement. When determining the admissibility of such admission, confession or statement, the court shall consider (1) the age, experience, education, background and intelligence of the child, (2) the capacity of the child to understand the advice concerning rights and warnings required under subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of this section, the nature of the privilege against self-incrimination under the United States and Connecticut Constitutions, and the consequences of waiving such rights and privilege, (3) the opportunity the child had to speak with a parent, guardian or some other suitable individual prior to or while making such admission, confession or statement, and (4) the circumstances surrounding the making of the admission, confession or statement, including, but not limited to, (A) when and where the admission, confession or statement was made, (B) the reasonableness of proceeding, or the need to proceed, without a parent or guardian present, and (C) the reasonableness of efforts by the police or Juvenile Court official to attempt to contact a parent or guardian.

      (d) Any confession, admission or statement, written or oral, made by the parent or parents or guardian of the child or youth after the filing of a petition alleging such child or youth to be neglected, uncared-for or abused shall be inadmissible in any proceeding held upon such petition against the person making such admission or statement unless such person shall have been advised of the person's right to retain counsel, and that if the person is unable to afford counsel, counsel will be appointed to represent the person, that the person has a right to refuse to make any statement and that any statements the person makes may be introduced in evidence against the person, except that any statement made by the mother of any child or youth, upon inquiry by the court and under oath if necessary, as to the identity of any person who might be the father of the child or youth shall not be inadmissible if the mother was not so advised."

      (1967, P.A. 630, S. 10; 1969, P.A. 794, S. 13, 14; P.A. 75-183; 75-602, S. 7, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 591, 681; P.A. 95-225, S. 20; P.A. 98-256, S. 11; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 75, 87; P.A. 10-43, S. 39, 40; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 31; P.A. 11-157, S. 19; 11-240, S. 10, 11.)

      History: 1969 act removed persons having control of child (other than parents or guardians) from purview of section and specifically enumerated rights of parents or guardians where previously "rights as provided by section 17-66a" occurred and added Subsec. (b) re admissibility of confessions, admissions, etc. in court proceeding; P.A. 75-183 applied Subsec. (a) to admissions, confessions, etc. made by child, replacing provisions applicable to children, their parents or guardians; P.A. 75-602 added references to youths in Subsec. (b); P.A. 76-436 deleted references to juvenile court, reflecting transfer of that court's powers to superior court and made technical changes to correct grammar in Subsec. (b); Sec. 17-66d temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-318 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-137 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-66d; P.A. 95-225 amended Subsec. (a) to limit applicability of provisions to any admission, confession or statement made "to a police officer or juvenile court official" and replace "inadmissible in any proceeding for delinquency against the child" with "inadmissible in any proceeding concerning the alleged delinquency of the child"; P.A. 98-256 made a technical change in Subsec. (a); Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 made provisions of Subsec. (a) applicable to child under the age of 16, inserted new Subsecs. (b) and (c) re admission, confession or statement of child 16 years of age, redesignated existing Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (d), and made technical changes, effective January 1, 2010, and further amended Subsecs. (b) and (c) to make provisions applicable to a child 17 years of age, effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 10-43 amended Subsec. (d) to add exception that statement of mother re identity of person who might be father of child or youth is not inadmissible if mother was not advised of her rights; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1 amended Subsecs. (b) and (c) to exempt written or oral admission, confession or statement made by child age 16 to a police officer re case transferred from youthful offender docket, regular criminal docket or docket for motor vehicle matters, effective July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-157 amended Subsecs. (b) and (c) to exempt written or oral admission, confession or statement made by child age 16 or 17 to a police officer re case transferred from youthful offender docket, regular criminal docket or docket for motor vehicle matters, effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 11-240 amended Subsec. (d) by replacing "dependent" with "abused", effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 46b-140. (Formerly Sec. 51-321). Disposition upon conviction of child as delinquent. (a) In determining the appropriate disposition of a child convicted as delinquent, the court shall consider: (1) The seriousness of the offense, including the existence of any aggravating factors such as the use of a firearm in the commission of the offense and the impact of the offense on any victim; (2) the child's record of delinquency; (3) the child's willingness to participate in available programs; (4) the existence of other mitigating factors; and (5) the culpability of the child in committing the offense including the level of the child's participation in the planning and carrying out of the offense.

