CHAPTER 219
SALES AND USE TAXES

Table of Contents

Sec. 12-407. Definitions.
Sec. 12-408. The sales tax.
Sec. 12-411. The use tax.
Sec. 12-411b. Collection of use tax by certain state contractors.
Sec. 12-412. Exemptions.
Sec. 12-412b. Regulations related to exemption for any article of clothing or footwear costing less than fifty dollars.
Sec. 12-414. Returns and payment.
Sec. 12-430. Miscellaneous provisions.
Sec. 12-431. Tax on casual sales of motor vehicles, vessels, snowmobiles and aircraft.

      Sec. 12-407. Definitions. (a) Whenever used in this chapter:

      (1) "Person" means and includes any individual, firm, copartnership, joint venture, association, association of persons however formed, social club, fraternal organization, corporation, limited liability company, foreign municipal electric utility as defined in section 12-59, estate, trust, fiduciary, receiver, trustee, syndicate, the United States, this state or any political subdivision thereof or any group or combination acting as a unit, and any other individual or officer acting under the authority of any court in this state.

      (2) "Sale" and "selling" mean and include:

      (A) Any transfer of title, exchange or barter, conditional or otherwise, in any manner or by any means whatsoever, of tangible personal property for a consideration;

      (B) Any withdrawal, except a withdrawal pursuant to a transaction in foreign or interstate commerce, of tangible personal property from the place where it is located for delivery to a point in this state for the purpose of the transfer of title, exchange or barter, conditional or otherwise, in any manner or by any means whatsoever, of the property for a consideration;

      (C) The producing, fabricating, processing, printing or imprinting of tangible personal property for a consideration for consumers who furnish either directly or indirectly the materials used in the producing, fabricating, processing, printing or imprinting, including, but not limited to, sign construction, photofinishing, duplicating and photocopying;

      (D) The furnishing and distributing of tangible personal property for a consideration by social clubs and fraternal organizations to their members or others;

      (E) The furnishing, preparing, or serving for a consideration of food, meals or drinks;

      (F) A transaction whereby the possession of property is transferred but the seller retains the title as security for the payment of the price;

      (G) A transfer for a consideration of the title of tangible personal property which has been produced, fabricated or printed to the special order of the customer, or of any publication, including, but not limited to, sign construction, photofinishing, duplicating and photocopying;

      (H) A transfer for a consideration of the occupancy of any room or rooms in a hotel or lodging house for a period of thirty consecutive calendar days or less;

      (I) The rendering of certain services, as defined in subdivision (37) of this subsection, for a consideration, exclusive of such services rendered by an employee for the employer;

      (J) The leasing or rental of tangible personal property of any kind whatsoever, including, but not limited to, motor vehicles, linen or towels, machinery or apparatus, office equipment and data processing equipment, provided for purposes of this subdivision and the application of sales and use tax to contracts of lease or rental of tangible personal property, the leasing or rental of any motion picture film by the owner or operator of a motion picture theater for purposes of display at such theater shall not constitute a sale within the meaning of this subsection;

      (K) The rendering of telecommunications service, as defined in subdivision (26) of this subsection, for a consideration on or after January 1, 1990, exclusive of any such service rendered by an employee for the employer of such employee, subject to the provisions related to telecommunications service in accordance with section 12-407a;

      (L) (i) The rendering of community antenna television service, as defined in subdivision (27) of this subsection, for a consideration on or after January 1, 1990, exclusive of any such service rendered by an employee for the employer of such employee. For purposes of this chapter, "community antenna television service" includes service provided by a holder of a certificate of cable franchise authority pursuant to section 16-331p, and service provided by a community antenna television company issued a certificate of video franchise authority pursuant to section 16-331e for any service area in which it was not certified to provide community antenna television service pursuant to section 16-331 on or before October 1, 2007;

      (ii) The rendering of certified competitive video service, as defined in subdivision (38) of this subsection, for consideration on or after October 1, 2007, exclusive of any such service rendered by an employee for the employer of such employee;

      (M) The transfer for consideration of space or the right to use any space for the purpose of storage or mooring of any noncommercial vessel, exclusive of dry or wet storage or mooring of such vessel during the period commencing on the first day of November in any year to and including the thirtieth day of April of the next succeeding year;

      (N) The sale for consideration of naming rights to any place of amusement, entertainment or recreation within the meaning of subdivision (3) of section 12-540;

      (O) The transfer for consideration of a prepaid telephone calling service, as defined in subdivision (34) of this subsection, and the recharge of a prepaid telephone calling service, provided, if the sale or recharge of a prepaid telephone calling service does not take place at the retailer's place of business and an item is shipped by the retailer to the customer, the sale or recharge shall be deemed to take place at the customer's shipping address, but, if such sale or recharge does not take place at the retailer's place of business and no item is shipped by the retailer to the customer, the sale or recharge shall be deemed to take place at the customer's billing address or the location associated with the customer's mobile telephone number; and

      (P) The furnishing by any person, for a consideration, of space for storage of tangible personal property when such person is engaged in the business of furnishing such space, but "sale" and "selling" do not mean or include the furnishing of space which is used by a person for residential purposes. As used in this subparagraph, "space for storage" means secure areas, such as rooms, units, compartments or containers, whether accessible from outside or from within a building, that are designated for the use of a customer, where the customer can store and retrieve property, including self-storage units, mini-storage units and areas by any other name to which the customer has either unlimited free access or free access within reasonable business hours or upon reasonable notice to the service provider to add or remove property, but does not mean the rental of an entire building, such as a warehouse. For purposes of this subparagraph, furnishing space for storage shall not include general warehousing and storage, where the warehouse typically handles, stores and retrieves a customer's property using the warehouse's staff and equipment and does not allow the customer free access to the storage space and shall not include accepting specific items of property for storage, such as clothing at a dry cleaning establishment or golf bags at a golf club.

      (3) (A) "Retail sale" or "sale at retail" means and includes a sale for any purpose other than resale in the regular course of business of tangible personal property or a transfer for a consideration of the occupancy of any room or rooms in a hotel or lodging house for a period of thirty consecutive calendar days or less, or the rendering of any service described in subdivision (2) of this subsection. The delivery in this state of tangible personal property by an owner or former owner thereof or by a factor, if the delivery is to a consumer pursuant to a retail sale made by a retailer not engaged in business in this state, is a retail sale in this state by the person making the delivery. Such person shall include the retail selling price of the property in such person's gross receipts.

      (B) "Retail sale" or "sale at retail" does not include any sale of any tangible personal property, where, no later than one hundred twenty days after the original sale, the original purchaser sells or becomes contractually obligated to sell such property to a retailer who is contractually obligated to lease such property back to such original purchaser in a lease that is taxable under this chapter or the sale of such property by the original purchaser to the retailer who is contractually obligated to lease such property back to such original purchaser in a lease that is taxable under this chapter. If the original purchaser has paid sales or use tax on the original sale of such property to the original purchaser, such original purchaser may (i) claim a refund of such tax under the provisions of section 12-425, upon presentation of proof satisfactory to the commissioner that the mutual contractual obligations described in this subparagraph were undertaken no later than one hundred twenty days after the original sale and that such tax was paid to the original retailer on the original sale and was remitted to the commissioner by such original retailer or by such original purchaser, or (ii) issue at the time of such original sale or no later than one hundred twenty days thereafter a certificate, in the form prescribed by the commissioner, to the original retailer certifying that the mutual contractual obligations described in this subparagraph have been undertaken. If such certificate is issued to the original retailer at the time of the original sale, no tax on the original sale shall be collected by the original retailer from the original purchaser. If the certificate is issued after the time of the original sale but no later than one hundred twenty days thereafter, the original retailer shall refund to the original purchaser the tax collected on the original sale and, if the original retailer has previously remitted the tax to the commissioner, the original retailer may either treat the amount so refunded as a credit against the tax due on the return next filed under this chapter, or claim a refund under section 12-425. If such certificate is issued no later than one hundred twenty days after the time of the original sale but the tangible personal property originally purchased is not, in fact, subsequently leased by the original purchaser, such original purchaser shall be liable for and be required to pay the tax due on the original sale.

      (4) "Storage" includes any keeping or retention in this state for any purpose except sale in the regular course of business or subsequent use solely outside this state of tangible personal property purchased from a retailer.

      (5) "Use" includes the exercise of any right or power over tangible personal property incident to the ownership of that property, except that it does not include the sale of that property in the regular course of business.

      (6) "Storage" and "use" do not include (A) keeping, retaining or exercising any right or power over tangible personal property shipped or brought into this state for the purpose of subsequently transporting it outside the state for use thereafter solely outside the state, or for the purpose of being processed, fabricated or manufactured into, attached to or incorporated into, other tangible personal property to be transported outside the state and thereafter used solely outside the state, or (B) keeping, retaining or exercising any right or power over tangible personal property acquired by the customer of a commercial printer while such property is located at the premises of the commercial printer in this state pursuant to a contract with such printer for printing and distribution of printed material if the commercial printer could have acquired such property without application of tax under this chapter.

      (7) "Purchase" and "purchasing" means and includes: (A) Any transfer, exchange or barter, conditional or otherwise, in any manner or by any means whatsoever, of tangible personal property or of the occupancy of any room or rooms in a hotel or lodging house for a period of thirty consecutive calendar days or less for a consideration; (B) a transaction whereby the possession of property is transferred but the seller retains the title as security for the payment of the price; (C) a transfer for a consideration of tangible personal property which has been produced, fabricated or printed to the special order of the customer, or of any publication; (D) when performed outside this state or when the customer gives a resale certificate pursuant to section 12-410, the producing, fabricating, processing, printing or imprinting of tangible personal property for a consideration for consumers who furnish either directly or indirectly the materials used in the producing, fabricating, processing, printing or imprinting; (E) the acceptance or receipt of any service described in any of the subparagraphs of subdivision (2) of this subsection; (F) any leasing or rental of tangible personal property. Wherever in this chapter reference is made to the purchase or purchasing of tangible personal property, it shall be construed to include purchases as described in this subsection.

      (8) (A) "Sales price" means the total amount for which tangible personal property is sold by a retailer, the total amount of rent for which occupancy of a room is transferred by an operator, the total amount for which any service described in subdivision (2) of this subsection is rendered by a retailer or the total amount of payment or periodic payments for which tangible personal property is leased by a retailer, valued in money, whether paid in money or otherwise, which amount is due and owing to the retailer or operator and, subject to the provisions of subdivision (1) of section 12-408, whether or not actually received by the retailer or operator, without any deduction on account of any of the following: (i) The cost of the property sold; (ii) the cost of materials used, labor or service cost, interest charged, losses or any other expenses; (iii) for any sale occurring on or after July 1, 1993, any charges by the retailer to the purchaser for shipping or delivery, notwithstanding whether such charges are separately stated in a written contract, or on a bill or invoice rendered to such purchaser or whether such shipping or delivery is provided by the retailer or a third party. The provisions of subparagraph (A) (iii) of this subdivision shall not apply to any item exempt from taxation pursuant to section 12-412. Such total amount includes any services that are a part of the sale; except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (B)(v) or (B)(vi) of this subdivision, any amount for which credit is given to the purchaser by the retailer, and all compensation and all employment-related expenses, whether or not separately stated, paid to or on behalf of employees of a retailer of any service described in subdivision (2) of this subsection.

      (B) "Sales price" does not include any of the following: (i) Cash discounts allowed and taken on sales; (ii) any portion of the amount charged for property returned by purchasers, which upon rescission of the contract of sale is refunded either in cash or credit, provided the property is returned within ninety days from the date of purchase; (iii) the amount of any tax, not including any manufacturers' or importers' excise tax, imposed by the United States upon or with respect to retail sales whether imposed upon the retailer or the purchaser; (iv) the amount charged for labor rendered in installing or applying the property sold, provided such charge is separately stated and exclusive of such charge for any service rendered within the purview of subparagraph (I) of subdivision (37) of this subsection; (v) unless the provisions of subdivision (4) of section 12-430 or of section 12-430a are applicable, any amount for which credit is given to the purchaser by the retailer, provided such credit is given solely for property of the same kind accepted in part payment by the retailer and intended by the retailer to be resold; (vi) the full face value of any coupon used by a purchaser to reduce the price paid to a retailer for an item of tangible personal property, whether or not the retailer will be reimbursed for such coupon, in whole or in part, by the manufacturer of the item of tangible personal property or by a third party; (vii) the amount charged for separately stated compensation, fringe benefits, workers' compensation and payroll taxes or assessments paid to or on behalf of employees of a retailer who has contracted to manage a service recipient's property or business premises and renders management services described in subparagraph (I) or (J) of subdivision (37) of this subsection, provided, the employees perform such services solely for the service recipient at its property or business premises and "sales price" shall include the separately stated compensation, fringe benefits, workers' compensation and payroll taxes or assessments paid to or on behalf of any employee of the retailer who is an officer, director or owner of more than five per cent of the outstanding capital stock of the retailer. Determination whether an employee performs services solely for a service recipient at its property or business premises for purposes of this subdivision shall be made by reference to such employee's activities during the time period beginning on the later of the commencement of the management contract, the date of the employee's first employment by the retailer or the date which is six months immediately preceding the date of such determination; (viii) the amount charged for separately stated compensation, fringe benefits, workers' compensation and payroll taxes or assessments paid to or on behalf of (I) a leased employee, or (II) a worksite employee by a professional employer organization pursuant to a professional employer agreement. For purposes of this subparagraph, an employee shall be treated as a leased employee if the employee is provided to the client at the commencement of an agreement with an employee leasing organization under which at least seventy-five per cent of the employees provided to the client at the commencement of such initial agreement qualify as leased employees pursuant to Section 414(n) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended, or the employee is added to the client's workforce by the employee leasing organization subsequent to the commencement of such initial agreement and qualifies as a leased employee pursuant to Section 414(n) of said Internal Revenue Code of 1986 without regard to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) thereof. A leased employee, or a worksite employee subject to a professional employer agreement, shall not include any employee who is hired by a temporary help service and assigned to support or supplement the workforce of a temporary help service's client; (ix) any amount received by a retailer from a purchaser as the battery deposit that is required to be paid under subsection (a) of section 22a-245h; the refund value of a beverage container that is required to be paid under subsection (a) of section 22a-244; or a deposit that is required by law to be paid by the purchaser to the retailer and that is required by law to be refunded to the purchaser by the retailer when the same or similar tangible personal property is delivered as required by law to the retailer by the purchaser, if such amount is separately stated on the bill or invoice rendered by the retailer to the purchaser; and (x) the amount charged for separately stated compensation, fringe benefits, workers' compensation and payroll taxes or assessments paid to a media payroll services company, as defined in this subsection.

      (9) (A) "Gross receipts" means the total amount of the sales price from retail sales of tangible personal property by a retailer, the total amount of the rent from transfers of occupancy of rooms by an operator, the total amount of the sales price from retail sales of any service described in subdivision (2) of this subsection by a retailer of services, or the total amount of payment or periodic payments from leases or rentals of tangible personal property by a retailer, valued in money, whether received in money or otherwise, which amount is due and owing to the retailer or operator and, subject to the provisions of subdivision (1) of section 12-408, whether or not actually received by the retailer or operator, without any deduction on account of any of the following: (i) The cost of the property sold; however, in accordance with such regulations as the Commissioner of Revenue Services may prescribe, a deduction may be taken if the retailer has purchased property for some other purpose than resale, has reimbursed the retailer's vendor for tax which the vendor is required to pay to the state or has paid the use tax with respect to the property, and has resold the property prior to making any use of the property other than retention, demonstration or display while holding it for sale in the regular course of business. If such a deduction is taken by the retailer, no refund or credit will be allowed to the retailer's vendor with respect to the sale of the property; (ii) the cost of the materials used, labor or service cost, interest paid, losses or any other expense; (iii) for any sale occurring on or after July 1, 1993, except for any item exempt from taxation pursuant to section 12-412, any charges by the retailer to the purchaser for shipping or delivery, notwithstanding whether such charges are separately stated in the written contract, or on a bill or invoice rendered to such purchaser or whether such shipping or delivery is provided by the retailer or a third party. The total amount of the sales price includes any services that are a part of the sale; all receipts, cash, credits and property of any kind; except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (B)(v) or (B)(vi) of this subdivision, any amount for which credit is allowed by the retailer to the purchaser; and all compensation and all employment-related expenses, whether or not separately stated, paid to or on behalf of employees of a retailer of any service described in subdivision (2) of this subsection.

      (B) "Gross receipts" do not include any of the following: (i) Cash discounts allowed and taken on sales; (ii) any portion of the sales price of property returned by purchasers, which upon rescission of the contract of sale is refunded either in cash or credit, provided the property is returned within ninety days from the date of sale; (iii) the amount of any tax, not including any manufacturers' or importers' excise tax, imposed by the United States upon or with respect to retail sales whether imposed upon the retailer or the purchaser; (iv) the amount charged for labor rendered in installing or applying the property sold, provided such charge is separately stated and exclusive of such charge for any service rendered within the purview of subparagraph (I) of subdivision (37) of this subsection; (v) unless the provisions of subdivision (4) of section 12-430 or of section 12-430a are applicable, any amount for which credit is given to the purchaser by the retailer, provided such credit is given solely for property of the same kind accepted in part payment by the retailer and intended by the retailer to be resold; (vi) the full face value of any coupon used by a purchaser to reduce the price paid to the retailer for an item of tangible personal property, whether or not the retailer will be reimbursed for such coupon, in whole or in part, by the manufacturer of the item of tangible personal property or by a third party; (vii) the amount charged for separately stated compensation, fringe benefits, workers' compensation and payroll taxes or assessments paid to or on behalf of employees of a retailer who has contracted to manage a service recipient's property or business premises and renders management services described in subparagraph (I) or (J) of subdivision (37) of this subsection, provided the employees perform such services solely for the service recipient at its property or business premises and "gross receipts" shall include the separately stated compensation, fringe benefits, workers' compensation and payroll taxes or assessments paid to or on behalf of any employee of the retailer who is an officer, director or owner of more than five per cent of the outstanding capital stock of the retailer. Determination whether an employee performs services solely for a service recipient at its property or business premises for purposes of this subdivision shall be made by reference to such employee's activities during the time period beginning on the later of the commencement of the management contract, the date of the employee's first employment by the retailer or the date which is six months immediately preceding the date of such determination; (viii) the amount charged for separately stated compensation, fringe benefits, workers' compensation and payroll taxes or assessments paid to or on behalf of (I) a leased employee, or (II) a worksite employee by a professional employer organization pursuant to a professional employer agreement. For purposes of this subparagraph, an employee shall be treated as a leased employee if the employee is provided to the client at the commencement of an agreement with an employee leasing organization under which at least seventy-five per cent of the employees provided to the client at the commencement of such initial agreement qualify as leased employees pursuant to Section 414(n) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended, or the employee is added to the client's workforce by the employee leasing organization subsequent to the commencement of such initial agreement and qualifies as a leased employee pursuant to Section 414(n) of said Internal Revenue Code of 1986 without regard to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) thereof. A leased employee, or a worksite employee subject to a professional employer agreement, shall not include any employee who is hired by a temporary help service and assigned to support or supplement the workforce of a temporary help service's client; (ix) the amount received by a retailer from a purchaser as the battery deposit that is required to be paid under subsection (a) of section 22a-256h; the refund value of a beverage container that is required to be paid under subsection (a) of section 22a-244 or a deposit that is required by law to be paid by the purchaser to the retailer and that is required by law to be refunded to the purchaser by the retailer when the same or similar tangible personal property is delivered as required by law to the retailer by the purchaser, if such amount is separately stated on the bill or invoice rendered by the retailer to the purchaser; and (x) the amount charged for separately stated compensation, fringe benefits, workers' compensation and payroll taxes or assessments paid to a media payroll services company, as defined in this subsection.