      (b) Upon conviction of a child as delinquent, the court: (1) May (A) place the child in the care of any institution or agency which is permitted by law to care for children; (B) order the child to participate in an alternative incarceration program; (C) order the child to participate in a wilderness school program operated by the Department of Children and Families; (D) order the child to participate in a youth service bureau program; (E) place the child on probation; (F) order the child or the parents or guardian of the child or both to make restitution to the victim of the offense in accordance with subsection (d) of this section; (G) order the child to participate in a program of community service in accordance with subsection (e) of this section; or (H) withhold or suspend execution of any judgment; and (2) shall impose the penalty established in subsection (b) of section 30-89, for any violation of said subsection (b).

      (c) The court may order, as a condition of probation, that the child (1) reside with a parent, relative or guardian or in a suitable foster home or other residence approved by the court, (2) attend school and class on a regular basis and comply with school policies on student conduct and discipline, (3) refrain from violating any federal or state law or municipal or local ordinance, (4) undergo any medical or psychiatric evaluation or treatment deemed necessary by the court, (5) submit to random drug or alcohol testing, or both, (6) participate in a program of alcohol or drug treatment, or both, (7) make restitution to the victim of the offense in accordance with subsection (d) of this section, (8) participate in an alternative incarceration program or other program established through the Court Support Services Division, (9) participate in a program of community service, and (10) satisfy any other conditions deemed appropriate by the court. The court shall cause a copy of any such order to be delivered to the child, the child's parents or guardian and the child's probation officer. If the child is convicted as delinquent for a violation of section 53-247, the court may order, as a condition of probation, that the child undergo psychiatric or psychological counseling or participate in an animal cruelty prevention and education program provided such a program exists and is available to the child.

      (d) If the child has engaged in conduct which results in property damage or personal injury, the court may order the child or the parent or parents or guardian of the child, if such parent or parents or guardian had knowledge of and condoned the conduct of the child, or both the child and the parent or parents or guardian, to make restitution to the victim of such offense, provided the liability of such parent or parents or guardian shall be limited to an amount not exceeding the amount such parent or parents or guardian would be liable for in an action under section 52-572. Restitution may consist of monetary reimbursement for the damage or injury, based on the child's or the parent's, parents' or guardian's ability to pay, as the case may be, in the form of a lump sum or installment payments, paid to the court clerk or such other official designated by the court for distribution to the victim.

      (e) The court may order the child to participate in a program of community service under the supervision of the court or any organization designated by the court. Such child shall not be deemed to be an employee and the services of such child shall not be deemed employment.

      (f) If the court further finds that its probation services or other services available to the court are not adequate for such child, the court shall commit such child to the Department of Children and Families in accordance with the provisions of section 46b-141. Prior to making such commitment, the court shall consult with the department to determine the placement which will be in the best interest of such child.

      (g) Any child or youth coming within the jurisdiction of the court, who is found to be mentally ill, may be committed by said court to the Commissioner of Children and Families and, if the court convicts a child as delinquent and finds such child to be mentally deficient, the court may commit such child to an institution for mentally deficient children or youth or delinquents. No such commitment may be ordered or continued for any child who has attained the age of twenty. Whenever it is found that a child convicted as delinquent or adjudged to be a member of a family with service needs would benefit from a work-study program or employment with or without continued school attendance, the court may, as a condition of probation or supervision, authorize such child to be employed for part or full-time at some useful occupation that would be favorable to such child's welfare, and the probation officer shall supervise such employment. For the purposes of this section, the limitations of subsection (a) of section 31-23 on the employment of minors under the age of sixteen years shall not apply for the duration of such probation or supervision.

      (h) Whenever the court commits a child to the Department of Children and Families, there shall be delivered with the mittimus a copy of the results of the investigations made as required by section 46b-134. The court may, at any time, require from the department in whose care a child has been placed such report as to such child and such child's treatment.

      (i) If the delinquent act for which the child is committed to the Department of Children and Families is a serious juvenile offense, the court may set a minimum period of twelve months during which the child shall be placed in a residential facility operated by or under contract with said department, as determined by the Commissioner of Children and Families. No such commitment may be ordered or continued for any child who has attained the age of twenty. The setting of such minimum period shall be in the form of an order of the court included in the mittimus. For good cause shown in the form of an affidavit annexed thereto, the Department of Children and Families, the parent or guardian of the child or the child may petition the court for modification of any such order.

      (j) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the court may order a child be (1) committed to the Department of Children and Families and be placed directly in a residential facility within this state and under contract with said department, or (2) committed to the Commissioner of Children and Families for placement by the commissioner, in said commissioner's discretion, (A) with respect to the juvenile offenders determined by the Department of Children and Families to be the highest risk, in the Connecticut Juvenile Training School, if the juvenile offender is a male, or in another state facility, presumptively for a minimum period of twelve months, or (B) in a private residential or day treatment facility within or outside this state, or (C) on parole. No such commitment may be ordered or continued for any child who has attained the age of twenty. The commissioner shall use a risk and needs assessment classification system to ensure that male children who are in the highest risk level will be placed in the Connecticut Juvenile Training School.

      (k) On or after May 21, 2004, no female child committed to the Department of Children and Families shall be placed in the Connecticut Juvenile Training School. Any female child placed in the Connecticut Juvenile Training School before May 21, 2004, shall be transferred to another appropriate facility not later than ninety days after May 21, 2004.

      (l) Notwithstanding any provisions of the general statutes concerning the confidentiality of records and information, whenever a child convicted as delinquent is committed to the Department of Children and Families, the Commissioner of Children and Families shall have access to the following information: (1) Educational records of such child; (2) records regarding such child's past treatment for physical or mental illness, including substance abuse; (3) records regarding such child's prior placement in a public or private residential facility; (4) records created or obtained by the Judicial Department regarding such child; and (5) records, as defined in subsection (a) of section 17a-28. The Commissioner of Children and Families shall review such information to determine the appropriate services and placement which will be in the best interest of the child.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2813; 1955, S. 1578d; 1957, P.A. 41; 1969, P.A. 498, S. 1; 664, S. 9; P.A. 75-226, S. 2; 75-567, S. 77, 80; 75-602, S. 9, 13; P.A. 76-436, S. 27, 681; P.A. 78-188, S. 6, 8; P.A. 79-581, S. 6; P.A. 84-10; 84-389, S. 1; P.A. 89-273, S. 5; 89-390, S. 20, 37; P.A. 90-161, S. 5, 6; 90-240, S. 5, 6; 90-325, S. 19, 32; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 94-136, S. 2; 94-221, S. 14; P.A. 95-225, S. 22; P.A. 98-70, S. 3; 98-256, S. 6; P.A. 99-26, S. 12, 39; P.A. 01-211, S. 14; P.A. 02-132, S. 23; P.A. 03-208, S. 3; P.A. 04-152, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 79; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 76; P.A. 11-157, S. 16.)