      (10) "Business" includes any activity engaged in by any person or caused to be engaged in by any person with the object of gain, benefit or advantage, either direct or indirect.

      (11) "Seller" includes every person engaged in the business of selling tangible personal property or rendering any service described in any of the subparagraphs of subdivision (2) of this subsection, the gross receipts from the retail sale of which are required to be included in the measure of the sales tax and every operator as defined in subdivision (18) of this subsection.

      (12) "Retailer" includes: (A) Every person engaged in the business of making sales at retail or in the business of making retail sales at auction of tangible personal property owned by the person or others; (B) every person engaged in the business of making sales for storage, use or other consumption or in the business of making sales at auction of tangible personal property owned by the person or others for storage, use or other consumption; (C) every operator, as defined in subdivision (18) of this subsection; (D) every seller rendering any service described in subdivision (2) of this subsection; (E) every person under whom any salesman, representative, peddler or canvasser operates in this state, or from whom such salesman, representative, peddler or canvasser obtains the tangible personal property that is sold; (F) every person with whose assistance any seller is enabled to solicit orders within this state; (G) every person making retail sales from outside this state to a destination within this state and not maintaining a place of business in this state who engages in regular or systematic solicitation of sales of tangible personal property in this state (i) by the display of advertisements on billboards or other outdoor advertising in this state, (ii) by the distribution of catalogs, periodicals, advertising flyers or other advertising by means of print, radio or television media, or (iii) by mail, telegraphy, telephone, computer data base, cable, optic, microwave or other communication system, for the purpose of effecting retail sales of tangible personal property, provided such person has made one hundred or more retail sales from outside this state to destinations within this state during the twelve-month period ended on the September thirtieth immediately preceding the monthly or quarterly period with respect to which such person's liability for tax under this chapter is determined; (H) any person owned or controlled, either directly or indirectly, by a retailer engaged in business in this state which is the same as or similar to the line of business in which such person so owned or controlled is engaged; (I) any person owned or controlled, either directly or indirectly, by the same interests that own or control, either directly or indirectly, a retailer engaged in business in this state which is the same as or similar to the line of business in which such person so owned or controlled is engaged; (J) any assignee of a person engaged in the business of leasing tangible personal property to others, where leased property of such person which is subject to taxation under this chapter is situated within this state and such assignee has a security interest, as defined in subdivision (35) of subsection (b) of section 42a-1-201, in such property; (K) every person making retail sales of items of tangible personal property from outside this state to a destination within this state and not maintaining a place of business in this state who repairs or services such items, under a warranty, in this state, either directly or indirectly through an agent, independent contractor or subsidiary; and (L) every person making sales of tangible personal property or services through an agreement with another person located in this state under which such person located in this state, for a commission or other consideration that is based upon the sale of tangible personal property or services by the retailer, directly or indirectly refers potential customers, whether by a link on an Internet web site or otherwise, to the retailer, provided the cumulative gross receipts from sales by the retailer to customers in the state who are referred to the retailer by all such persons with this type of an agreement with the retailer, is in excess of two thousand dollars during the preceding four quarterly periods ending on the last day of March, June, September and December.

      (13) "Tangible personal property" means personal property which may be seen, weighed, measured, felt or touched or which is in any other manner perceptible to the senses including canned or prewritten computer software. Tangible personal property includes the distribution, generation or transmission of electricity.

      (14) "In this state" or "in the state" means within the exterior limits of the state of Connecticut and includes all territory within these limits owned by or ceded to the United States of America.

      (15) (A) "Engaged in business in the state" means and includes but shall not be limited to the following acts or methods of transacting business: (i) Selling in this state, or any activity in this state in connection with selling in this state, tangible personal property for use, storage or consumption within the state; (ii) engaging in the transfer for a consideration of the occupancy of any room or rooms in a hotel or lodging house for a period of thirty consecutive calendar days or less; (iii) rendering in this state any service described in any of the subparagraphs of subdivision (2) of this subsection; (iv) maintaining, occupying or using, permanently or temporarily, directly or indirectly, through a subsidiary or agent, by whatever name called, any office, place of distribution, sales or sample room or place, warehouse or storage point or other place of business or having any representative, agent, salesman, canvasser or solicitor operating in this state for the purpose of selling, delivering or taking orders; (v) notwithstanding the fact that retail sales are made from outside this state to a destination within this state and that a place of business is not maintained in this state, engaging in regular or systematic solicitation of sales of tangible personal property in this state by the display of advertisements on billboards or other outdoor advertising in this state, by the distribution of catalogs, periodicals, advertising flyers or other advertising by means of print, radio or television media, or by mail, telegraphy, telephone, computer data base, cable, optic, microwave or other communication system, for the purpose of effecting retail sales of tangible personal property, provided one hundred or more retail sales from outside this state to destinations within this state are made during the twelve-month period ended on the September thirtieth immediately preceding the monthly or quarterly period with respect to which liability for tax under this chapter is determined; (vi) being owned or controlled, either directly or indirectly, by a retailer engaged in business in this state which is the same as or similar to the line of business in which the retailer so owned or controlled is engaged; (vii) being owned or controlled, either directly or indirectly, by the same interests that own or control, either directly or indirectly, a retailer engaged in business in this state which is the same as or similar to the line of business in which the retailer so owned or controlled is engaged; (viii) being the assignee of a person engaged in the business of leasing tangible personal property to others, where leased property of such person is situated within this state and such assignee has a security interest, as defined in subdivision (35) of subsection (b) of section 42a-1-201, in such property; (ix) notwithstanding the fact that retail sales of items of tangible personal property are made from outside this state to a destination within this state and that a place of business is not maintained in this state, repairing or servicing such items, under a warranty, in this state, either directly or indirectly through an agent, independent contractor or subsidiary; and (x) selling tangible personal property or services through an agreement with a person located in this state, under which such person located in this state, for a commission or other consideration that is based upon the sale of tangible personal property or services by the retailer, directly or indirectly refers potential customers, whether by a link on an Internet web site or otherwise, to the retailer, provided the cumulative gross receipts from sales by the retailer to customers in the state who are referred to the retailer by all such persons with this type of agreement with the retailer is in excess of two thousand dollars during the four preceding four quarterly periods ending on the last day of March, June, September and December.

      (B) A retailer who has contracted with a commercial printer for printing and distribution of printed material shall not be deemed to be engaged in business in this state because of the ownership or leasing by the retailer of tangible or intangible personal property located at the premises of the commercial printer in this state, the sale by the retailer of property of any kind produced or processed at and shipped or distributed from the premises of the commercial printer in this state, the activities of the retailer's employees or agents at the premises of the commercial printer in this state, which activities relate to quality control, distribution or printing services performed by the printer, or the activities of any kind performed by the commercial printer in this state for or on behalf of the retailer.

      (C) A retailer not otherwise a retailer engaged in business in the state who purchases fulfillment services carried on in this state by a person other than an affiliated person, or who owns tangible personal property located on the premises of an unaffiliated person performing fulfillment services for such retailer shall not be deemed to be engaged in business in the state. For purposes of this subparagraph, persons are affiliated persons with respect to each other where one of such persons has an ownership interest of more than five per cent, whether direct or indirect, in the other, or where an ownership interest of more than five per cent, whether direct or indirect, is held in each of such persons by another person or by a group of other persons who are affiliated persons with respect to each other. For purposes of this subparagraph, "fulfillment services" means services that are performed by a person on its premises on behalf of a purchaser of such services and that involve the receipt of orders from the purchaser of such services or an agent thereof, which orders are to be filled by the person from an inventory of products that are offered for sale by the purchaser of such services, and the shipment of such orders to customers of the purchaser of such services.

      (D) A retailer not otherwise a retailer engaged in business in this state that participates in a trade show or shows at the convention center, as defined in subdivision (3) of section 32-600, shall not be deemed to be engaged in business in this state, regardless of whether the retailer has employees or other staff present at such trade shows, provided the retailer's activity at such trade shows is limited to displaying goods or promoting services, no sales are made, any orders received are sent outside this state for acceptance or rejection and are filled from outside this state, and provided further that such participation is not more than fourteen days, or part thereof, in the aggregate during the retailer's income year for federal income tax purposes.

      (16) "Hotel" means any building regularly used and kept open as such for the feeding and lodging of guests where any person who conducts himself properly and who is able and ready to pay for such services is received if there are accommodations for such person and which derives the major portion of its operating receipts from the renting of rooms and the sale of food. "Hotel" shall include any apartment hotel wherein apartments are rented for fixed periods of time, furnished or unfurnished, while the keeper of such hotel supplies food to the occupants thereof, if required.

      (17) "Lodging house" means any building or portion of a building, other than a hotel or apartment hotel, in which persons are lodged for hire with or without meals, including, but not limited to, any motel, motor court, motor inn, tourist court or similar accommodation; provided the terms "hotel", "apartment hotel" and "lodging house" shall not be construed to include: (A) Privately owned and operated convalescent homes, residential care homes, homes for the infirm, indigent or chronically ill; (B) religious or charitable homes for the aged, infirm, indigent or chronically ill; (C) privately owned and operated summer camps for children; (D) summer camps for children operated by religious or charitable organizations; (E) lodging accommodations at educational institutions; or (F) lodging accommodations at any facility operated by and in the name of any nonprofit charitable organization, provided the income from such lodging accommodations at such facility is not subject to federal income tax.

      (18) "Operator" means any person operating a hotel or lodging house in the state, including, but not limited to, the owner or proprietor of such premises, lessee, sublessee, mortgagee in possession, licensee or any other person otherwise operating such hotel or lodging house.

      (19) "Occupancy" means the use or possession, or the right to the use or possession, of any room or rooms in a hotel or lodging house or the right to the use or possession of the furnishings or the services and accommodations accompanying the use and possession of such room or rooms, for the first period of not exceeding thirty consecutive calendar days.

      (20) "Room" means any room or rooms of any kind in any part or portion of a hotel or lodging house let out for use or possession for lodging purposes.

      (21) "Rent" means the consideration received for occupancy valued in money, whether received in money or otherwise, including all receipts, cash, credits and property or services of any kind or nature, and also any amount for which credit is allowed by the operator to the occupant, without any deduction therefrom whatsoever.

      (22) "Certificated air carrier" means a person issued a certificate or certificates by the Federal Aviation Administration pursuant to Title 14, Chapter I, Subchapter G, Part 121, 135, 139 or 141 of the Code of Federal Regulations or the Civil Aeronautics Board pursuant to Title 14, Chapter II, Subchapter A, Parts 201 to 208, inclusive, and 298 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as such regulations may hereafter be amended or reclassified.

      (23) "Aircraft" means aircraft, as the term is defined in section 15-34.

      (24) "Vessel" means vessel, as the term is defined in section 15-127.

      (25) "Licensed marine dealer" means a marine dealer, as the term is defined in section 15-141, who has been issued a marine dealer's certificate by the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection.

      (26) (A) "Telecommunications service" means the electronic transmission, conveyance or routing of voice, image, data audio, video or any other information or signals to a point or between or among points. "Telecommunications service" includes such transmission, conveyance or routing in which computer processing applications are used to act on the form, code or protocol of the content for purposes of transmission, conveyance or routing without regard to whether such service is referred to as a voice over Internet protocol service or is classified by the Federal Communications Commission as enhanced or value added. "Telecommunications service" does not include (i) value-added nonvoice data services, (ii) radio and television audio and video programming services, regardless of the medium, including the furnishing of transmission, conveyance or routing of such services by the programming service provider. Radio and television audio and video programming services shall include, but not be limited to, cable service as defined in 47 USC 522(6), audio and video programming services delivered by commercial mobile radio service providers, as defined in 47 CFR 20, and video programming service by certified competitive video service providers, (iii) any telecommunications service (I) rendered by a company in control of such service when rendered for private use within its organization, or (II) used, allocated or distributed by a company within its organization, including in such organization affiliates, as defined in section 33-840, for the purpose of conducting business transactions of the organization if such service is purchased or leased from a company rendering telecommunications service and such purchase or lease is subject to tax under this chapter, (iv) access or interconnection service purchased by a provider of telecommunications service from another provider of such service for purposes of rendering such service, provided the purchaser submits to the seller a certificate attesting to the applicability of this exclusion, upon receipt of which the seller is relieved of any tax liability for such sale so long as the certificate is taken in good faith by the seller, (v) data processing and information services that allow data to be generated, acquired, stored, processed or retrieved and delivered by an electronic transmission to a purchaser where such purchaser's primary purpose for the underlying transaction is the processed data or information, (vi) installation or maintenance of wiring equipment on a customer's premises, (vii) tangible personal property, (viii) advertising, including, but not limited to, directory advertising, (ix) billing and collection services provided to third parties, (x) Internet access service, (xi) ancillary services, and (xii) digital products delivered electronically, including, but not limited to, software, music, video, reading materials or ring tones.

      (B) For purposes of the tax imposed under this chapter (i) gross receipts from the rendering of telecommunications service shall include any subscriber line charge or charges as required by the Federal Communications Commission and any charges for access service collected by any person rendering such service unless otherwise excluded from such gross receipts under this chapter, and such gross receipts from the rendering of telecommunications service shall also include any charges for vertical service, for the installation or maintenance of wiring equipment on a customer's premises, and for directory assistance service; (ii) gross receipts from the rendering of telecommunications service shall not include any local charge for calls from public or semipublic telephones; and (iii) gross receipts from the rendering of telecommunications service shall not include any charge for calls purchased using a prepaid telephone calling service, as defined in subdivision (34) of this subsection.

      (27) "Community antenna television service" means (A) the one-way transmission to subscribers of video programming or information by cable, fiber optics, satellite, microwave or any other means, and subscriber interaction, if any, which is required for the selection of such video programming or information, and (B) noncable communications service, as defined in section 16-1, unless such noncable communications service is purchased by a cable network as that term is used in subsection (l) of section 12-218.

      (28) "Hospital" means a hospital included within the definition of health care facilities or institutions under section 19a-630 and licensed as a short-term general hospital by the Department of Public Health, but does not include (A) any hospital which, on January 30, 1997, is within the class of hospitals licensed by the department as children's general hospitals, or (B) a short-term acute hospital operated exclusively by the state other than a short-term acute hospital operated by the state as a receiver pursuant to chapter 920.

      (29) "Patient care services" means therapeutic and diagnostic medical services provided by the hospital to inpatients and outpatients including tangible personal property transferred in connection with such services.

      (30) "Another state" or "other state" means any state of the United States or the District of Columbia excluding the state of Connecticut.

      (31) "Professional employer agreement" means a written contract between a professional employer organization and a service recipient whereby the professional employer organization agrees to provide at least seventy-five per cent of the employees at the service recipient's worksite, which contract provides that such worksite employees are intended to be permanent employees rather than temporary employees, and employer responsibilities for such worksite employees, including hiring, firing and disciplining, are allocated between the professional employer organization and the service recipient.

      (32) "Professional employer organization" means any person that enters into a professional employer agreement with a service recipient whereby the professional employer organization agrees to provide at least seventy-five per cent of the employees at the service recipient's worksite.

      (33) "Worksite employee" means an employee, the employer responsibilities for which, including hiring, firing and disciplining, are allocated, under a professional employer agreement, between a professional employer organization and a service recipient.

      (34) "Prepaid telephone calling service" means the right to exclusively purchase telecommunications service, that must be paid for in advance and that enables the origination of calls using an access number or authorization code, or both, whether manually or electronically dialed, provided the remaining amount of units of service that have been prepaid shall be known on a continuous basis.

      (35) "Canned or prewritten software" means all software, other than custom software, that is held or existing for general or repeated sale, license or lease. Software initially developed as custom software for in-house use and subsequently sold, licensed or leased to unrelated third parties shall be considered canned or prewritten software.

      (36) "Custom software" means a computer program prepared to the special order of a single customer.