      History: 1969 acts restated provisions and divided section into Subsecs., inserting new provision authorizing commitment of child to department of children and youth services as Subsec. (b); P.A. 75-226 added provisions in Subsec. (a) re orders for child to do work in public buildings or on public property; P.A. 75-567 deleted references to youths judged to be delinquent in Subsec. (c); P.A. 75-602 restored references to youths deleted by P.A. 75-667 in Subsec. (c) and authorized commitment of child or youth to commissioner of children and youth services rather than to "a hospital or other institution empowered by law to treat mentally ill children" in that Subsec.; P.A. 76-436 deleted reference to juvenile court in Subsec. (d), reflecting transfer of juvenile court's powers and duties to superior court, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 78-188 authorized court to order child to make restitution in Subsec. (a); P.A. 79-581 added Subsec. (e) re procedure where delinquent act is a serious juvenile offense; Sec. 17-68 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-321 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-140 in 1979, (see note to Sec. 17-68) and references to other sections within provisions revised as necessary by the Revisors to reflect their transfer; P.A. 84-10 amended Subsec. (c) by authorizing a court to place a child who is a member of a family with service needs on vocational probation if certain findings are made; P.A. 84-389 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision that prior to making commitment, court shall consult with department to determine placement in best interests of child and amended Subsec. (d) by deleting references to commitment to any institution, person or agency other than the department of children and youth services; P.A. 89-273 amended Subsec. (e) to delete reference to a "mandatory" transfer hearing to conform to changes made by act to Sec. 46b-126; P.A. 89-390 amended Subsec. (a) by authorizing the court to order the child to participate in a wilderness school program operated by the department of children and youth services; P.A. 90-161 added provision in Subsec. (a) permitting the court, as a condition of probation, to order the child to participate in a program of periodic drug testing and treatment; P.A. 90-240 deleted the term "defective delinquents"; P.A. 90-325 changed effective date of P.A. 90-240 from July 1, 1990, to July 1, 1991; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-136 amended Subsec. (a) by authorizing the court to order the child to participate in an alternative incarceration program; P.A. 94-221 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for participation in a youth service bureau program and expanded the list of possible conditions of probation to include attendance at school and class on a regular basis and compliance with school policies on student conduct and discipline; P.A. 95-225 added a new Subsec. (a) re factors the court shall consider in determining the appropriate disposition of a child convicted as delinquent, designated provisions of former Subsec. (a) re disposition alternatives as Subsec. (b) and amended said Subsec. to replace the provision authorizing the court to "adjudge" a child delinquent and take one of the enumerated actions "if it finds that the child is delinquent and needs the care, discipline or protection of the state" with provision authorizing the court to take one of the enumerated actions "Upon conviction of the child as delinquent", insert Subdiv. indicators and add Subdiv. (6) re restitution and Subdiv. (7) re community service, designated provisions of former Subsec. (a) authorizing the court to order as a condition of probation school attendance or drug testing or treatment as Subsec. (c) and amended said Subsec. to include "alcohol" testing and treatment, deleted provisions of former Subsec. (a) authorizing the court to order the child to do work of which he is capable in public buildings and on public property or make restitution of the fruits of his offense or make restitution in an amount he can afford to pay or provide in a suitable manner for the loss or damage caused thereby provided the child and his parent or guardian accept such disposition, added new Subsec. (d) authorizing the court to order the child or the parent or parents or guardian of the child, or both, to make full or partial restitution to the victim of the offense, added new Subsec. (e) authorizing the court to order the child to participate in a program of community service, redesignated former Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (f), redesignated former Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (g) and amended said Subsec. to replace "adjudges" and "adjudged" with "convicts" and "convicted", respectively, redesignated former Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (h), redesignated former Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (i) and amended said Subsec. to delete in Subdiv. (1) the maximum period of 6 months during which the child shall be placed out of his town of residence, delete former Subdiv. (2) that had required the court to impose a period of one year during which a child who had committed a serious juvenile offense and been subject to a transfer hearing shall be placed out of his town of residence, and redesignate former Subdiv. (3) as Subdiv. (2); P.A. 98-70 added new Subsec. (j) re access by Commissioner of Children and Families to educational records, treatment records, records of prior placement in residential facility and records of Judicial Department of child convicted as delinquent and committed to department; P.A. 98-256 amended Subsec. (b) to replace in Subdiv. (5) "order the child to remain in his own home or in the custody of a relative or any other fit person subject to the supervision of the probation officer" with "place the child on probation" and amended Subsec. (c) to specify the conditions of probation that a court may order by adding new Subdiv. (1) re place of residence, new Subdiv. (3) re refraining from violations of law, new Subdiv. (4) re medical or psychiatric evaluation or treatment, new Subdiv. (7) re restitution, new Subdiv. (8) re participation in alternative incarceration program, new Subdiv. (9) re participation in community service program and new Subdiv. (10) re satisfaction of other appropriate conditions and by redesignating former Subdiv. (1) re school attendance and compliance with school policies as Subdiv. (2) and by dividing former Subdiv. (2) re alcohol and drug testing and treatment into Subdiv. (5) re testing and Subdiv. (6) re treatment, and to add requirement that the court cause a copy of the order to be delivered to the child, the child's parents or guardian and the child's probation officer, amended Subsec. (g) to authorize the court to place on vocational probation a child who "would not benefit from continued school attendance" rather than a child who is "either mentally deficient or too educationally retarded to benefit from school attendance" and require the court to find that such employment would be "favorable to the child's welfare" rather than "more favorable to his welfare than commitment to an institution" and amended Subsec. (i) to make technical changes; P.A. 99-26 amended Subsec. (i) to authorize the court to set "a minimum period of 12 months during which the child shall be placed in a residential facility operated by or under contract with said department, as determined by the Commissioner of Children and Families" rather than "a period of time during which the Department of Children and Families shall place such child out of his town of residence at the commencement of such child's commitment" and to authorize a petition for "modification of any such order" rather than for "temporary modification of any such order not to extend or reduce the term of such placement", added new Subsec. (j) re commitment and placement options for the sentencing court, placement options for the Commissioner of Children and Families and the use of a risk and needs assessment classification system by the commissioner, added Subsec. (k) re sight and sound separation of female offenders and prohibition on sharing of program activities, redesignated former Subsec. (j) as Subsec. (l) and made technical changes in Subsecs. (g) and (h) for purposes of gender neutrality, effective upon the filing with the Governor and the General Assembly of written certification by the Commissioner of Children and Families that the new Connecticut Juvenile Training School is operational (Revisor's note: Said written certification was filed with the Senate and House Clerks on September 20, 2001, and with the Governor on September 21, 2001); P.A. 01-211 amended Subsec. (d) to replace "full or partial restitution" with "restitution"; P.A. 02-132 amended Subsec. (c)(8) by replacing "Office of Alternative Sanctions" with "Court Support Services Division"; P.A. 03-208 amended Subsec. (c) to add provision authorizing the court to order counseling or participation in an animal cruelty prevention and education program as a condition of probation for a child convicted as delinquent for a violation of Sec. 53-247; P.A. 04-152 amended Subsec. (j) by adding references to "male" juvenile offenders and children and making a technical change and replaced former Subsec. (k) re female children committed to the Connecticut Juvenile Training School with new Subsec. (k) prohibiting female children from being placed in said school, effective May 21, 2004; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4 amended Subsec. (b) to insert new Subdiv. (1) and Subparas. (A) to (H) designators, and insert new Subdiv. (2) re imposition of penalty established in Sec. 30-89(b), for any violation of said Subsec., effective January 1, 2010; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 amended Subsec. (g) to delete "by the court" re convicted or adjudged, replace provisions re vocational probation for child 14 years of age or older with provisions re work-study program or employment with or without school attendance as a condition of probation or supervision, and make a technical change, effective January 1, 2010; P.A. 11-157 amended Subsecs. (g), (i) and (j) to add provisions re no commitment may be ordered or continued for child who has attained age of 20.