      (37) "Services" for purposes of subdivision (2) of this subsection, means:

      (A) Computer and data processing services, including, but not limited to, time, programming, code writing, modification of existing programs, feasibility studies and installation and implementation of software programs and systems even where such services are rendered in connection with the development, creation or production of canned or custom software or the license of custom software, and exclusive of services rendered in connection with the creation, development hosting or maintenance of all or part of a web site which is part of the graphical, hypertext portion of the Internet, commonly referred to as the World Wide Web;

      (B) Credit information and reporting services;

      (C) Services by employment agencies and agencies providing personnel services;

      (D) Private investigation, protection, patrol work, watchman and armored car services, exclusive of (i) services of off-duty police officers and off-duty firefighters, and (ii) coin and currency services provided to a financial services company by or through another financial services company. For purposes of this subparagraph, "financial services company" has the same meaning as provided under subparagraphs (A) to (H), inclusive, of subdivision (6) of subsection (a) of section 12-218b;

      (E) Painting and lettering services;

      (F) Photographic studio services;

      (G) Telephone answering services;

      (H) Stenographic services;

      (I) Services to industrial, commercial or income-producing real property, including, but not limited to, such services as management, electrical, plumbing, painting and carpentry, provided income-producing property shall not include property used exclusively for residential purposes in which the owner resides and which contains no more than three dwelling units, or a housing facility for low and moderate income families and persons owned or operated by a nonprofit housing organization, as defined in subdivision (29) of section 12-412;

      (J) Business analysis, management, management consulting and public relations services, excluding (i) any environmental consulting services, (ii) any training services provided by an institution of higher education licensed or accredited by the Board of Regents for Higher Education pursuant to section 10a-34, and (iii) on and after January 1, 1994, any business analysis, management, management consulting and public relations services when such services are rendered in connection with an aircraft leased or owned by a certificated air carrier or in connection with an aircraft which has a maximum certificated take-off weight of six thousand pounds or more;

      (K) Services providing "piped-in" music to business or professional establishments;

      (L) Flight instruction and chartering services by a certificated air carrier on an aircraft, the use of which for such purposes, but for the provisions of subdivision (4) of section 12-410 and subdivision (12) of section 12-411, would be deemed a retail sale and a taxable storage or use, respectively, of such aircraft by such carrier;

      (M) Motor vehicle repair services, including any type of repair, painting or replacement related to the body or any of the operating parts of a motor vehicle;

      (N) Motor vehicle parking, including the provision of space, other than metered space, in a lot having thirty or more spaces, excluding (i) space in a seasonal parking lot provided by a person who is exempt from taxation under this chapter pursuant to subdivision (1), (5) or (8) of section 12-412, (ii) space in a parking lot owned or leased under the terms of a lease of not less than ten years' duration and operated by an employer for the exclusive use of its employees, and (iii) space in municipally-operated railroad parking facilities in municipalities located within an area of the state designated as a severe nonattainment area for ozone under the federal Clean Air Act or space in a railroad parking facility in a municipality located within an area of the state designated as a severe nonattainment area for ozone under the federal Clean Air Act owned or operated by the state on or after April 1, 2000;

      (O) Radio or television repair services;

      (P) Furniture reupholstering and repair services;

      (Q) Repair services to any electrical or electronic device, including, but not limited to, equipment used for purposes of refrigeration or air-conditioning;

      (R) Lobbying or consulting services for purposes of representing the interests of a client in relation to the functions of any governmental entity or instrumentality;

      (S) Services of the agent of any person in relation to the sale of any item of tangible personal property for such person, exclusive of the services of a consignee selling works of art, as defined in subsection (b) of section 12-376c, or articles of clothing or footwear intended to be worn on or about the human body other than (i) any special clothing or footwear primarily designed for athletic activity or protective use and which is not normally worn except when used for the athletic activity or protective use for which it was designed, and (ii) jewelry, handbags, luggage, umbrellas, wallets, watches and similar items carried on or about the human body but not worn on the body, under consignment, exclusive of services provided by an auctioneer;

      (T) Locksmith services;

      (U) Advertising or public relations services, including layout, art direction, graphic design, mechanical preparation or production supervision, not related to the development of media advertising or cooperative direct mail advertising;

      (V) Landscaping and horticulture services;

      (W) Window cleaning services;

      (X) Maintenance services;

      (Y) Janitorial services;

      (Z) Exterminating services;

      (AA) Swimming pool cleaning and maintenance services;

      (BB) Miscellaneous personal services included in industry group 729 in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, United States Office of Management and Budget, 1987 edition, or U.S. industry 532220, 812191, 812199 or 812990 in the North American Industrial Classification System United States Manual, United States Office of Management and Budget, 1997 edition, exclusive of (i) services rendered by massage therapists licensed pursuant to chapter 384a, and (ii) services rendered by an electrologist licensed pursuant to chapter 388;

      (CC) Any repair or maintenance service to any item of tangible personal property including any contract of warranty or service related to any such item;

      (DD) Business analysis, management or managing consulting services rendered by a general partner, or an affiliate thereof, to a limited partnership, provided (i) the general partner, or an affiliate thereof, is compensated for the rendition of such services other than through a distributive share of partnership profits or an annual percentage of partnership capital or assets established in the limited partnership's offering statement, and (ii) the general partner, or an affiliate thereof, offers such services to others, including any other partnership. As used in this subparagraph "an affiliate of a general partner" means an entity which is directly or indirectly owned fifty per cent or more in common with a general partner;

      (EE) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 12-412, except subdivision (87) of said section 12-412, patient care services, as defined in subdivision (29) of this subsection by a hospital, except that "sale" and "selling" does not include such patient care services for which payment is received by the hospital during the period commencing July 1, 2001, and ending June 30, 2003;

      (FF) Health and athletic club services, exclusive of (i) any such services provided without any additional charge which are included in any dues or initiation fees paid to any such club, which dues or fees are subject to tax under section 12-543, and (ii) any such services provided by a municipality or an organization that is described in Section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended;

      (GG) Motor vehicle storage services, including storage of motor homes, campers and camp trailers, other than the furnishing of space as described in subparagraph (P) of subdivision (2) of this subsection;

      (HH) Packing and crating services, other than those provided in connection with the sale of tangible personal property by the retailer of such property;

      (II) Motor vehicle towing and road services, other than motor vehicle repair services;

      (JJ) Intrastate transportation services provided by livery services, including limousines, community cars or vans, with a driver. Intrastate transportation services shall not include transportation by taxicab, motor bus, ambulance or ambulette, scheduled public transportation, nonemergency medical transportation provided under the Medicaid program, paratransit services provided by agreement or arrangement with the state or any political subdivision of the state, dial-a-ride services or services provided in connection with funerals;

      (KK) Pet grooming and pet boarding services, except if such services are provided as an integral part of professional veterinary services, and pet obedience services;

      (LL) Services in connection with a cosmetic medical procedure. For purposes of this subparagraph, "cosmetic medical procedure" means any medical procedure performed on an individual that is directed at improving the individual's appearance and that does not meaningfully promote the proper function of the body or prevent or treat illness or disease. "Cosmetic medical procedure" includes, but is not limited, to cosmetic surgery, hair transplants, cosmetic injections, cosmetic soft tissue fillers, dermabrasion and chemical peel, laser hair removal, laser skin resurfacing, laser treatment of leg veins, and sclerotherapy. "Cosmetic medical procedure" does not include reconstructive surgery. "Reconstructive surgery" includes any surgery performed on abnormal structures caused by or related to congenital defects, developmental abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors or disease, including procedures to improve function or give a more normal appearance;

      (MM) Manicure services, pedicure services and all other nail services, regardless of where performed, including airbrushing, fills, full sets, nail sculpting, paraffin treatments and polishes;

      (NN) Spa services, regardless of where performed, including body waxing and wraps, peels, scrubs and facials.

      (38) "Media payroll services company" means a retailer whose principal business activity is the management and payment of compensation, fringe benefits, workers' compensation, payroll taxes or assessments to individuals providing services to an eligible production company pursuant to section 12-217jj.

      (39) "Certified competitive video service" means video programming service provided through wireline facilities, a portion of which are located in the public right-of-way, without regard to delivery technology, including Internet protocol technology. "Certified competitive video service" does not include any video programming provided by a commercial mobile service provider, as defined in 47 USC 332(d); any video programming provided as part of community antenna television service; any video programming provided as part of, and via, a service that enables users to access content, information, electronic mail or other services over the Internet.

      (40) "Directory assistance" means an ancillary service of providing telephone number information or address information.

      (41) "Vertical service" means an ancillary service that is offered in connection with one or more telecommunications services, offering advanced calling features that allow customers to identify callers and to manage multiple calls and call connections, including conference bridging services.

      (b) Wherever in this chapter reference is made to the sale of tangible personal property or services, it shall be construed to include sales described in subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section, except as may be specifically provided to the contrary.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2091; June, 1955, S. 1162d; 1957, P.A. 472; September, 1957, P.A. 17, S. 1; March, 1958, P.A. 27, S. 19; 1959, P.A. 578, S. 1-9; February, 1965, P.A. 381, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 205; June, 1971, P.A. 8, S. 2; 1972, P.A. 267; P.A. 73-442, S. 6; P.A. 75-213, S. 15-22, 53; 75-567, S. 46, 67, 80; P.A. 76-114, S. 2, 21; 76-372, S. 1-3; P.A. 77-395, S. 1, 3; 77-604, S. 74, 75, 84; 77-614, S. 139, 610; P.A. 79-584, S. 1, 2; P.A. 82-48, S. 1, 2; P.A. 83-541, S. 1, 2; P.A. 84-507, S. 2, 4; P.A. 85-240, S. 1, 2, 6; 85-513, S. 1, 3; P.A. 86-397, S. 7, 10; P.A. 87-1, S. 5, 7; 87-340, S. 1, 2; P.A. 88-6, S. 1, 2; P.A. 89-41, S. 1, 2, 6; 89-123, S. 1-3; 89-251, S. 1, 2, 203; P.A. 90-148, S. 31, 34; 90-186, S. 1, 3; 90-295, S. 1, 2, 5; P.A. 91-132, S. 1, 2, 4; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 103-108, 168; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-14, S. 26, 30; P.A. 92-184, S. 9-13, 19; 92-202, S. 4; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-17, S. 17-24, 59; P.A. 93-44, S. 1, 2, 20, 21, 24; 93-74, S. 17-21, 23, 24, 67; 93-332, S. 1, 7, 25, 26, 28; 93-381, S. 9, 39; 93-435, S. 59, 95; P.A. 94-9, S. 14, 15, 20, 41; 94-175, S. 22, 23, 25, 32; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 13-15, 80, 85; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 126, 127, 130; P.A. 95-79, S. 31, 189; 95-160, S. 48, 49, 64, 69; 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 96-104, S. 2-4; 96-139, S. 12, 13; 96-165, S. 1, 2, 9; 96-222, S. 7, 41; 96-271, S. 159, 254; P.A. 97-2, S. 3, 8; 97-112, S. 2, 4; 97-243, S. 12-16, 67; 97-316, S. 6, 7, 11; P.A. 98-28, S. 116, 117; 98-110, S. 5, 27; 98-244, S. 15, 16, 35; Dec. Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 29, 43; P.A. 99-173, S. 10-12, 65; 99-285, S. 10, 12; P.A. 00-170, S. 17, 18, 42; 00-174, S. 1-3, 69, 71-73, 83; 00-196, S. 3, 66; 00-227, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 00-1, S. 27, 46; P.A. 01-109, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-6, S. 1, 85; P.A. 02-3, S. 1; 02-103, S. 1; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1, S. 65-68; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-4, S. 13-16; P.A. 03-2, S. 27; 03-278, S. 28, 29; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 97; P.A. 04-136, S. 44; P.A. 05-109, S. 45, 46; 05-260, S. 5; P.A. 06-187, S. 81; P.A. 07-236, S. 7-9; 07-253, S. 30-32; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-5, S. 8; P.A. 11-6, S. 88-92, 128; 11-48, S. 285; 11-61, S. 40, 41, 46, 47, 185; 11-80, S. 1.)