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      Sec. 46b-141. (Formerly Sec. 51-322). Length of commitments. Motion for extension of commitment. Permanency hearing. Permanency plan. Reopening and termination. (a)(1) Except as otherwise limited by subsection (i) of section 46b-140 and subdivision (2) of this subsection, commitment of children convicted as delinquent by the Superior Court to the Department of Children and Families shall be for (A) an indeterminate time up to a maximum of eighteen months, or (B) when so convicted for a serious juvenile offense, up to a maximum of four years at the discretion of the court, unless extended as hereinafter provided.

      (2) Commitment of children convicted as delinquent by the Superior Court to the Department of Children and Families shall terminate when the child attains the age of twenty.

      (b) The Commissioner of Children and Families may file a motion for an extension of the commitment as provided in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section beyond the eighteen-month period on the grounds that such extension is for the best interest of the child or the community. The court shall give notice to the parent or guardian and to the child at least fourteen days prior to the hearing upon such motion. The court may, after hearing and upon finding that such extension is in the best interest of the child or the community, continue the commitment for an additional period of not more than eighteen months, except that such additional period shall not continue beyond the date the child attains the age of twenty. Not later than twelve months after a child is committed to the Department of Children and Families in accordance with subparagraph (A) of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section, the court shall hold a permanency hearing in accordance with subsection (d) of this section. After the initial permanency hearing, subsequent permanency hearings shall be held not less frequently than every twelve months while the child remains committed to the Department of Children and Families.

      (c) The court shall hold a permanency hearing in accordance with subsection (d) of this section for each child convicted as delinquent for a serious juvenile offense as provided in subparagraph (B) of subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section within twelve months of commitment to the Department of Children and Families and every twelve months thereafter if the child remains committed to the Department of Children and Families. Such hearing may include the submission of a motion to the court by the commissioner to either (1) modify such commitment, or (2) extend the commitment beyond such four-year period on the grounds that such extension is for the best interest of the child or the community. The court shall give notice to the parent or guardian and to the child at least fourteen days prior to the hearing upon such motion. The court, after hearing, may modify such commitment or, upon finding that such extension is in the best interest of the child or the community, continue the commitment for an additional period of not more than eighteen months.

      (d) At least sixty days prior to each permanency hearing required pursuant to subsection (b) or (c) of this section, the Commissioner of Children and Families shall file a permanency plan with the court. At each permanency hearing, the court shall review and approve a permanency plan that is in the best interest of the child and takes into consideration the child's need for permanency. Such permanency plan may include the goal of: (1) Revocation of commitment and placement of the child with the parent or guardian, (2) transfer of guardianship, (3) permanent placement with a relative, (4) adoption, or (5) such other planned permanent living arrangement ordered by the court, provided the Commissioner of Children and Families has documented a compelling reason why it would not be in the best interest of the child for the permanency plan to include the goals in subdivisions (1) to (4), inclusive, of this subsection. Such other planned permanent living arrangement may include, but not be limited to, placement of the child in an independent living program. At any such permanency hearing, the court shall also determine whether the Commissioner of Children and Families has made reasonable efforts to achieve the permanency plan.

      (e) All other commitments of delinquent, mentally deficient or mentally ill children by the court pursuant to the provisions of section 46b-140 may be for an indeterminate time, except that no such commitment may be ordered or continued for any child who has attained the age of twenty. Commitments may be reopened and terminated at any time by said court, provided the Commissioner of Children and Families shall be given notice of such proposed reopening and a reasonable opportunity to present the commissioner's views thereon. The parents or guardian of such child may apply not more than twice in any calendar year for such reopening and termination of commitment. Any order of the court made under the provisions of this section shall be deemed a final order for purposes of appeal, except that no bond shall be required and no costs shall be taxed on such appeal.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2814; 1955, S. 1579d; 1969, P.A. 664, S. 10; 1971, P.A. 151; P.A. 76-436, S. 31, 681; P.A. 79-581, S. 7; P.A. 81-472, S. 84, 159; P.A. 84-389, S. 2; P.A. 92-167, S. 1, 3; P.A. 93-91, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-225, S. 23; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-2, S. 34, 69: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9, S. 129, 131; P.A. 03-19, S. 108; P.A. 11-157, S. 17.)