      History: 1959 act added Subdiv. (2)(h), added provisions for transferring room occupancy in Subsecs. (3), (7) and (15), included rent received in "sales price" and "gross receipts," included operators as "sellers" and "retailers" and added Subsecs. (16) to (21); 1965 act included in definition of "retailer" persons soliciting orders through catalogs or advertising circulars; 1971 acts substituted "or" for "and" between Subsec. (15)(a) and (b) and redefined "sale" and "selling" in Subsec. (2) by removing exception in Subdiv. (g) for tangible personal property consisting of original visualization or design and by adding Subdiv. (i) re sales of utilities; 1972 act redefined "purchase" in Subsec. (7) by removing exception in Subdiv. (c) for tangible personal property consisting of original visualization or design; P.A. 73-442 redefined "person" in Subsec. (1) to include foreign municipal electric utilities; P.A. 75-213 amended Subsec. (2)(i) to delete telephone, telegraph, community antenna television and cable services and water, gas or electricity sales and to add Subdivs. (j) and (k) and amended Subsecs. (3), (7), (8), (9), (11), (12) and (15) to reflect amendments in Subsec. (2); P.A. 75-567 clarified Subsec. (8) by specifying applicability to services "rendered on or after July 1, 1975," and including total amount of payment or periodic payments "received for leasing or rental of tangible personal property for the term of any such lease or rental occurring on or after July 1, 1975" and amended Subsec. (9) to specify services, leases or rentals occurring on July 1, 1975, as well as after that date; P.A. 76-114 amended Subsec. (2)(j)(K) to specify applicability to real property and to specifically exclude renovation services if cost is capitalized for federal income tax purposes; P.A. 76-372 added Subdivs. (e) in both Subsecs. (8) and (9) including charges for labor "in installing or applying the property sold" in definitions of "sales price" and "gross receipts"; P.A. 77-395 deleted Subdiv. (i) re sale of steam, coolants and atomic power in Subsec. (2), relettering remaining Subdivs. accordingly, effective June 20, 1977, and applicable to any sale or furnishing of steam on or after March 1, 1974; P.A. 77-604 made technical changes in Subsecs. (8) and (9); P.A. 77-614 substituted commissioner of revenue services for tax commissioner, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-584 included as tangible personal property in Subdivs. (c) and (g) of Subsec. (2) computer programming, sign construction, photofinishing, duplicating and copying and deleted references to those services in Subdiv. (i) relettering Subparas. as necessary; P.A. 82-48 amended Subsec. (12) to provide that "retailer" includes anyone from whom a sales representative obtains property sold or anyone assisting a sales representative in solicitation of orders and that such "retailer" and sales representative shall be deemed to be principal and agent, respectively, for purposes of sales tax, deleting former Subsecs. (d) and (e); P.A. 83-541 amended Subsecs. (8) and (9) to provide that "sales price" and "gross receipts" as used therein do not include any portion of the amount charged which is refunded upon rescission of sale, and accordingly, the refund includes tax collected on the amount refunded, effective July 1, 1983, and applicable to any refund of the amount charged upon rescission on or after said date; P.A. 84-507 amended Subsec. (2)(i) to exempt from the definition of "sale" or "selling" services rendered for the voluntary containing or removing of hazardous waste; P.A. 85-240 added Subsec. (2)(M) re flight instruction and chartering services by a certificated air carrier to the list of services subject to sales tax under Subsec. (2)(i) and added editorially Subsec. (22) defining "certificated air carrier"; P.A. 85-513 amended Subsec. (2)(j) to provide that the lease or rental of any motion picture film by the owner of a theater shall not constitute a sale subject to tax as in the case of other tangible personal property so leased or rented, effective July 1, 1985, and applicable to contracts of lease or rental of motion picture films becoming effective on or after July 1, 1985; P.A. 86-397 amended Subsec. (2) by eliminating "commercial and industrial marketing, development, testing and research services" under Subdiv. (i), subject to sales tax under Sec. 12-408(1), effective June 11, 1986, and applicable to sales of certain services occurring on or after July 1, 1986; P.A. 87-1 made technical corrections; P.A. 87-340 amended Subsec. (2) to delete collection agencies from the list of taxable services, effective July 1, 1987, and applicable to services performed by collection agencies on or after that date; P.A. 88-6 amended Subsec. (2) by substituting "aircraft" for "airplane" wherever the latter word appears, and added Subsec. (23) defining "aircraft"; P.A. 89-41 amended Subsec. (12)(e) by deleting description of every dealer, distributor or employer in any sale as the principal and any salesman, representative, peddler or canvasser operating under such dealer, distributor or employer in such sale as the agent and the related reference to their joint and several liability for payment of the tax, and by adding Subdivs. (f) and (g) describing the conditions under which a person making sales from outside the state to within the state, and not maintaining a place of business in this state, shall be considered a retailer and liable for tax and added Subsec. (15)(e) providing that retail sales from outside this state, when the seller does not maintain a place of business in this state and when such sales are effected by the methods described, shall be considered as engaging in business in this state, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to sales from outside this state to destinations in this state on or after that date; P.A. 89-123 amended Subsecs. (8) and (9) by changing the reference to Subpara. (K) to Subpara. (I) under Subdiv. (e) in both cases, which is the correct reference under the meaning of said Subdiv. (e), and added new Subsecs. defining "vessel" and "licensed marine dealer", respectively, as they are used in provisions related to sales and use taxes; P.A. 89-251 amended Subsec. (2)(i) as follows: (1) Added architectural, building engineering and planning or design as services subject to tax, (2) under services to income-producing real property in Subpara. (I), removed maintenance, janitorial and landscaping services because of their inclusion as services subject to tax when rendered with respect to any real property under Subparas. (Z), (AA) and (X) respectively, and removed the exclusion from tax for services rendered in a renovation when the cost is capitalized for federal income tax purposes, (3) in Subpara. (J), added consulting and public relations services and (4) added the services listed in Subparas. (M) to (DD), inclusive, as services to be considered as sales and subject to tax, added Subsec. (2)(k) providing that telecommunications service shall be considered a sale and subject to sales tax when rendered on or after January 1, 1990, and (2)(l) providing that community antenna television service shall be considered a sale and subject to sales tax when rendered on or after January 1, 1990 and added new Subsecs. defining "telecommunications service" and "community antenna television service", respectively; P.A. 90-148 amended Subsec. (2) by changing the description of the service under Subdiv. (i)(J) so that "consulting and public relations services" are described as "management consulting and public relations services", which accordingly constitute a sale subject to tax and by providing that the services of an agent described under Subdiv. (i)(U), as constituting a sale and accordingly subject to tax, shall not include services of a consignee selling works of art or articles of clothing, except certain athletic or protective clothing or handbags, luggage, jewelry and similar items, effective July 1, 1990, and applicable to sales of services on or after that date; P.A. 90-186 added Subsec. (17)(f) describing lodging accommodations at any facility operated by a nonprofit charitable organization as a facility with respect to which charges for occupancy are not subject to sales tax; P.A. 90-295 added Subsec. (12)(h) and (i) defining as a retailer for purposes of sales tax, any person owned or controlled by a retailer in Connecticut engaged in the same line of business, or owned or controlled by the same interests that own or control such a retailer in Connecticut, and added Subsec. (15)(f) and (g) defining "engaged in business in this state" as including a retailer owned or controlled by a retailer in the same line of business and engaged in business in Connecticut or a retailer owned or controlled by the same interests that own or control a retailer in the same line of business and engaged in business in Connecticut, effective July 1, 1990, and applicable to retail sales from outside Connecticut to a destination within the state occurring on or after that date; P.A. 91-132 redefined "retailer" and "engaged in business in the state" to include Subdivs. (j) and (h), respectively, concerning assignees of persons engaged in the business of leasing tangible personal property, effective July 1, 1991, and applicable to all assignments occurring on or after that date; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3 redefined "sale" and "selling" as follows: (1) Deleted architectural, building engineering and planning or design services, including interior design and decorating services, (2) expanded motor vehicle repair services to all repairs, (3) clarified the scope of motor vehicle parking and car wash services, (4) excluded cooperative direct mail advertising from advertising and public relations services, (5) excluded landscape services provided by a licensed landscape architect, (6) extended repair and maintenance services to include contracts of warranty or service, and (7) included photographic studio services, certain renovation and repair services, amusement and recreation services, miscellaneous personal services and tax preparation services, added Subdivs. (m), re the rendering of transportation services, and (n), re the storage or mooring of vessels, to Subsec. (2) redefined "sales price" and "gross receipts" to exclude a portion of the payments made for the services of leased employees, redefined "occupancy" to include the first period of not exceeding 30 consecutive calendar days, redefined "telecommunications service" to remove the exclusion for charges specifically related to a service or the sale of a product that is not a telecommunications service and added Subsec. (28) defining "transportation services", effective August 22, 1991, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1991; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-14 amended Subsec. (2)(n), defining "sale" and "selling" to limit its application to noncommercial vessels; P.A. 92-184 inserted "or space in a campground" in Subsecs. (2)(h), (3), (7)(a), (15)(b) and (19) and inserted "or a campground" in Subsec. (18), effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 92-202 amended Subsec. (2)(i)(FF) to exempt services of licensed massage therapists; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-17 (1) in Sec. 17 amended Subsec. (2)(i)(W) to delete exception re media advertising subject to taxation under Subdiv. (N) and amended Subsec. (2)(i)(EE) to exclude services rendered in a facility owned or managed by governmental entity from the definition of amusement and recreation services, effective June 19, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1991; (2) in Sec. 18 amended Subsec. (2)(i)(N) to exclude certain parking services rendered to employees, amended Subsec. (2)(i)(S) to replace land surveying services with tax preparation services which was previously numbered Subsec. (2)(i)(GG), amended Subsec. (2)(i)(W) by deleting exception for media advertising subject to taxation under Subdiv. (n), amended Subsec. (2)(i)(X) to include landscaping services provided by a licensed landscape architect, amended Subsec. (2)(i)(EE) to make the following changes with regard to amusement and recreation services: (1) Exclude dance lessons, (2) include services offered by a governmental entity which entitle the patron to participate in an athletic or sporting activity, other than swimming, which is not organized exclusively for patrons under the age of 19, and (3) exclude any service provided without additional charge for which a charge subject to the admissions or dues tax is paid, amended Subsec. (2)(i)(FF) to exclude services rendered by licensed massage therapist, effective June 19, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1992; (3) in Sec. 19 further amended Subdiv. (2)(i)(EE) to remove exclusion for swimming, effective June 19, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1993, (4) in Secs. 20, 21, 22 and 23 amended Subsecs. (8) and (9) to provide for the total exclusion of separately stated compensation under Subdiv. (f) and to remove the limitation with regard to the performance of only repair, maintenance and other routine services to real property, applicable to sales occurring on or after January 1, 1986, and to provide for the specific inclusion of compensation and employment related expenses, applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1992, and (5) in Sec. 24 amended Subsec. (28) to set forth as a test for inclusion that the person must be required to be licensed by the department of transportation or the Interstate Commerce Commission and to exclude any person causing to be operated a commercial motor vehicle, effective June 19, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1992; P.A. 93-44 added Subsec. (2)(o) re hospital charges and added Subsec. (29) defining "hospital", effective April 23, 1993; P.A. 93-74 amended Subdivs. (2), (3), (7), (15), (18) and (19) to exclude space in a campground, effective May 19, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on and after July 1, 1993, and further amended Subdiv. (2)(h) to delete reference to campground spaces, amended Subdiv. (2)(i)(N) to remove exclusion for car-washing services and to add exclusion for valet parking provided at any airport, Subdiv. (2)(i)(U) to include motor vehicles sold at auction to wholesalers, deleted Subdiv. (2)(i)(EE) re amusements and recreation services and relettered the remaining Subdiv. accordingly and Subsec. (2)(n) excluding certain dry or wet storage or mooring of noncommercial vessels, effective May 19, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on and after January 1, 1994, and amended Subdiv. (2)(i)(S) excluding tax preparation services provided for a business, corporation, partnership and business schedules, effective May 19, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on and after January 1, 1995; P.A. 93-332 amended Subsec. (2) defining "sale" or "selling" to include business analysis, management or managing consulting services rendered by a general partner to a limited partnership, effective June 25, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on or after January 1, 1994, and amended Subsec. (8) and (9) defining "sale price" and "gross receipts" to provide for the inclusion of shipping and delivery charges, deleting prior provisions which had distinguished between transportation costs before and after purchase of property, and to provide for the exclusion of separately stated compensation, fringe benefits, workers' compensation and payroll taxes under Subdiv. (f), effective June 25, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1993, and amended Subsec. (19) defining "occupancy" to exclude space in a campground, effective June 25, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on and after July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-381 and 93-435 authorized substitution of department of public health and addiction services for department of health services in Subsec. (29), effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-9 added Subsec. (2)(i)(HH) re patient care services by a hospital and deleted Subsec. (2)(o) re hospital charges for patient care services, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable to sales on and after that date and also added new Subsec. (30) re patient care services, effective April 1, 1994; P.A. 94-175 amended Subsec. (2)(i)(HH) to add exception re Sec. 12-412(86) and redefined "patient care services" in Subsec. (30) to include tangible personal property, effective June 2, 1994, and applicable to sales on and after April 1, 1994; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 13, in Subsec. (2)(i)(I) excluded the evaluation, prevention, treatment, containment or removal of hazardous waste or other contaminants of air, water or soil and in Subsec. (2)(i)(J) excluded environmental consulting services, effective June 9, 1994, and applicable to income years occurring on or after July 1, 1989; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 14 deleted Subsec. (2)(i)(R) re tax on health and athletic club services and relettered remaining Subparas. accordingly, and in Subsec. (2)(i)(EE) excluded certain compensation to general partners or affiliates thereof, effective January 1, 1995, and applicable to sales occurring on or after said date; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 15, deleted Subsec. (2)(i)(S) re tax on tax preparation services and relettered the remaining Subparas. accordingly, and in Subsec. (2)(i)(R)(ii) expanded exclusion to include all services provided by an auctioneer, effective July 1, 1996, and applicable to sales occurring on or after said date, and relettered remaining Subparas. accordingly; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 80 changed effective date of P.A. 94-175, S. 23 from June 2, 1994, to January 1, 1995, effective June 9, 1994; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 126 and 127 in Subdiv. (2) made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995, and July 1, 1996, respectively, and applicable to sales occurring on or after said dates; P.A. 95-79 redefined "person" to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 95-160, S. 48 added new Subdiv. (2)(R) re tax preparation services, relettered the remaining Subparas., deleted exclusive of services provided by an auctioneer, and made technical correction to change reference to Subsec. (86) to (87) of Sec. 12-412, effective July 1, 1996, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 95-160, S. 49 amended Subpara. (D) to exclude services of off-duty police officers at construction sites, added new Subpara. (N)(iv) re space in municipally-operated railroad parking facilities in severe nonattainment areas for ozone, deleted Subpara. (R) re tax preparation services and relettered the remaining Subparas., added exclusion re services of an auctioneer, added new Subpara. (CC)(ii) re services of a hypertrichologist, effective July 1, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date (Revisor's note: P.A. 95-160 also revised effective date of May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 but without affecting this section); P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-104 made existing Subdiv. (6), Subpara. (A) and added Subpara. (B) re property acquired by a customer of a commercial printer and amended Subdiv. (15) by adding exclusion re retailers who contract with a commercial printer and made technical corrections, effective July 1, 1996, and applicable to sales occurring on or after said date; P.A. 96-139 changed effective date of P.A. 95-160 but without affecting this section; P.A. 96-165 removed from the definition of "sale" and "selling" in Subsec. (2) the provisions of Subdiv. (m) re the rendering of transportation service, relettering the remaining Subdiv. accordingly and eliminated the definition of "transportation service" in Subsec. (28), renumbering the remaining Subsecs. accordingly, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 96-222 amended definition of "transportation service" to insert "or its successor agency" after "Interstate Commerce Commission", effective July 1, 1996, but failed to take effect, that definition having been deleted by P.A. 96-165; P.A. 96-271 amended definition of "telecommunications service" in Subsec. (26) to replace reference to Sec. 33-374a with Sec. 33-840, effective January 1, 1997; P.A. 97-2 amended Subdiv. (28) to exclude children's general hospitals effective January 30, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after February 1, 1997; P.A. 97-112 amended Subdiv. (17) to replace "homes for the aged" with "residential care homes"; P.A. 97-243 amended Subsec. (2) to provide that services to industrial commercial or income-producing property are not taxable when provided to a housing facility owned or operated by a nonprofit housing organization and deleted obsolete reference to computer programming, amended Subsecs. (8) and (9) to delete obsolete dates, to reword portions of Subsecs. to clarify that a retailer is liable for sales tax whether or not payment is received by the retailer and to make technical changes, amended Subsec. (12) to include any service described in Subsec. (2) instead of Subsec. (2)(i), and to make technical changes, amended Subsec. (27) to add cable, fiber optics, satellite and microwave as means by which service provided, and added new Subsec. (30) defining "another state" or "other state", effective June 24, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1997; P.A. 97-316 amended Subsec. (2) to exclude all services of off-duty police officers and firefighters and services related to creation, development, hosting or maintenance of a web site, and amended Subsecs. (8) and (9) to delete existing definitions of and add new provisions re when an employee is considered a leased employee for purposes of subsection, effective July 10, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-28 redefined "tangible personal property" to include distribution, generation or transmission of electricity, effective April 29, 1998; P.A. 98-110 amended Subsecs. (8) and (9) to add new Subdivs. (B)(v) and (vi) re coupons and new Subdiv. (B)(ix) re deposits and relettered and made technical changes to existing text, effective May 19, 1998, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1998 (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (9)(B)(ix) the word "the" was added editorially by the Revisors immediately following the "(ix)" designator); P.A. 98-244 redefined "retailer" to include persons from outside the state who make retail sales to destinations within the state and who provide repair or service, under warranty, either directly or through an agent, independent contractor or subsidiary, on items sold by such persons, and amended Subsec. (15) to specify that making regular repairs in or making regular deliveries into Connecticut is engaging in business in this state, effective June 8, 1998; Dec. Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 added new Subdiv. (2)(n) re sale of naming rights, effective January 12, 1999; P.A. 99-173 amended Subdiv. (2) to exclude training services provided by higher education institutions, amended Subdiv. (3) to make technical changes and to provide that sale-leaseback transactions be treated as a single transaction for sales tax purposes, and amended Subdiv. (28) to exempt short-term acute care hospitals run by the state from the sales tax on hospital patient care services, effective June 23, 1999, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1999; P.A. 99-285 amended Subdiv. (2) in language identical to that used in P.A. 99-173, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 00-170 added Subdivs. (8)(B)(viii)(II) and (9)(B)(viii)(II) to exclude from the definition of "sales price" and "gross receipts" amounts paid to worksite employees of professional employer organizations and added Subdivs. (31) to (33), inclusive, to define "professional employer agreement", "professional employer organization" and "worksite employee", effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 00-174 amended Subdiv. (2) to specify programming, code writing and similar services, including such services related to canned or custom software, within the scope of computer and data processing services for purposes of the definition of "sale" or "selling", amended Subdiv. (13) to include canned or prewritten computer software in the definition of "tangible personal property", amended Subdiv. (29) to include tangible personal property transferred in connection with patient care services in the definition of such services, and added new Subdivs. designated as (35) and (36) defining "canned or prewritten software" and "custom software", respectively, effective May 26, 2000, and applicable to all tax periods open on said date, and further amended section to add new Subdiv. (2)(o) re prepaid telephone calling services, revising the standard industrial classification codes used in the definition of "sale" and "selling" and make technical changes, to add Subdiv. (26)(b)(3) re prepaid telephone calling service, and to add new Subdiv. designated as (34) to define prepaid telephone calling services, effective October 1, 2000, and applicable to sales made on or after that date; P.A. 00-196 made technical changes in Subdiv. (2); P.A. 00-227 amended Subdiv. (15) by designating existing provisions as Subparas. (A) and (B), making conforming technical changes thereto, and by adding Subpara. (C) re treatment of fulfillment services under this section; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 00-1 amended new Subdiv. (35) to add provision that software subsequently sold, licensed or leased to unrelated third parties shall be considered canned or prewritten software, and amended new Subdiv. (36) to delete provision that the combining of two or more prewritten programs or modification of prewritten software to accommodate the individual hardware requirements of a customer does not constitute custom software, effective June 21, 2000, and applicable to all open tax periods; P.A. 01-109 amended Subdiv. (2)(i)(CC)(ii) by changing "a hypertrichologist" to "an electrologist"; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-6 amended Subdiv. (2) to exempt from the definition of "sale" and "selling" parking services in certain state railroad parking facilities in Subpara. (i)(N)(iv), to suspend the sales tax on patient care services for the biennium commencing July 1, 2001, and ending June 30, 2003, in Subpara. (i)(FF) and to make technical changes in Subparas. (c) and (i)(EE), effective July 1, 2001, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 02-3 amended Subdiv. (2) to provide that patient care services are those for which payment is received by the hospital, effective February 28, 2002; P.A. 02-103 made technical changes, deleted obsolete references and added new Subdiv. (37) defining "services" as the enumerated services which were formerly contained in the definition of "sale" and "selling" in Subdiv. (2), effective January 1, 2003; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1 amended Subsec. (a)(2) and replacement provisions in Subsec. (a)(37) to provide an exclusion for certain business services after January 1, 1994, in connection with certain aircraft, effective July 1, 2002, and amended Subsec. (a)(2) to add Subpara. (P) re the furnishing of space for storage, effective January 1, 2003, and applicable to sales occurring on or after said date; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-4 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to delete the tax on self-storage units (Subpara. (P)) which was to commence July 1, 2002, effective July 1, 2002, reimposed said tax, effective October 1, 2002, and further amended provisions to specify that said tax pertains to storage of tangible property and to define "space for storage", effective January 1, 2003, and amended Subsec. (a)(27) to exclude certain noncable communications service from the definition of community antenna television service, effective August 15, 2002; P.A. 03-2 amended Subsec. (a)(37) to modify scope of advertising and public relations services in Subpara. (U) and to add Subpara. (FF) re health and athletic club services, effective April 1, 2003, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 03-278 made a technical change in Subdivs. (8)(B) and (9)(B) of Subsec. (a), effective July 9, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 amended Subsec. (a)(37)(U) to restore language deleted by P.A. 03-2, effective August 16, 2003, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 2003; P.A. 04-136 amended Subsec. (a)(37)(D) to designate existing provision re off-duty police officers and firefighters as clause (i) and add clause (ii) re coin and currency services provided to a financial services company by or through another financial services company, effective May 12, 2004, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date (Revisor's note: In 2005, a reference to "financial service company" in Subsec. (a)(37)(D)(ii) was changed editorially by the Revisors to "financial services company" for consistency); P.A. 05-109 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing references to Sec. 42a-1-201(37) with references to Sec. 42a-1-201(b)(35) in Subdivs. (12) and (15)(A); P.A. 05-260 added Subsec. (a)(15)(D) re retailer participation in trade shows at the convention center, effective July 13, 2005, and applicable to taxable years commencing on or after January 1, 2005; P.A. 06-187 amended Subsec. (a)(37)(FF) by adding clause (iii) re exemption for yoga instruction, effective July 1, 2006; P.A. 07-236 amended Subsecs. (a)(8)(B) and (a)(9)(B) to add new Subpara. (x) in both excluding certain amounts charged for or paid to a media payroll services company from definition of "sales price" and "gross receipts" and, in Subsec. (a), added Subdiv. (38) defining "media payroll services company", effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 07-253 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(L) to designate existing provisions as clause (i) and define "community antenna television service" therein and to add clause (ii) re certified competitive video service, amended Subsec. (a)(26) to redefine "telecommunications service" and, in Subsec. (a), added Subdivs. (39) to (41), defining "certified competitive video service", "directory assistance" and "vertical service", respectively; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-5 amended Subsec. (a)(2)(L)(i) to add provision re service provided by a community antenna television company issued a certificate of video franchise authority for any service area in which it was not certified to provide service on or before October 1, 2007; P.A. 11-6 amended Subsec. (a), in Subdiv. (12), by adding Subpara. (L) re retailer as person who contracts with state resident to refer customers through Internet web site and, in Subdiv. (37), by deleting exemption for hazardous waste removal in Subpara. (I), deleting exemption for valet parking at airports in Subpara. (N), deleting provisions re articles of clothing or footwear in Subpara. (S), deleting exemption for yoga instruction in Subpara. (FF), and adding Subparas. (GG) to (NN) re services subject to tax, effective July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; pursuant to P.A. 11-48, "Board of Governors of Higher Education" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Board of Regents for Higher Education" in Subsec. (a)(37)(J), effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-61 changed effective date of P.A. 11-6, S. 128, from July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on and after that date, to May 4, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, effective June 21, 2011, amended Subsec. (a)(12)(L) by rewording provision re agreement, changing "residents" to "such persons" and deleting provision re rebuttable presumption that retailer is soliciting business in this state, and amended Subsec. (a)(15)(A) by adding clause (x) re in-state sales through commission-based referrals, effective June 21, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after May 4, 2011, and amended Subsec. (a)(37)(S) to restore provisions re articles of clothing or footwear and reword provision re tax on consignment services and amended Subsec. (a)(37)(JJ) to provide exemption for certain medical transportation, paratransit services and dial-a-ride services, effective July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, "Commissioner of Environmental Protection" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection" in Subsec. (a)(25), effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 12-408. The sales tax. (1) Imposition and rate of sales tax. (A) For the privilege of making any sales, as defined in subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 12-407, at retail, in this state for a consideration, a tax is hereby imposed on all retailers at the rate of six and thirty-five-hundredths per cent of the gross receipts of any retailer from the sale of all tangible personal property sold at retail or from the rendering of any services constituting a sale in accordance with subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 12-407, except, in lieu of said rate of six and thirty-five-hundredths per cent, the rates provided in subparagraphs (B) to (F), inclusive, of this subdivision;