      History: 1969 act replaced previous provisions re commitment period, i.e. terminated when child reaches twenty-one unless he is mentally deficient or a defective delinquent, and re reopening and termination procedure with new provisions limiting commitment to 2 years and setting forth procedure for commitment extensions, retaining existing appeal provision; 1971 act inserted new Subsec. (c) re indeterminate commitments, in part replacing provisions deleted by 1969 act and incorporating existing appeal provision in this Subsec.; P.A. 76-436 replaced juvenile court with superior court and specified that orders are deemed final orders for appeal purposes in Subsec. (c), effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 79-581 added exception re Sec. 51-321(e) and authorized 4-year commitments when case involves serious juvenile offense in Subsec. (a); Sec. 17-69 temporarily renumbered as Sec. 51-322 and ultimately transferred to Sec. 46b-141 in 1979, see note to Sec. 17-69; P.A. 81-472 made technical changes; P.A. 84-389 deleted reference to "institution to which the child is committed" and inserted "commissioner of children and youth services" in lieu thereof; P.A. 92-167 amended Subsec. (a) by changing the maximum length of commitment of a child adjudged delinquent to the department from 2 years to 18 months, amended Subsec. (b) by changing the maximum length of an extension of such commitment from 2 years to 18 months and added Subsec. (c) re judicial review of children adjudged delinquent on a serious juvenile offense; P.A. 93-91 substituted commissioner and department of children and families for commissioner and department of children and youth services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-225 amended Subsecs. (a) and (c) to replace "adjudged" with "convicted", amended Subsecs. (b) and (c) to make the best interest of the community a ground for the extension of a commitment and amended Subsec. (d) to make discretionary, rather than mandatory, that all other commitments be for an indeterminate time, and made technical changes; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-2 amended Subsec. (b) to change "petition the court" to "file a motion", make a conforming change, and require the court to hold a permanency hearing not later than 12 months after a child is committed to the department and subsequent permanency hearings not less frequently than every 12 months while the child remains committed to the department, amended Subsec. (c) to make substantial revisions, requiring court to hold a permanency hearing for each child convicted as delinquent for a serious juvenile offense within 12 months in lieu of 18 months of commitment to the department and every 12 months in lieu of 18 months thereafter if the child remains committed to the department, deleting requirement that commissioner obtain judicial review of each child so convicted and making technical changes, added new Subsec. (d) requiring commissioner to file a permanency plan with the court at least 60 days prior to each permanency hearing and specifying goals the permanency plan may include, and redesignated former Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (e), making a technical change therein for the purpose of gender neutrality; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9 revised effective date of June Sp. Sess. 01-2 but without affecting this section; P.A. 03-19 made technical changes in Subsec. (e), effective May 12, 2003; P.A. 11-157 amended Subsec. (a) to designate existing provisions as Subdiv. (1) and add Subdiv. (2) re termination of commitment when child attains age of 20, amended Subsecs. (b) and (e) to add provisions re commitment and additional period of commitment to terminate, not continue and not be ordered beyond date child attains age of 20, and made conforming changes.

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      Sec. 46b-150d. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Effect of emancipation. An order that a minor is emancipated shall have the following effects: (1) The minor may consent to medical, dental or psychiatric care, without parental consent, knowledge or liability; (2) the minor may enter into a binding contract; (3) the minor may sue and be sued in such minor's own name; (4) the minor shall be entitled to such minor's own earnings and shall be free of control by such minor's parents or guardian; (5) the minor may establish such minor's own residence; (6) the minor may buy and sell real and personal property; (7) the minor may not thereafter be the subject of (A) a petition under section 46b-129 as an abused, neglected or uncared for child or youth, (B) a petition under section 46b-128 or 46b-133 as a delinquent child for any act committed before the date of the order, (C) a petition under section 46b-149 alleging that the minor is a child from a family with service needs, or (D) a petition under section 46b-150f alleging that the minor is a youth in crisis; (8) the minor may enroll in any school or college, without parental consent; (9) the minor shall be deemed to be over eighteen years of age for purposes of securing an operator's license under section 14-36 and a marriage license under subsection (b) of section 46b-30; (10) the minor shall be deemed to be over eighteen years of age for purposes of registering a motor vehicle under section 14-12; (11) the parents of the minor shall no longer be the guardians of the minor under section 45a-606; (12) the parents of a minor shall be relieved of any obligations respecting such minor's school attendance under section 10-184; (13) the parents shall be relieved of all obligation to support the minor; (14) the minor shall be emancipated for the purposes of parental liability for such minor's acts under section 52-572; (15) the minor may execute releases in such minor's own name under section 14-118; and (16) the minor may enlist in the armed forces of the United States without parental consent.