      (B) At a rate of fifteen per cent with respect to each transfer of occupancy, from the total amount of rent received for such occupancy of any room or rooms in a hotel or lodging house for the first period not exceeding thirty consecutive calendar days;

      (C) With respect to the sale of a motor vehicle to any individual who is a member of the armed forces of the United States and is on full-time active duty in Connecticut and who is considered, under 50 App USC 574, a resident of another state, or to any such individual and the spouse thereof, at a rate of four and one-half per cent of the gross receipts of any retailer from such sales, provided such retailer requires and maintains a declaration by such individual, prescribed as to form by the commissioner and bearing notice to the effect that false statements made in such declaration are punishable, or other evidence, satisfactory to the commissioner, concerning the purchaser's state of residence under 50 App USC 574;

      (D) (i) With respect to the sales of computer and data processing services occurring on or after July 1, 1997, and prior to July 1, 1998, at the rate of five per cent, on or after July 1, 1998, and prior to July 1, 1999, at the rate of four per cent, on or after July 1, 1999, and prior to July 1, 2000, at the rate of three per cent, on or after July 1, 2000, and prior to July 1, 2001, at the rate of two per cent, on or after July 1, 2001, at the rate of one per cent, and (ii) with respect to sales of Internet access services, on and after July 1, 2001, such services shall be exempt from such tax;

      (E) With respect to the sales of labor that is otherwise taxable under subparagraph (C) or (G) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 12-407 on existing vessels and repair or maintenance services on vessels occurring on and after July 1, 1999, such services shall be exempt from such tax;

      (F) With respect to patient care services for which payment is received by the hospital on or after July 1, 1999, and prior to July 1, 2001, at the rate of five and three-fourths per cent and on and after July 1, 2001, such services shall be exempt from such tax;

      (G) With respect to the rental or leasing of a passenger motor vehicle for a period of thirty consecutive calendar days or less, at a rate of nine and thirty-five-hundredths per cent;

      (H) With respect to the sale of (i) a motor vehicle for a sales price exceeding fifty thousand dollars, at a rate of seven per cent on the entire sales price, (ii) a vessel for a sales price exceeding one hundred thousand dollars, at a rate of seven per cent on the entire sales price, (iii) jewelry, whether real or imitation, for a sales price exceeding five thousand dollars, at a rate of seven per cent on the entire sales price, and (iv) an article of clothing or footwear intended to be worn on or about the human body, a handbag, luggage, umbrella, wallet or watch for a sales price exceeding one thousand dollars, at a rate of seven per cent on the entire sales price. For purposes of this subparagraph, "motor vehicle" shall have the meaning provided in section 14-1, but shall not include a motor vehicle subject to the provisions of subparagraph (C) of this subdivision, a motor vehicle having a gross vehicle weight rating over twelve thousand five hundred pounds, or a motor vehicle having a gross vehicle weight rating of twelve thousand five hundred pounds or less that is not used for private passenger purposes, but is designed or used to transport merchandise, freight or persons in connection with any business enterprise and issued a commercial registration or more specific type of registration by the Department of Motor Vehicles;

      (I) The rate of tax imposed by this chapter shall be applicable to all retail sales upon the effective date of such rate, except that a new rate which represents an increase in the rate applicable to the sale shall not apply to any sales transaction wherein a binding sales contract without an escalator clause has been entered into prior to the effective date of the new rate and delivery is made within ninety days after the effective date of the new rate. For the purposes of payment of the tax imposed under this section, any retailer of services taxable under subparagraph (I) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 12-407, who computes taxable income, for purposes of taxation under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended, on an accounting basis which recognizes only cash or other valuable consideration actually received as income and who is liable for such tax only due to the rendering of such services may make payments related to such tax for the period during which such income is received, without penalty or interest, without regard to when such service is rendered;

      (J) For calendar quarters ending on or after September 30, 2011, the commissioner shall deposit into the municipal revenue sharing account, established pursuant to section 4-66l, one and fifty-seven-hundredths per cent of the amounts received by the state from the tax imposed under subparagraph (A) of this subdivision, and one and forty-three-hundredths per cent of the amounts received by the state from the tax imposed under subparagraph (H) of this subdivision; and

      (K) For calendar quarters ending on or after September 30, 2011, the commissioner shall deposit into the regional performance incentive account, established pursuant to section 4-66k, six and seven-tenths per cent of the amounts received by the state from the tax imposed under subparagraph (B) of this subdivision and ten and seven-tenths per cent of the amounts received by the state from the tax imposed under subparagraph (G) of this subdivision.

      (2) Retailer collects tax from consumer. Credit allowed for tax remitted to state on worthless account receivable. (A) Reimbursement for the tax hereby imposed shall be collected by the retailer from the consumer and such tax reimbursement, termed "tax" in this and the following subsections, shall be paid by the consumer to the retailer and each retailer shall collect from the consumer the full amount of the tax imposed by this chapter or an amount equal as nearly as possible or practicable to the average equivalent thereof. Such tax shall be a debt from the consumer to the retailer, when so added to the original sales price, and shall be recoverable at law in the same manner as other debts except as provided in section 12-432a. The amount of tax reimbursement, when so collected, shall be deemed to be a special fund in trust for the state of Connecticut.

      (B) Whenever such tax, payable by the consumer (i) with respect to a charge account or credit sale occurring on or after July 1, 1984, is remitted by the retailer to the commissioner and such sale as an account receivable is determined to be worthless and is actually written off as uncollectible for federal income tax purposes, or (ii) to a retailer who computes taxable income, for purposes of taxation under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended, on the cash basis method of accounting with respect to a sale occurring on or after July 1, 1989, is remitted by the retailer to the commissioner and such sale as an account receivable is determined to be worthless, the amount of such tax remitted may be credited against the tax due on the sales tax return filed by the retailer for the monthly or quarterly period, whichever is applicable, next following the period in which such amount is actually so written off, but in no event shall such credit be allowed later than three years following the date such tax is remitted, unless the credit relates to a period for which a waiver is given pursuant to subsection (g) of section 12-415. The commissioner shall, by regulations adopted in accordance with chapter 54, provide standards for proving any such claim for credit. If any account with respect to which such credit is allowed is thereafter collected by the retailer in whole or in part, the amount so collected shall be included in the sales tax return covering the period in which such collection occurs. The tax applicable in any such case shall be determined in accordance with the rate of sales tax in effect at the time of the original sale.

      (C) (i) Any person required to collect tax in accordance with this subsection who demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Commissioner of Revenue Services by July first of any year that, in any two quarterly periods as described in section 12-414, within the most recent four consecutive quarterly periods, such person was a materialman as such term is used in chapter 847, who has at least fifty per cent of such person's sales of building materials to contractors, subcontractors or repairmen for the improvement of real property, and is authorized by said chapter to file a mechanic's lien upon such real property and improvement shall, with respect to such sales made through the quarterly period ending the succeeding June thirtieth, collect tax due on such sales, and on sales to such contractors, subcontractors or repairmen of services described in subdivision (2) of section 12-407 with respect to such building materials, for such purpose and made during such July first through June thirtieth period, at the time and to the extent that such person receives the receipts from, or consideration for, such sales from such contractors, subcontractors or repairmen, provided if such person receives a portion of such receipts or consideration, such person shall collect the tax due on such portion at the time the portion is received. The taxes imposed by this chapter on such receipts and consideration shall be deemed imposed, solely for purposes of determining when such person is required to collect and pay over such taxes to the commissioner under section 12-414, when such person has received payment of such receipts or consideration in money, or money's worth, from such contractor, subcontractor or repairman. A contractor, subcontractor or repairman who purchases building materials or services from such person pursuant to this subparagraph shall, at the time such contractor, subcontractor or repairman pays any portion of the purchase price, pay to the person the tax due on the portion of the purchase price so paid. (ii) In the event that a materialman described in this subparagraph factors any portion of such materialman's receivables, such materialman shall be deemed to have received payment of such receipts or consideration in money or money's worth, from the contractor, subcontractor or repairman and shall be required to pay over tax on such sale with the next return due, with a credit against such tax for any tax already paid over with respect to such sale. Any such amount of tax paid over shall be on account of the tax required to be collected on the sale to which it relates and such materialman may take a credit against any tax paid by such contractor, subcontractor or repairman in the future on such sale, to ensure that tax paid over with respect to such sale does not exceed the amount of tax imposed on such sale as if the entire purchase price had been paid at the time of sale. (iii) A materialman described in this subparagraph who has not collected the tax due on the full purchase price for a sale described in this subparagraph from a contractor, subcontractor or repairman within one year from the date of such sale, shall pay over to the commissioner the tax due on any balance of such full purchase price with such materialman's return for the period which includes the date which is one year after the date of such sale. (iv) The commissioner may assess additional tax due with respect to a sale described in this subparagraph not later than three years from the date the tax is required to be paid over to the commissioner pursuant to this subparagraph, and in the case of a wilfully false or fraudulent return with intent to evade the tax, or where no return has been filed such taxpayer shall be subject to the provisions of section 12-428.

      (D) In the case of a sale by a producer or wholesaler of newspapers to a vendor who is not otherwise required to obtain a permit under this chapter, such producer or wholesaler shall collect the sales tax on such newspapers at the point of transfer to such vendor. Such tax shall be based on the stated retail price of such newspapers. Such vendor may add an amount to the price of the newspapers equal to the amount paid as sales tax to the producer or wholesaler and such vendor shall not be required to remit such amount to the state.

      (3) Bracket system for adding and collecting tax. For the purpose of adding and collecting the tax imposed by this chapter, or an amount equal as nearly as possible or practicable to the average equivalent thereof, by the retailer from the consumer the following bracket system shall be in force and effect as follows:

Amount of SaleAmount of Tax
$0.00 to $0.07 inclusiveNo Tax
    .08 to     .23 inclusive1 cent 
    .24 to     .39 inclusive2 cents
    .40 to     .55 inclusive3 cents
    .56 to     .70 inclusive4 cents
    .71 to     .86 inclusive5 cents
    .87 to   1.02 inclusive6 cents
  1.03 to   1.18 inclusive7 cents

On all sales above $1.18, the tax shall be computed at the rate of six and thirty-five-hundredths per cent.

      (4) Unlawful advertising. No retailer shall advertise or hold out or state to the public or to any consumer, directly or indirectly, that the tax or any part thereof will be assumed or absorbed by the retailer or that it will not be added to the sales price of the property sold or that, if added, it or any part thereof will be refunded. Under the provisions of this section, however, a retailer may advertise the sale of tangible personal property by any of the following methods: By stating the sales price alone without reference to the tax; by stating separately the sales price and the amount of tax to be collected thereon; by stating the sales price "plus tax" or "exclusive of tax" or by stating a sales price which includes the tax, together with the words "tax included" or "tax incl."; provided the retailer in the case of all such sales shall maintain his records to show separately the actual price of such sales and the amount of the tax paid thereon; and provided such retailer, if requested, shall furnish the consumer with a sales slip or other like evidence of the sale, showing the tax separately computed thereon. Any person violating any provision of this subsection shall be fined five hundred dollars for each offense.

      (5) Notices, signs or advertisements subject to approval. No retailer shall exhibit or display on his premises any notice, sign or other advertising matter tending to mislead the public in connection with the imposition or collection of the tax. The Commissioner of Revenue Services may approve a form of notice for the purpose of explaining the operation of the tax.

      (6) Regulations related to sales of motor vehicles to certain members of the armed forces. The Commissioner of Revenue Services shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, establishing a procedure for determination of qualifications with respect to the reduced rate of sales tax in the case of certain sales of motor vehicles to members of the armed forces as provided in subsection (1) of this section.

      (7) Computation of tax for purposes of toll telephone service in coin-operated telephones. For purposes of the tax imposed by this chapter, with respect to toll telephone service paid by inserting coins in coin-operated telephones, the tax shall be computed to the nearest multiple of five cents, except if the tax is midway between multiples of five cents, the next higher multiple shall apply.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2092; 1951, 1953, June, 1955, S. 1163d, 1164d; November, 1955, S. N144, N145; 1957, P.A. 553, S. 1, 2; 1959, P.A. 578, S. 10; 1961, P.A. 574, S. 1, 2; February, 1965, P.A. 105, S. 1; 381, S. 2; 1967, P.A. 619, S. 1; June, 1969, P.A. 1, S. 18, 19; June, 1971, P.A. 5, S. 105, 106; 8, S. 3, 4; 1972, P.A. 285, S. 1, 2; P.A. 73-288, S. 1, 2; 73-616, S. 49, 67; P.A. 74-73, S. 1, 2, 5; P.A. 75-2, S. 1, 2, 5; 75-213, S. 23, 53; P.A. 76-114, S. 1, 21; P.A. 77-370, S. 1, 13; 77-604, S. 76, 84; 77-614, S. 139, 610; P.A. 78-71, S. 1, 5; P.A. 80-71, S. 17, 18, 30; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1, S. 8, 15; P.A. 84-362, S. 1, 2; 84-545, S. 1-3; P.A. 85-547, S. 1, 2; P.A. 86-397, S. 3, 10; P.A. 87-314, S. 1, 2; P.A. 88-314, S. 22, 54; P.A. 89-251, S. 7, 197, 198, 203; P.A. 90-336, S. 1, 3; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 111, 168; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-14, S. 23, 30; P.A. 92-184, S. 14, 19; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-5, S. 26, 37; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-17, S. 25, 26, 59; P.A. 93-44, S. 3, 22, 24; 93-74, S. 22, 67; 93-332, S. 4, 42; P.A. 94-9, S. 16, 41; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 17, 85; P.A. 95-160, S. 39, 64, 69; P.A. 96-139, S. 12, 13; 96-232, S. 1, 3; P.A. 97-243, S. 17, 67; P.A. 98-110, S. 6, 27; 98-244, S. 17, 35; 98-262, S. 5, 22; P.A. 99-48, S. 8, 10; 99-173, S. 13, 14, 65; P.A. 00-170, S. 7, 42; 00-174, S. 4, 83; 00-230, S. 5; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-6, S. 3, 85; P.A. 02-3, S. 2; 02-103, S. 4; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1, S. 69; P.A. 03-2, S. 25; 03-4, S. 1; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 95; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 108, 109; P.A. 11-6, S. 93, 94; 11-61, S. 42, 43, 183.)

      History: 1959 act extended tax to transfers of room occupancy, and appropriated part of the proceeds to state development commission; 1961 act increased tax rate in Subsec. (1) and revised bracket system to comply with new tax rates; 1965 acts amended Subsec. (1) to change amount appropriated to development commission from 5% to 7% of gross revenue tax "for last-preceding year" and amended Subsec. (2) to delete phrase "so far as it can be done" re collection of tax by retailer from consumer and to add exception to provision for recovery at law; 1967 act changed appropriation amount in Subsec. (1) to 10% of gross revenue; 1969 act changed appropriation amount in Subsec. (1) to 8.5% and temporarily increased tax rate on retailers to 5% and 2.5% on sales of $0.10 or less for period from July 1, 1969, to June 30, 1971, and revised bracket system in Subsec. (3) accordingly; 1971 acts increased appropriation amount to 10% and made temporary increases in tax rate permanent, revising bracket system in Subsec. (3) accordingly, and later changed appropriation amount to 8% and raised tax rates to 6.5% and 3.5% on sales of $0.07 or less as of September 1, 1971, added provision re contracts without escalator clauses in Subsec. (1) and revised Subsec. (3) accordingly; 1972 act increased tax rate to 7%, deleted provisions re appropriations to development commission in Subsec. (1) and revised Subsec. (3) accordingly; P.A. 73-288 reduced tax rate to 6.5% in Subsec. (1) and revised Subsec. (3) accordingly; P.A. 73-616 reduced tax rate on sales of $0.07 or less to 3.25%; P.A. 74-73 reduced tax rates in Subsec. (1) to 6% and 3% on sales of $0.08 or less, revising Subsec. (3) accordingly; P.A. 75-2 increased rates in Subsec. (1) to 7% and 3.5% on sales of $0.07 or less, revising Subsec. (3) accordingly; P.A. 75-213 included rendering of services under Sec. 12-407(2) in tax; P.A. 76-114 amended Subsec. (1) to include 3.5% rate on sales of machinery and rendering of services under Sec. 12-407(2)(j)(A)-(M) and defined "machinery" in Subsec. (1); P.A. 77-370 changed tax rate for machinery to 2.5% and included agricultural machinery and redefined "machinery" to include "numerically controlled machinery used directly in the manufacturing process"; P.A. 77-604 made technical change to section reference in Subsec. (1); P.A. 77-614 substituted commissioner of revenue services for tax commissioner, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-71 deleted definition of "machinery" and provision for 2.5% tax rate on its sale in Subsec. (1); P.A. 80-71 increased tax rate to 7.5%, deleted provision for 3.5% rate on sales of $0.07 or less in Subsec. (1) and revised Subsec. (3) accordingly; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1 amended Subsec. (1) by providing that services rendered constituting a sale in accordance with Sec. 12-407(2)(i) shall be subject to tax at the rate of 7.5% in lieu of 3.5% as previously provided, effective August 1, 1983; P.A. 84-362 added the provision to Subsec. (2) allowing credit against sales tax due from a retailer in charge account or credit sales when tax has been remitted to the state and subsequently the account is determined to be worthless; P.A. 84-545 amended Subsec. (1) to provide for a rate of 4%, in lieu of the rate of 7.5%, in respect to the sale of any motor vehicle to any person who is a member of the armed forces of the United States and is on full-time active duty in Connecticut but whose permanent residence is in another state and Sec. 2 of the act, re commissioner's regulatory powers, was added editorially as Subsec. (6), effective July 1, 1984, and applicable to the sale of motor vehicles on or after that date; P.A. 85-547 amended Subsec. (1) to provide for a reduction in the rate of sales tax to 2% for the sale of aviation fuel in the period July 1, 1985, to June 30, 1987, provided the fuel is used exclusively for aviation purposes and the retailer's place of business is upon an established airport within Connecticut, effective July 1, 1985, and applicable to sales of aviation fuel in the period July 1, 1985, to June 30, 1987, inclusive; P.A. 86-397 amended Subsec. (1) by providing for a reduction in rate of tax to 5% of gross receipts with respect to sale of any repair or replacement parts exclusively for use in machinery used directly in a manufacturing or agricultural production process, effective June 11, 1986, and applicable to sales of repair or replacement parts occurring on or after July 1, 1986; P.A. 87-314 amended Subsec. (1) with respect to the period July 1, 1985, to June 30, 1987, as the period of time during which the rate of 2% of gross receipts would be applicable in the case of sales of aviation fuel, by deleting the period of time reference, and accordingly making said rate applicable after June 30, 1987, without limitation as to time, effective July 1, 1987, and applicable to sales of aviation fuel on or after that date; P.A. 88-314 amended Subsec. (4) by increasing the fine to $500 for each violation of the provisions of this Subsec., replacing the fine of not more than $100 for each such offense, effective July 1, 1988, and applicable to any tax which first becomes due and payable on or after said date, to any return or report due on or after said date, or in the case of any ongoing obligation imposed in accordance with said act, to the tax period next beginning on or after said date; P.A. 89-251 increased the rate of tax in Subsec. (1) from 7.5% to 8% of gross receipts, with corresponding changes in the lower rates for certain sales, amended the brackets in Subsec. (3) for certain amounts of sale to reflect the amounts of tax applicable with respect to the rate of 8% and added Subsec. (7) providing a method of computation of tax for purposes of toll telephone service in coin-operated telephones; P.A. 90-336 added Subsec. (2)(B) allowing a cash-basis taxpayer to take credits for worthless accounts receivable with respect to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1989; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3 amended Subsecs. (1) and (3) to reduce the general rate to 6% and amended Subsec. (1) to increase the rate with respect to the transfer of occupancy to 12%, to set the rate with respect to the sales of vessels to nonresidents to the lesser of 6% or the rate in the home state of the nonresident and to provide for the payment of the tax on a cash basis for retailers of services who are cash-basis taxpayers for federal purposes, effective August 22, 1991, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1991; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-14 amended Subsec. (1) to make the provisions relating to vessels effective September 19, 1991; P.A. 92-184 amended Subsec. (1)(B) by adding "or space in a campground", effective July 1, 1993; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-5 amended Subsec. (1) to make various technical and minor changes, effective June 19, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1992; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-17 amended Subsec. (1) to remove the special rate on aviation fuel, provided for an affidavit, rather than registration in the home state, as proof of out-of-state residence and made technical changes, effective June 19, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1992; P.A. 93-44 amended Subsec. (1) to apply provisions to persons rendering services under Sec. 12-407(2)(o) and Sec. 19a-168b, effective April 23, 1993; P.A. 93-74 amended Subsec. (1) to exclude space in a campground, effective May 19, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on and after July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-332 amended Subsec. (2) to provide that the amount of tax reimbursement shall be deemed a special fund in trust for the state, effective June 25, 1993; P.A. 94-9 amended Subsec. (1) to delete reference to Sec. 12-407(2)(o) and Sec. 19a-168b, effective April 1, 1994; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 in Subsec. (1) added schedule for gradually reducing sales tax with respect to the sale of computer and data processing, effective July 1, 1996, and applicable to sales occurring on or after said date; P.A. 95-160 in Subsec. (1) delayed by one year schedule for reduction of tax with respect to computer and data processing in Subpara. (E), effective July 1, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on and after that date (Revisor's note: P.A. 95-160 also revised effective date of May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 but without affecting this section); P.A. 96-139 changed effective date of P.A. 95-160 to make applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1996; P.A. 96-232 amended Subdiv. (1) to provide lower rates for tax on sale of repair or maintenance services on vessels, effective June 6, 1996, and applicable to sales occurring on and after July 1, 1997; P.A. 97-243 amended Subsec. (1) to add requirement that retailer maintain an affidavit or other evidence with respect to sales of motor vehicles to members of the armed forces concerning the buyer's state of residence, to provide that the tax rate on vessels sold to nonresidents is the lesser of 6% or the tax rate in the state in which the individual resides, and to make technical and renumbering changes, effective June 24, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1997; P.A. 98-110 deleted Subsec. (1)(A) re repair or replacement parts and reletter remaining Subdivs., effective May 19, 1998, and applicable to sales occurring on or after January 1, 1999; P.A. 98-244 amended Subsec. (1)(c) to allow reduction in tax rate and exemption for military when the name of the spouse is on the title of the motor vehicle, effective June 8, 1998, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1998; P.A. 98-262 amended Subsec. (2) to clarify language with respect to statute of limitations re bad debt write-off and made technical renumbering and relettering changes, effective June 8, 1998; P.A. 99-48 amended Subsec. (2) to change reference to Sec. 12-415(8) to Sec. 12-415(g), effective January 1, 2000; P.A. 99-173 amended Subsec. (1) to make technical changes, to delete provisions re sale of a vessel to an individual who does not maintain a permanent place of abode in this state, to exempt labor services on vessels, to reduce the tax rate to 4% effective July 1, 1999, to 2% on July 1, 2000, and eliminate the tax on July 1, 2001, for paving, painting, staining, wallpapering, roofing, siding, and exterior sheet metal work services on residential properties, and to reduce the tax rate on hospital services from 6% to 5.75%, and added new Subsec. (2)(C) allowing building material suppliers the option of remitting sales tax when they receive payment, effective June 23, 1999, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1999; P.A. 00-170 amended Subsec. (1) to phase out the tax on Internet access services on and after July 1, 2001, effective May 26, 2000; P.A. 00-174 amended Subsec. (1) to eliminate affidavit requirement for motor vehicle sales to armed forces personnel, to add provisions re declaration, to provide an exemption for certain labor to existing vessels and to delete requirement re furnishing of other states' tax information by the commissioner, effective October 1, 2000, and applicable to sales made on or after that date; P.A. 00-230 made a technical change in Subsec. (2)(C); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-6 amended Subdiv. (1)(F) to suspend the sales tax on patient care services for the biennium commencing July 1, 2001, and ending June 30, 2003, effective July 1, 2001, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 02-3 amended Subdiv. (1) to provide that patient care services are those for which payment is received by the hospital, effective February 28, 2002; P.A. 02-103 made technical changes in Subdiv. (1); May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1 amended Subdiv. (1) to extend the rate for computer and data processing services until July 1, 2004, effective July 1, 2002, and applicable to sales occurring on or after said date; P.A. 03-2 added Subdiv. (1)(F) re 3% rate for certain advertising and public relations services, effective February 28, 2003, and applicable to sales occurring on or after April 1, 2003; P.A. 03-4 added Subdiv. (2)(D) re sale of newspapers, effective April 10, 2003, and applicable to sales occurring on or after April 1, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 amended Subdiv. (1) to delete sunset of tax on computer and data processing in Subpara. (C)(i), to eliminate tax on patient care services in Subpara. (E) and to remove provisions re certain advertising or public relations services which had been added as Subpara. (F) by P.A. 03-2, effective August 16, 2003, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 2003; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 amended Subdiv. (1) by decreasing rate of tax from 6% to 5.5%, and amended Subdiv. (3) to reflect such decreased rate, effective January 1, 2010 (Revisor's note: The amendments made to Subdivs. (1) and (3) by Secs. 108 and 109 of June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 did not take effect pursuant to Sec. 12-432c(a)); P.A. 11-6 amended Subdiv. (1) by designating existing language re imposition of tax as Subpara. (A) and amending same to increase tax rate from 6% to 6.35%, redesignating existing Subparas. (A) to (E) as Subparas. (B) to (F), increasing tax rate re transfer of occupancy from 12% to 15% in Subpara. (B), adding Subpara. (G) re tax rate on motor vehicle rentals, adding Subpara. (H) re tax rate on luxury items, designating existing language re applicability of tax rate as Subpara. (I), adding Subpara. (J) re deposits into municipal revenue sharing account, and adding Subpara. (K) re deposits into regional performance incentive account, effective July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, and amended Subdiv. (3) to reflect the increase in the tax from 6% to 6.35%, effective July 1, 2011; P.A. 11-61 changed effective date of P.A. 11-6, S. 93, from July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, to July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, and to sales of services that are billed to customers for a period that includes that date, effective June 21, 2011, made a technical change in Subdiv. (1)(J), effective July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, and amended Subdiv. (3) to adjust the brackets for the new sales tax rate, effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 12-411. The use tax. (1) Imposition and rate. (A) An excise tax is hereby imposed on the storage, acceptance, consumption or any other use in this state of tangible personal property purchased from any retailer for storage, acceptance, consumption or any other use in this state, the acceptance or receipt of any services constituting a sale in accordance with subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 12-407, purchased from any retailer for consumption or use in this state, or the storage, acceptance, consumption or any other use in this state of tangible personal property which has been manufactured, fabricated, assembled or processed from materials by a person, either within or without this state, for storage, acceptance, consumption or any other use by such person in this state, to be measured by the sales price of materials, at the rate of six and thirty-five-hundredths per cent of the sales price of such property or services, except, in lieu of said rate of six and thirty-five-hundredths per cent;

      (B) At a rate of fifteen per cent of the rent paid for occupancy of any room or rooms in a hotel or lodging house for the first period of not exceeding thirty consecutive calendar days;

      (C) With respect to the storage, acceptance, consumption or use in this state of a motor vehicle purchased from any retailer for storage, acceptance, consumption or use in this state by any individual who is a member of the armed forces of the United States and is on full-time active duty in Connecticut and who is considered, under 50 App USC 574, a resident of another state, or to any such individual and the spouse of such individual at a rate of four and one-half per cent of the sales price of such vehicle, provided such retailer requires and maintains a declaration by such individual, prescribed as to form by the commissioner and bearing notice to the effect that false statements made in such declaration are punishable, or other evidence, satisfactory to the commissioner, concerning the purchaser's state of residence under 50 App USC 574;

      (D) With respect to the acceptance or receipt in this state of labor that is otherwise taxable under subparagraph (C) or (G) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 12-407 on existing vessels and repair or maintenance services on vessels occurring on and after July 1, 1999, such services shall be exempt from such tax;

      (E) With respect to the acceptance or receipt in this state of computer and data processing services purchased from any retailer for consumption or use in this state occurring on or after July 1, 1997, and prior to July 1, 1998, at the rate of five per cent of such services, on or after July 1, 1998, and prior to July 1, 1999, at the rate of four per cent of such services, on or after July 1, 1999, and prior to July 1, 2000, at the rate of three per cent of such services, on or after July 1, 2000, and prior to July 1, 2001, at the rate of two per cent of such services, on and after July 1, 2001, at the rate of one per cent of such services, and (ii) with respect to the acceptance or receipt in this state of Internet access services, on or after July 1, 2001, such services shall be exempt from tax;

      (F) With respect to the acceptance or receipt in this state of patient care services purchased from any retailer for consumption or use in this state for which payment is received by the hospital on or after July 1, 1999, and prior to July 1, 2001, at the rate of five and three-fourths per cent and on and after July 1, 2001, such services shall be exempt from such tax;

      (G) With respect to the rental or leasing of a passenger motor vehicle for a period of thirty consecutive calendar days or less, at a rate of nine and thirty-five-hundredths per cent;

      (H) With respect to the sale of (i) a motor vehicle for a sales price exceeding fifty thousand dollars, at a rate of seven per cent on the entire purchase price, (ii) a vessel for a sales price exceeding one hundred thousand dollars, at a rate of seven per cent on the entire purchase price, (iii) jewelry, whether real or imitation, for a sales price exceeding five thousand dollars, at a rate of seven per cent on the entire purchase price, and (iv) an article of clothing or footwear intended to be worn on or about the human body, a handbag, luggage, umbrella, wallet or watch for a sales price exceeding one thousand dollars, at a rate of seven per cent on the entire purchase price. For purposes of this subparagraph, "motor vehicle" shall have the meaning provided in section 14-1, but shall not include a motor vehicle subject to the provisions of subparagraph (C) of this subdivision, a motor vehicle having a gross vehicle weight rating over twelve thousand five hundred pounds, or a motor vehicle having a gross vehicle weight rating of twelve thousand five hundred pounds or less that is not used for private passenger purposes, but is designed or used to transport merchandise, freight or persons in connection with any business enterprise and issued a commercial registration or more specific type of registration by the Department of Motor Vehicles;

      (I) For calendar quarters ending on or after September 30, 2011, the commissioner shall deposit into the municipal revenue sharing account, established pursuant to section 4-66l, one and fifty-seven-hundredths per cent of the amounts received by the state from the tax imposed under subparagraph (A) of this subdivision, and one and forty-three-hundredths of the amounts received by the state from the tax imposed under subparagraph (H) of this subdivision; and

      (J) For calendar quarters ending on or after September 30, 2011, the commissioner shall deposit into the regional performance incentive account, established pursuant to section 4-66k, six and seven-tenths per cent of the amounts received by the state from the tax imposed under subparagraph (B) of this subdivision and ten and seven-tenths per cent of the amounts received by the state from the tax imposed under subparagraph (G) of this subdivision.

      (2) Liability for tax. Every person storing, accepting, consuming or otherwise using in this state services or tangible personal property purchased from a retailer for storage, acceptance, consumption or any other use in this state and every person storing, accepting, consuming or otherwise using in this state tangible personal property which has been manufactured, fabricated, assembled or processed from materials purchased from a retailer by such person, either within or without this state, for storage, acceptance, consumption or any other use by such person in this state is liable for the tax. Such person's liability is not extinguished until the tax has been paid to this state, except that a receipt from a retailer engaged in business in this state or from a retailer who is authorized by the commissioner, under such regulations as the commissioner may prescribe, to collect the tax and who is, for the purposes of this chapter relating to the use tax, regarded as a retailer engaged in business in this state, given to the purchaser pursuant to subdivision (3) of this section is sufficient to relieve the purchaser from further liability for the tax to which the receipt refers.

      (3) Collection by retailer. Every retailer engaged in business in this state and making sales of services or of tangible personal property for storage, acceptance, consumption or any other use in this state, not exempted under this chapter, shall, at the time of making a sale or, if the storage, acceptance, consumption or other use is not then taxable hereunder, at the time the storage, acceptance, consumption or use becomes taxable, collect the use tax from the purchaser and give to the purchaser a receipt therefor in the manner and form prescribed by the commissioner. For the purpose of uniformity of tax collection by the retailer the tax brackets set forth in subdivision (3) of section 12-408 pertaining to the sales tax shall be employed in the computation of the tax imposed by this section.

      (4) Tax as debt. Amount collected deemed a special fund in trust for state. The tax required to be collected by the retailer constitutes a debt owed to the retailer by the person purchasing tangible personal property or services from such retailer. The amount of tax, when so collected, shall be deemed to be a special fund in trust for the state of Connecticut.

      (5) Unlawful advertising. The provisions of subdivision (4) of section 12-408 pertaining to the sales tax shall apply with equal force to the use tax.

      (6) Separate statement of tax. The tax required to be collected by the retailer from the purchaser shall be displayed separately from the list price, the price advertised in the premises, the marked price, or other price on the sales check or other proof of sales.

      (7) Unlawful acts. Any person violating the provisions of subdivision (3), (5) or (6) of this section shall be fined five hundred dollars for each offense.

      (8) Registration by retailers. Every retailer selling services or tangible personal property for storage, acceptance, consumption or any other use in this state shall register with the commissioner and give the name and address of all agents operating in this state, the location of all distribution or sales houses or offices or other places of business in this state and such other information as the commissioner may require.

      (9) Presumption of purchase for use; resale certificate. For the purpose of the proper administration of this chapter and to prevent evasion of the use tax and the duty to collect the use tax, it shall be presumed that services or tangible personal property sold by any person for delivery in this state is sold for storage, acceptance, consumption or other use in this state until the contrary is established. The burden of proving the contrary is upon the person who makes the sale unless such person takes from the purchaser a certificate to the effect that the services or property is purchased for resale.

      (10) Effect of certificate. The certificate relieves the person selling the services or property from the burden of proof only if taken in good faith from a person who is engaged in the business of selling services or tangible personal property and who holds the permit provided for by section 12-409 and who, at the time of purchasing the services or tangible personal property, intends to sell it in the regular course of business or is unable to ascertain at the time of purchase whether the service or property will be sold or will be used for some other purpose.

      (11) Form of certificate. The certificate shall be signed by and bear the name and address of the purchaser, shall indicate the number of the permit issued to the purchaser and shall indicate the general character of the service or tangible personal property sold by the purchaser in the regular course of business. The certificate shall be substantially in such form as the commissioner may prescribe.

      (12) Liability of purchaser. (A) If a purchaser who gives a certificate makes any storage or use of the service or property other than retention, demonstration or display while holding it for sale in the regular course of business, the storage or use is taxable as of the time the service or property is first so stored or used.

      (B) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (A) of this subdivision, any storage or use by a certificated air carrier of an aircraft for purposes other than retention, demonstration or display while holding it for sale in the regular course of business shall not be deemed a taxable storage or use by such carrier as of the time the aircraft is first stored or used by such carrier, irrespective of the classification of such aircraft on the balance sheet of such carrier for accounting and tax purposes.

      (13) Presumption of purchase from retailer. It shall be presumed that tangible personal property shipped or brought to this state by the purchaser was purchased from a retailer for storage, use or other consumption in this state.