      (P.A. 79-397, S. 5; 79-631, S. 98, 111; P.A. 80-283, S. 2; 80-483, S. 120, 186; P.A. 84-429, S. 76; P.A. 90-61; P.A. 02-109, S. 2; P.A. 05-10, S. 20; 05-288, S. 225; P.A. 09-13, S. 16; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 90; P.A. 11-240, S. 12.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2012, this section, as amended by section 91 of public act 09-7 of the September special session and section 13 of public act 11-240, is to read as follows:

      "Sec. 46b-150d. Effect of emancipation. An order that a minor is emancipated shall have the following effects: (1) The minor may consent to medical, dental or psychiatric care, without parental consent, knowledge or liability; (2) the minor may enter into a binding contract; (3) the minor may sue and be sued in such minor's own name; (4) the minor shall be entitled to such minor's own earnings and shall be free of control by such minor's parents or guardian; (5) the minor may establish such minor's own residence; (6) the minor may buy and sell real and personal property; (7) the minor may not thereafter be the subject of (A) a petition under section 46b-129 as an abused, neglected or uncared for child or youth, (B) a petition under section 46b-128 or 46b-133 as a delinquent child for any act committed before the date of the order, or (C) a petition under section 46b-149 alleging that the minor is a child from a family with service needs; (8) the minor may enroll in any school or college, without parental consent; (9) the minor shall be deemed to be over eighteen years of age for purposes of securing an operator's license under section 14-36 and a marriage license under subsection (b) of section 46b-30; (10) the minor shall be deemed to be over eighteen years of age for purposes of registering a motor vehicle under section 14-12; (11) the parents of the minor shall no longer be the guardians of the minor under section 45a-606; (12) the parents of a minor shall be relieved of any obligations respecting such minor's school attendance under section 10-184; (13) the parents shall be relieved of all obligation to support the minor; (14) the minor shall be emancipated for the purposes of parental liability for such minor's acts under section 52-572; (15) the minor may execute releases in such minor's own name under section 14-118; and (16) the minor may enlist in the armed forces of the United States without parental consent."

      (P.A. 79-397, S. 5; 79-631, S. 98, 111; P.A. 80-283, S. 2; 80-483, S. 120, 186; P.A. 84-429, S. 76; P.A. 90-61; P.A. 02-109, S. 2; P.A. 05-10, S. 20; 05-288, S. 225; P.A. 09-13, S. 16; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 90, 91; P.A. 11-240, S. 12, 13.)

      History: P.A. 79-631 made no changes; P.A. 80-283 specified that minor is deemed to be over eighteen for purposes of securing marriage license in Subdiv. (i) and added Subdiv. (o) allowing minor to enlist in armed forces without parental consent; P.A. 80-483 substituted reference to Sec. 45-43 for reference to Sec. 45-53 in Subdiv. (j); P.A. 84-429 made technical change for statutory consistency; P.A. 90-61 specified that minor is deemed to be over eighteen for purposes of registering motor vehicle in Subdiv. (j) and relettered remaining Subdivs. accordingly; P.A. 02-109 amended Subdiv. (g) to change reference from Sec. 46b-120 to Sec. 46b-129, effective June 7, 2002; P.A. 05-10 amended Subdiv. (i) to add reference to a civil union license under Sec. 46b-38jj; P.A. 05-288 redesignated Subdivs. (a) to (p) as Subdivs. (1) to (16) and made technical changes; P.A. 09-13 amended Subdiv. (9) to delete provision re securing civil union license under Sec. 46b-38jj without parental consent, effective October 1, 2010; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 amended Subdiv. (7) to insert Subpara. designator (A) and insert Subpara. (B) re petition under Sec. 46b-128 or 46b-133 as delinquent child, Subpara. (C) re petition under Sec. 46b-149 re family with service needs, and Subpara. (D) re petition under Sec. 46b-150f re youth in crisis, effective January 1, 2010, and further amended Subdiv. (7) to delete Subpara. (D) re youth in crisis petition, effective July 1, 2012; P.A. 11-240 amended Subdiv. (7)(A) by deleting "dependent", effective July 1, 2011.

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