      (14) Conditions under which a purchase of service shall be considered a purchase for resale. Exception. (A) For the purpose of the proper administration of this chapter and to prevent evasion of the use tax, a purchase of any service described in subparagraph (I) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 12-407 shall be considered a purchase for resale only if the service to be resold is an integral, inseparable component part of a service described in said subparagraph (I) which is to be subsequently sold by the purchaser to an ultimate consumer. The purchaser of the service for resale shall maintain, in such form as the commissioner requires, records which substantiate: (i) From whom the service was purchased and to whom the service was sold; (ii) the purchase price of the service; and (iii) the nature of the service to demonstrate that the service was an integral, inseparable component part of a service described in subparagraph (I) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 12-407 which was subsequently sold to a consumer.

      (B) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (A) of this subdivision, no purchase of a service described in subparagraph (I) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 12-407 by a purchaser shall be considered a purchase for resale if such service is to be subsequently sold by the purchaser to an ultimate consumer that is affiliated with the purchaser in the manner described in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (62) of subsection (a) of section 12-412.

      (15) Sales to certain affiliates. For the purpose of the proper administration of this chapter and to prevent evasion of the use tax, no purchase of any service by a purchaser shall be considered a purchase for resale if such service is to be subsequently sold by the purchaser, without change, to an ultimate consumer that is affiliated with the purchaser in the manner described in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (62) of subsection (a) of section 12-412.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2095; 1951, 1953, June, 1955, S. 1165d; November, 1955, S. N146; 1957, P.A. 553, S. 3; 1961, P.A. 574, S. 3, 4; June, 1969, P.A. 1, S. 20; June, 1971, P.A. 5, S. 107; 8, S. 5; 1972, P.A. 285, S. 3; P.A. 73-288, S. 3, 8; P.A. 74-73, S. 3, 5; 74-338, S. 74, 94; P.A. 75-2, S. 3, 5; 75-213, S. 26-32, 53; P.A. 76-114, S. 20, 21; 76-322, S. 21, 27; P.A. 77-370, S. 11, 13; 77-604, S. 77, 84; P.A. 78-71, S. 2, 5; P.A. 80-71, S. 19, 30; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1, S. 9, 15; P.A. 85-240, S. 4, 6; P.A. 88-6, S. 4; 88-314, S. 24, 54; P.A. 89-123, S. 4; 89-251, S. 199, 203; P.A. 90-148, S. 23, 34; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 113, 168; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-14, S. 24, 30; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-5, S. 27, 37; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-17, S. 27, 59; P.A. 93-332, S. 2, 5, 40, 42; P.A. 93-361, S. 12, 17; P.A. 95-359, S. 1, 19; P.A. 96-232, S. 2, 3; P.A. 97-243, S. 19, 20, 67; P.A. 98-110, S. 7, 27; 98-244, S. 18, 35; P.A. 99-173, S. 15, 65; P.A. 00-174, S. 6, 7, 83; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-6, S. 2, 65, 85; P.A. 02-3, S. 3; 02-103, S. 7; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1, S. 70; P.A. 03-2, S. 26; 03-225, S. 8; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 96; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 110; P.A. 11-6, S. 97; 11-61, S. 183.)

      History: 1961 act increased tax rate from 3% to 3.5%; 1969 act temporarily increased tax rate to 5% for period from July 1, 1969, to June 30, 1971; 1971 acts made 5% rate permanent and later increased rate to 6.5% as of September 1, 1971; 1972 act increased rate to 7%; P.A. 73-288 reduced rate to 6.5%; P.A. 74-73 reduced rate to 6%, effective May 31, 1974, and applicable to taxes imposed on and after May 1, 1974; P.A. 74-338 made technical changes; P.A. 75-2 increased rate to 7%; P.A. 75-213 included references to "acceptance" and "services" in Subsecs. (1) to (3) and (8) to (12); P.A. 76-114 set tax rate at 3.5% for machinery and services rendered pursuant to Sec. 12-407(2)(j)(A)-(M); P.A. 76-322 clarified Subsec. (1) by specifying 7% "of the sales price of the property"; P.A. 77-370 reduced tax rate on machinery to 2.5%; P.A. 77-604 made technical change to section reference in Subsec. (1); P.A. 78-71 deleted provision re 2.5% tax rate on machinery; P.A. 80-71 increased tax rate to 7.5%; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1 amended Subsec. (1) by providing that the acceptance or receipt of any services constituting a sale in accordance with Sec. 12-407(2)(i) shall be subject to tax at the rate of 7.5% in lieu of 3.5% as previously provided; P.A. 85-240 amended Subsec. (12) to provide that aircraft held for sale by a certificated air carrier, if stored or used for purposes other than retention, demonstration or display, shall not be deemed to have been stored or used in a manner subject to sales tax; P.A. 88-6 amended Subsec. (12)(b) by substituting "aircraft" for "airplane" wherever the latter word appears; P.A. 88-314 amended Subsec. (7) by increasing the fine to $500 from not more than $100, effective July 1, 1988, and applicable to any tax which first becomes due and payable on or after said date, to any return or report due on or after said date, or in the case of any ongoing obligation imposed in accordance with said act, to the tax period next beginning on or after said date; P.A. 89-123 added provisions to Subsec. (1) to establish uniformity with sales tax provisions in Sec. 12-408(1); P.A. 89-251 increased the rate of tax in Subsec. (1) from 7.5% to 8% of the sales price of the property, with corresponding changes in the lower rates applicable to certain items of personal property; P.A. 90-148 added Subsec. (14) describing conditions under which a purchase of service shall be considered a sale for resale, effective July 1, 1990, and applicable to any purchase of service for resale on or after that date; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3 amended Subsec. (1) to reduce the general rate to 6% to increase the rate with respect to the transfer of occupancy to 12% and to set the rate with respect to the storage, acceptance, consumption or use of vessels by nonresidents at the lesser of 6% or the rate in the home state of the nonresident, effective August 22, 1991, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1991; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-14 amended Subsec. (1) to make the provisions relating to vessels effective September 19, 1991; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-5 amended Subsec. (1) to make various technical and minor changes, effective June 19, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1992; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-17 amended Subsec. (1) to remove the special rate on aviation fuel, provided for an affidavit, rather than registration in the home state, as proof of out-of-state residence and made technical changes and amended Subsecs. (1) and (2) to clarify the standards for taxation of imported property, effective June 19, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1992; P.A. 93-332 amended Subsec. (1) to provide that the sale of manufactured, fabricated, assembled or processed from materials be measured by the sales price of materials, effective June 25, 1993, and applicable to sales on or after July 1, 1993, and to exclude from tax mail order purchases of $200 or less, effective July 1, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1993, and amended Subsec. (4) to provide that the tax collected constitutes a debt owed to the retailer by the purchaser and shall be deemed to be held in trust for the state, where previously tax was considered a debt owed by the retailer, effective June 25, 1993; P.A. 93-361 amended Subsec. (1) to delete exclusion from tax with regard to mail order purchase of $200 or less which had been added by P.A. 93-332, effective July 1, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-359 amended Subdiv. (14) to add provisions re maintenance of records by purchaser of services for resale and added Subparas. (A) to (C) listing requirements, effective July 13, 1995; P.A. 96-232 amended Subdiv. (1) to provide lower rates for tax on sale of repair or maintenance services on vessels, effective June 6, 1996, and applicable to sales occurring on and after July 1, 1997; P.A. 97-243 amended Subsec. (1) to add phase out of tax on computer and data processing, to add requirement that retailer maintain affidavit or other evidence with respect to sales of motor vehicles to members of the armed forces concerning the buyer's state of residence, to provide that the tax rate on vessels sold to nonresidents is the lesser of 6% or the tax rate in the state in which the individual resides, and to make technical changes and amended Subsec. (7) to clarify that the fine is for each offense, effective June 24, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1997; P.A. 98-110 amended Subsec. (1) to repeal Subdiv. (A) re repair or replacement parts and reletter remaining Subdivs., effective May 19, 1998, and applicable to sales occurring on or after January 1, 1999; P.A. 98-244 amended Subsec. (1)(c) to allow reduction in tax rate and exemption for military when the name of the spouse is on the title of the motor vehicle, effective June 8, 1998, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1998; P.A. 99-173 amended Subsec. (1) to make a technical change, to reduce the tax rate to 4% effective July 1, 1999, to 2% on July 1, 2000, and eliminate the tax on July 1, 2001, for paving, painting, staining, wallpapering, roofing, siding, and exterior sheet metal work services on residential properties, and to reduce the tax rate on hospital services from 6% to 5.75% effective June 23, 1999, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1999; P.A. 00-174 amended Subsec. (1) to eliminate an affidavit requirement for motor vehicle sales to armed forces personnel, to add provisions re declaration, to delete former Subdiv. (C) re tax on certain vessels and make conforming technical changes, to provide an exemption for certain labor to existing vessels in redesignated Subdiv. (C) and to delete requirement re furnishing of other states' tax information by the commissioner, and amended Subsec. (9) to allow use of resale certificates in the case of sales of services and to make a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality, effective October 1, 2000, and applicable to sales made on or after that date; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-6 amended Subdiv. (1) to suspend the use tax on patient care services for the biennium commencing July 1, 2001, and ending June 30, 2003, in Subpara. (E) effective July 1, 2001, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, and to exempt Internet access services from the use tax in Subpara. (D), effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-3 amended Subdiv. (1) to provide that patient care services are those for which payment is received by the hospital, effective February 28, 2002; P.A. 02-103 made technical changes; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1 amended Subdiv. (1) to extend the rate for computer and data processing services until July 1, 2004, effective July 1, 2002, and applicable to sales occurring on or after said date; P.A. 03-2 amended Subdiv. (1) to add Subpara. (F) re 3% rate for certain advertising and public relations services, effective February 28, 2003, and applicable to sales occurring on or after April 1, 2003; P.A. 03-225 amended Subdiv. (14) by designating existing provisions as Subpara. (A) and amending same by replacing "sale for resale" with "purchase for resale" and making technical changes, and added new Subdivs. (14)(B) and (15) to prohibit the setting up of a separate purchasing company to purchase enumerated services on resale for a group of affiliates, effective October 1, 2003, and applicable to purchases occurring on or after that date; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-11 amended Subdiv. (1) to delete sunset of tax on computer and data processing in Subpara. (D)(i), to eliminate tax on patient care services in Subpara. (E) and to remove provisions re certain advertising or public relations services which had been added as Subpara. (F) by P.A. 03-2, effective August 16, 2003, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 2003; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 amended Subdiv. (1) by decreasing tax rate from 6% to 5.5%, effective January 1, 2010 (Revisor's note: The amendments made to Subdiv. (1) by Sec. 110 of June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 did not take effect pursuant to Sec. 12-432c(a)); P.A. 11-6 amended Subdiv. (1) by designating existing language re imposition of tax as Subpara. (A) and amending same to increase tax rate from 6% to 6.35%, redesignating existing Subparas. (A) to (E) as Subparas. (B) to (F), increasing tax rate re room occupancy from 12% to 15% in Subpara. (B), adding Subpara. (G) re tax rate on motor vehicle rentals, adding Subpara. (H) re tax rate on luxury items, adding Subpara. (I) re deposits into municipal revenue sharing account, and adding Subpara. (J) re deposits into regional performance incentive account, effective July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 11-61 changed effective date of P.A. 11-6, S. 97, from July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, to July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, and to sales of services that are billed to customers for a period that includes that date, effective June 21, 2011.

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      Sec. 12-411b. Collection of use tax by certain state contractors. (a) For any contract for provision of tangible personal property to the state entered into on or after August 16, 2003, each department head, as defined in section 4-5, shall enter into an agreement with the contractor pursuant to which such contractor shall agree, on its own behalf and on behalf of each affiliate, as defined in subsection (d) of this section, of such contractor, for the term of the state contract, to collect and remit to the state on behalf of its customers any use tax due to the state under the provisions of this chapter for items of tangible personal property sold by the contractor or by any of its affiliates in the same manner as if the contractor and its affiliates were engaged in the business of selling tangible personal property for use in this state and had sufficient nexus with this state to be required to collect use tax due to the state.

      (b) The following provisions shall apply to and be made part of any agreement entered into pursuant to subsection (a) of this section:

      (1) The contractor and its affiliates are not liable for use tax not paid to them by a customer;

      (2) A customer's payment of a use tax to the contractor or its affiliates relieves the customer of liability for the use tax;

      (3) The contractor and its affiliates shall remit all use taxes they collect from customers on or before the due date specified in the agreement, which may not be later than the last day of the month next succeeding the end of a calendar quarter or other tax collection period during which the tax was collected; and

      (4) Any contractor or affiliate who fails to remit use taxes collected on behalf of its customers by the due date specified in the agreement shall be subject to the interest and penalties provided for persons required to collect sales tax under this chapter.

      (c) Any agreement entered into under subsection (a) of this section may provide that the contractor and its affiliates shall collect the use tax only on items that are subject to the six and thirty-five-hundredths per cent rate of tax.

      (d) For purposes of this section, "affiliate" means any person, as defined in section 12-1, that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another person. A person controls another person if the person owns, directly or indirectly, more than ten per cent of the voting securities of the other person. For purposes of this subsection, "voting security" means a security that confers upon the holder the right to vote for the election of members of the board of directors or similar governing body of the business, or that is convertible into, or entitles the holder to receive, upon its exercise, a security that confers such a right to vote. "Voting security" includes a general partnership interest.

      (June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 105; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 111; P.A. 11-6, S. 126.)

      History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 effective August 16, 2003, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 2003; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 amended Subsec. (c) by decreasing tax rate from 6% to 5.5%, effective January 1, 2010 (Revisor's note: The amendments made to Subsec. (c) by Sec. 111 of June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 did not take effect pursuant to Sec. 12-432c(a)); P.A. 11-6 amended Subsec. (c) to increase tax rate from 6% to 6.35%, effective July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date.

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      Sec. 12-412. Exemptions. Taxes imposed by this chapter shall not apply to the gross receipts from the sale of and the storage, use or other consumption in this state with respect to the following items:

      (1) The United States, the state or subdivisions. (A) Sales of tangible personal property or services to the United States, the state of Connecticut or any of the political subdivisions thereof, or its or their respective agencies; (B) sales of tangible personal property or services used to develop property which the state of Connecticut is under contract to purchase through a long-term financing contract; (C) sales and use of any services or tangible personal property to be incorporated into or used or otherwise consumed in (i) the demolition, remediation or preparation of the Adriaen's Landing site and the stadium facility site for purposes of the overall project, each as defined in section 32-651, (ii) the construction of the convention center, the Connecticut Center for Science and Exploration, the stadium facility and the related parking facilities and site preparation and infrastructure improvements, each as defined in section 32-651, or (iii) the construction of any future capital improvement to the convention center, the stadium facility or the related parking facilities.

      (2) Federal exemptions. Sales of tangible personal property or services which this state is prohibited from taxing under the Constitution or laws of the United States.

      (3) Certain utilities. (A) Gas and electricity for residential use and certain manufacturing or agricultural production. The sale, furnishing or service of gas, including bottled gas, and electricity when delivered to consumers through mains, lines, pipes or bottles for use (i) in any residential dwelling or (ii) directly in agricultural production, fabrication of a finished product to be sold or an industrial manufacturing plant, provided the exemption under this subdivision (ii) shall only be allowed with respect to a metered building, location or premise at which not less than seventy-five per cent of the gas, including bottled gas, or electricity consumed at such metered building, location or premise is used for the purpose of such production, fabrication or manufacturing. Bottled gas as used in this subsection means L.P. (propane) gas.

      (B) Telephone and cable television service prior to January 1, 1990. The sale or furnishing of telephone service and community antenna television and cable service, provided the exemption for services described in this subparagraph shall not be applicable to any such service rendered on or after January 1, 1990.

      (C) Water, steam and telegraph. The sale, furnishing or service of water, steam and telegraph when delivered to consumers through mains, lines, pipes or bottles.

      (D) Monthly charges of one hundred fifty dollars or less for electricity not otherwise exempt. The sale or furnishing of electricity, not subject to the exemption under subparagraph (A) of this subsection, with respect to that portion of the charges applicable to such electricity for any month of service which is not in excess of one hundred fifty dollars.

      (E) Gas, water, steam or electricity used in furnishing same to consumers. The sale, furnishing or service of gas, water, steam or electricity for use directly in the furnishing of gas, water, steam or electricity delivered to consumers through mains, lines or pipes.

      (4) Prescription medicine, syringes and needles. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of medicine only by prescription as defined by federal or state law, including such medicine provided for no consideration and the sales of syringes and needles only by prescription. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of materials, including materials used in packaging, which become an ingredient or component part of medicine only by prescription, as defined by federal or state law.

      (5) Nonprofit charitable hospitals, nursing homes, rest homes, residential care homes and acute care for-profit hospitals. (A) Sales of tangible personal property or services to and by nonprofit charitable hospitals in this state, nonprofit nursing homes, nonprofit rest homes and nonprofit residential care homes licensed by the state pursuant to chapter 368v for the exclusive purposes of such institutions except any such service transaction as described in subparagraph (EE) of subdivision (37) of subsection (a) of section 12-407.

      (B) Sales of tangible personal property by any organization that is exempt from federal income tax under Section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended, and that the United States Treasury Department has expressly determined, by letter, to be an organization that is described in Section 501(c)(3) of said internal revenue code, which sales are made on the premises of a hospital.

      (C) Sales of tangible personal property or services to an acute care, for-profit hospital, operating as an acute care, for-profit hospital as of May 12, 2004, for the purposes of such institution in connection with the constructing and equipping of any facility of such hospital for which a certificate of need was filed before, and is pending on, May 12, 2004.

      (6) Newspapers and magazines. Repealed by P.A. 03-2, S. 58.

      (7) Cigarettes. Former subsection (g) repealed by P.A. 80-71, S. 21, 30.

      (8) Organizations exempt from federal income tax under Section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as determined by the U.S. Treasury Department. Exemption qualification requirements. Sales of tangible personal property or services to any organization that is exempt from federal income tax under Section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended, and that the United States Treasury Department has expressly determined, by letter, to be an organization that is described in Section 501(c)(3) or (13) of said internal revenue code. At the time of the sale that is exempt under this subsection, the organization shall, in order to qualify for said exemption, do one of the following: (A) Present to the retailer (i) a copy of the United States Treasury Department determination letter that was issued to such organization and (ii) a certificate, in such form as the commissioner may prescribe, certifying that a United States Treasury Department determination letter has been issued to such organization and has not been revoked and that the tangible personal property or services that are being purchased from the retailer by such organization are to be used or consumed exclusively for the purposes for which such organization was established or (B) present to the retailer (i) a copy of the exemption permit that was issued pursuant to this subsection by the commissioner to such organization before July 1, 1995, after a determination of eligibility by the commissioner and (ii) a certificate, in such form as the commissioner may prescribe, certifying that an exemption permit was issued pursuant to this subsection by the commissioner to such organization before July 1, 1995, and was not revoked and that the tangible personal property or services that are being purchased from the retailer by such organization are to be used or consumed exclusively for the purposes for which the organization was established. The organization shall be liable for the tax otherwise imposed if such tangible personal property or services are not used or consumed exclusively for the purposes for which the organization was established.

      (9) Food products sold in educational institutions and certain health and care facilities. Sales of food products, meals, candy, confectionery and beverages, except alcoholic beverages, in a student cafeteria, dining-hall, dormitory, fraternity or sorority maintained in a private, public or parochial school, college or university, to members of such institutions or organizations, including all sales of such items to such members at such institutions or organizations using prepaid meal plan cards or arrangements; and sales of food products, meals, candy, confectionery and beverages to patients, residents or care recipients in hospitals, residential care homes, assisted living facilities, senior centers, day care centers, convalescent homes, nursing homes and rest homes.

      (10) Exemption of children's clothing. Repealed by June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 166, 168.

      (11) Personal services. Professional, insurance or personal service transactions, except any such service transaction described in subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 12-407, which involve sales as inconsequential elements for which no separate charges are made.

      (12) Livestock, rabbits and poultry; feed; seeds and certain tree seedlings; fertilizer; plants; horses, except those racing at commercial race tracks. Repealed by June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 166, 168.

      (13) Food products. Sales of food products for human consumption. "Food products" include cereals and cereal products, milk and milk products, oleomargarine, meat and meat products, fish and fish products, eggs and egg products, vegetables and vegetable products, fruit and fruit products, spices and salt, sugar and sugar products other than candy and confectionery; coffee and coffee substitutes, tea, cocoa and cocoa products other than candy and confectionery. "Food products" do not include spirituous, malt or vinous liquors, soft drinks, sodas or beverages such as are ordinarily dispensed at bars and soda fountains, or in connection therewith, medicines except by prescription, tonics and preparations in liquid, powdered, granular, tablet, capsule, lozenge and pill form sold as dietary supplements or adjuncts. "Food products" also do not include meals sold by an eating establishment or caterer. "Meal" means food products which are furnished, prepared or served in such a form and in such portions that they are ready for immediate consumption. A meal as defined in this subsection includes food products which are sold on a "take out" or "to go" basis and which are actually packaged or wrapped. The sale of a meal, as defined in this subsection, is a taxable sale. "Eating establishment" means a place where meals are sold and includes a restaurant, cafeteria, grinder shop, pizzeria, drive-in, fast food outlet, ice cream truck, hot dog cart, refreshment stand, sandwich shop, private or social club, cocktail lounge, tavern, diner, snack bar, or hotel or boarding house which furnishes both lodging and meals to its guests.

      (14) Containers. (A) Nonreturnable containers and returnable dairy product containers when sold without the contents to persons who place the contents in the container and sell the contents together with the container; (B) containers when sold with the contents if the sales price of the contents is not required to be included in the measure of the taxes imposed by this chapter; (C) returnable containers when sold with the contents in connection with a retail sale of the contents or when resold for refilling. As used herein, "returnable containers" means containers of a kind customarily returned by the buyer of the contents for reuse, but does not mean nonrefillable beverage containers, as defined in subdivision (10) of section 22a-243. All other containers are "nonreturnable containers". Nothing in this subsection shall be construed so as to tax the gross receipts from the sale of or the storage, use or other consumption in this state of bags in which feed for livestock and poultry, as defined in subdivision (12) of this section, is customarily contained.

      (15) Motor vehicle fuel. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption in this state of motor vehicle fuel (A) for use in any motor vehicle licensed or required to be licensed to operate upon the public highways of this state, whether or not the tax imposed under chapter 221 has been paid on such fuel, or (B) for any other use, if the tax imposed under chapter 221 has been paid on such fuel and has not been refunded under the provisions of chapter 221.

      (16) Fuel for heating purposes. Sales of fuel used for heating purposes (i) in any residential dwelling or (ii) in any building, location or premise utilized directly in agricultural production, fabrication of a finished product to be sold or an industrial manufacturing plant, provided the exemption under this subdivision (ii) shall only be allowed with respect to a building, location or premise in which not less than seventy-five per cent of the fuel used in such building, location or premise is used for the purpose of such production, fabrication or manufacturing.

      (17) Sale of meals. Former subsection (q) repealed by P.A. 83-18, S. 4, 5.

      (18) Production materials. Sales of and the storage or use of materials, rope, fishing nets, tools and fuel or any substitute therefor, which become an ingredient or component part of tangible personal property to be sold or which are used directly in the fishing industry or in an industrial plant in the actual fabrication of the finished product to be sold. Sales of and the storage or use of materials, tools and fuel or any substitute therefor, when such products are used directly in the furnishing of power to an industrial manufacturing plant or in the furnishing of gas, water, steam or electricity when delivered to consumers through mains, lines or pipes.

      (19) Oxygen, blood plasma, prostheses, custom-made wigs or hairpieces, hearing and vision aids, canes, crutches, walkers and wheel chairs, vital life support equipment, apnea monitors, support hose and related repair or replacement parts and repair services. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of (A) oxygen, blood or blood plasma when sold for medical use in humans or animals; (B) artificial devices individually designed, constructed or altered solely for the use of a particular handicapped person so as to become a brace, support, supplement, correction or substitute for the bodily structure, including the extremities of the individual, and repair or replacement parts and repair services rendered to property described in this subparagraph; (C) artificial limbs, artificial eyes and other equipment worn as a correction or substitute for any functioning portion of the body, custom-made wigs or hairpieces for persons with medically diagnosed total and permanent hair loss as a result of disease or the treatment of disease, artificial hearing aids when designed to be worn on the person of the owner or user, closed circuit television equipment used as a reading aid by persons who are visually impaired and repair or replacement parts and repair services rendered to property described in this subparagraph; (D) canes, crutches, walkers, wheel chairs and inclined stairway chairlifts for the use of invalids and handicapped persons, and repair or replacement parts and repair services to property described in this subparagraph; (E) any equipment used in support of or to supply vital life functions, including oxygen supply equipment used for humans or animals, kidney dialysis machines and any other such device used in necessary support of vital life functions, and apnea monitors, and repair or replacement parts and repair services rendered to property described in this subparagraph; and (F) support hose that is specially designed to aid in the circulation of blood and is purchased by a person who has a medical need for such hose. Repair or replacement parts are exempt whether purchased separately or in conjunction with the item for which they are intended, and whether such parts continue the original function or enhance the functionality of such item. As used in this subdivision, "repair services" means services that are described in subparagraph (Q) or (CC) of subdivision (37) of subsection (a) of section 12-407.

      (20) Flyable aircraft. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption, by a manufacturer of aircraft located in this state, of flyable aircraft complete with necessary equipment and modifications, but not separate engines and parts thereof, sold to persons taking delivery and using such aircraft as certificated or licensed carriers of persons or property in interstate or foreign commerce under authority of the laws of the United States or any foreign government, or sold to any foreign government for use by such government outside of this state, or sold to persons who are not residents of this state and who will not use such aircraft in this state otherwise than in the removal of such aircraft from this state.

      (21) Personal property for incorporation into or use in waste treatment facilities. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of tangible personal property acquired for incorporation into or used and consumed in the operation of facilities for the treatment of industrial waste before the discharge thereof into any waters of the state or into any sewerage system emptying into such waters, the primary purpose of which is the reduction, control or elimination of pollution of such waters, certified as approved for such purpose by the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection. For the purposes of this subdivision "industrial waste" means any harmful thermal effect or any liquid, gaseous or solid substance or combination thereof resulting from any process of industry, manufacture, trade or business or from the development or recovery of any natural resource.

      (22) Personal property incorporated into or consumed in air pollution control facilities. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of tangible personal property or supplies acquired for incorporation into or used and consumed in the operation of facilities, the primary purpose of which is the reduction, control or elimination of air pollution, certified as approved for such purpose by the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection. Said commissioner may certify to a portion of such tangible personal property or supplies acquired for incorporation into such facilities to the extent that such portion shall have as its primary purpose the reduction, control or elimination of air pollution.

      (23) United States and Connecticut state flags. Sales of United States and Connecticut state flags.

      (24) Municipal publications, sales by public libraries or by municipal auction and book sales by library support groups. Sales of municipal publications such as information booklets and zoning regulations, tangible personal property sold by public libraries, the sale of any property at auction by a municipality, and book sales by library support groups.

      (25) Unregistered motor vehicles in interstate commerce. Repealed by P.A. 95-359, S. 18.

      (26) Items not costing more than twenty dollars each by certain nonprofit organizations and schools. Sales of items for not more than twenty dollars each by any Connecticut eleemosynary organization, for purposes of youth activities which such organization is formed to sponsor and support, and by any accredited elementary or secondary school for purposes of such school or of organized activities of the students enrolled therein.

      (27) Vending machine sales of fifty cents or less. Meals sold through vending machines or "honor boxes". (A) Sales of any items for fifty cents or less from vending machines; or (B) notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (13) of this section, meals sold through coin-operated vending machines or at unattended "honor boxes".

      (28) Ambulance-type motor vehicles. Repealed by June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 166, 168.

      (29) Personal property and services used or consumed in development, construction, rehabilitation, renovation, repair or operation of housing facilities for low and moderate income families and persons. (A) Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of tangible personal property acquired for incorporation into or used and consumed in the operation of housing facilities for low and moderate income families and persons and sales of and the acceptance, use or other consumption of any service described in subdivision (2) of section 12-407 that is used and consumed in the development, construction, rehabilitation, renovation, repair or operation of housing facilities for low and moderate income families and persons, provided such facilities are constructed under the sponsorship of and owned or operated by nonprofit housing organizations or housing authorities, as defined in subsection (b) of section 8-39. The nonprofit housing organization or housing authority sponsoring the construction of or owning or operating such housing facility shall obtain from the commissioner a letter of determination that the housing facility has, to the satisfaction of said commissioner, met all the requirements for exemption under this subsection. At the time of any sale or purchase that is exempt under this subsection, the purchaser shall present to the retailer a copy of the determination letter that was issued to the nonprofit housing organization or housing authority together with a certificate from the purchaser, in such form as the commissioner may prescribe, certifying that the tangible personal property or services that are being purchased from the retailer are to be used or consumed exclusively for the purposes of incorporation into or in the development, construction, rehabilitation, renovation, repair or operation of the housing facility identified in the letter of determination. For the purposes of this subsection, (i) "nonprofit housing organization" means any organization which has as one of its purposes the development, construction, sponsorship or ownership of housing for low and moderate income families as stated in its charter, if it is incorporated, or its constitution or bylaws, if it is unincorporated, and which has received exemption from federal income tax under the provisions of Section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code, as amended from time to time, provided the charter of such organization, if it is incorporated, or its constitution or bylaws, if unincorporated, shall contain a provision that no officer, member or employee thereof shall receive or at any future time may receive any pecuniary profit from the operation thereof, except a reasonable compensation for services in effecting the purposes of the organization; (ii) "housing facilities" means facilities having as their primary purpose the provision of safe and adequate housing and related facilities for low and moderate income families and persons, notwithstanding that said housing provides other dwelling accommodations in addition to the primary purpose of providing dwelling accommodations for low and moderate income families; (iii) "related facilities" means those facilities defined in subsection (d) of section 8-243; and (iv) "low and moderate income families" means those families as defined in subsection (h) of said section 8-243.

      (B) Sales of and the acceptance, use or other consumption of any service described in subdivision (2) of section 12-407 that is used or consumed in the development, construction, renovation or operation of housing facilities for low and moderate income families and persons, provided such facilities are owned or sponsored by a mutual housing association, as defined in subsection (b) of section 8-214f, and operated as mutual housing by such association at a location that was conveyed to such association by the United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development prior to September 1, 1995.

      (30) Commodities in the form traded on boards of trade and not converted to use by purchaser. Sales and storage of any commodity in the form traded on any contract market or other board of trade as defined in the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, provided this exemption shall not apply to any commodity subsequently converted to use by a purchaser and in such event such purchaser shall be liable for the tax under section 12-411 unless otherwise exempt under any of the provisions of this section.

      (31) Printed material manufactured for purchaser in Connecticut to be delivered for use outside the state. Sales of any printed material which has been manufactured in Connecticut to the special order of a purchaser and which, within thirty days following delivery to such purchaser, is to be delivered for use outside Connecticut, provided such purchaser presents written certification to the seller when such material is received by such purchaser that such material shall be delivered for use outside Connecticut within thirty days.

      (32) Vessels sold in Connecticut by shipbuilder or marine dealer to be transported immediately for use out of state. Repealed by June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 166, 168 and June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-14, S. 27, 30.

      (33) Solar energy systems. Former subsection (gg) repealed by P.A. 84-507, S. 3, 4.

      (34) Machinery used in manufacturing. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of machinery used directly in a manufacturing production process. The word "machinery" as used in this subsection means the basic machine itself, and includes all of its component parts and contrivances, such as belts, pulleys, shafts, moving parts, operating structures and equipment or devices, which component parts and contrivances are used or required to control, regulate or operate the machinery or to enhance or alter its productivity or functionality, whether such component parts and contrivances are purchased separately or in conjunction with such machine and all replacement and repair parts for the basic machine or for its component parts and contrivances, whether such replacement or repair parts are purchased separately or in conjunction with such machine. For the purposes of this subsection, "machinery" includes machinery used exclusively to control or monitor an activity occurring during the manufacturing production process and machinery used exclusively during the manufacturing production process to test or measure materials and products being manufactured but shall not include office equipment or data processing equipment other than numerically controlled machinery used directly in the manufacturing process.

      (35) Centers of service for elderly persons. Sales of tangible personal property or services to any center of service for elderly persons as described in subdivision (d) of section 17b-425.

      (36) Motor vehicle driving service performed out of state. The sale of any motor vehicle driving service to the extent of that proportionate part of gross receipts from such service rendered which is directly related to actual driving performance outside the state.

      (37) Fuel for use in certain high-occupancy commuter vehicles. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of any fuel with respect to which the tax imposed under chapter 221 has been refunded under subdivision (11) of subsection (a) of section 12-459.

      (38) Telephone equipment designed exclusively for deaf or blind persons. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of any equipment designed exclusively for use by persons who are deaf or blind for purposes of communication by telephone.

      (39) Renewable energy systems or systems using cogeneration technology. Repealed by June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 166, 168.

      (40) Commercial fishing vessels and machinery or equipment for use thereon. (A) Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of any vessel exclusively for use in commercial fishing and any machinery or equipment exclusively for use on a commercial fishing vessel by a fisherman engaged in commercial fishing as a trade or business and to whom the Department of Revenue Services has issued a fisherman tax exemption permit, provided (i) for the immediately preceding taxable year, or (ii) on average, for the two immediately preceding taxable years, not less than fifty per cent of the gross income of the purchaser, as reported for federal income tax purposes, shall have been derived from commercial fishing, subject to proof satisfactory to the Commissioner of Revenue Services.

      (B) The commissioner shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, requiring periodic registration for purposes of the issuance of fisherman tax exemption permits, including (i) a procedure related to the application for such permit, which application shall include a declaration, in a form prescribed by the commissioner and bearing notice to the effect that false statements made in such declaration are punishable, to be signed by the applicant, and (ii) a form of notice concerning the penalty for misuse of such permit.

      (C) (i) The Commissioner of Revenue Services may issue a fisherman tax exemption permit to an applicant, provided such applicant has satisfied the commissioner that the applicant intends to carry on commercial fishing as a trade or business for at least two years, notwithstanding the fact that the applicant was not engaged in commercial fishing as a trade or business in the immediately preceding taxable year or, if the applicant was engaged in commercial fishing as a trade or business in such immediately preceding taxable year, notwithstanding the fact that, for such immediately preceding taxable year, or, on average, for the two immediately preceding taxable years, less than fifty per cent of the gross income of the applicant, as reported for federal income tax purposes, was derived from commercial fishing.

      (ii) Such applicant shall be liable for the tax otherwise imposed, during the period commencing upon the issuance of the permit and ending two years after the date of issuance of the permit, if commercial fishing is not carried on as a trade or business by such applicant during such entire period.

      (iii) Such applicant shall also be liable for the tax otherwise imposed, during the period commencing upon the issuance of the permit and ending two years after the date of issuance of the permit, if less than fifty per cent of the gross income of such applicant, as reported for federal income tax purposes, shall have been derived from such commercial fishing for the immediately preceding taxable year, or, on average, for the two immediately preceding taxable years.

      (iv) Any applicant liable for tax under clause (ii) or (iii) of this subparagraph shall not be eligible to be issued another permit under clause (i) of this subparagraph.

      (D) The Commissioner of Revenue Services may issue a fisherman tax exemption permit to an applicant, notwithstanding the fact that, in the applicant's immediately preceding taxable year, less than fifty per cent of the gross income of the applicant, as reported for federal income tax purposes, was derived from commercial fishing, provided (i) such applicant purchased, during the applicant's current or immediately preceding taxable year, a commercial fishing trade or business from a seller who was issued a fisherman tax exemption permit by said commissioner at the time of such purchase, and (ii) such commercial fishing shall be carried on as a trade or business by such applicant during the period commencing upon the purchase and ending two years after the date of purchase. Such applicant shall be liable for the tax otherwise imposed, during the period commencing upon such purchase and ending two years after the date of purchase, if such applicant does not carry on such commercial fishing as a trade or business during the period commencing upon such purchase and ending two years after the date of purchase.

      (E) For purposes of this subdivision, "commercial fishing vessel" shall include any vessel with a certificate of documentation issued by the United States Coast Guard for coastwise fishery.

      (41) Services to determine effect on human health of consumption or use of a product or substance. Sales of services used to determine the probable consequences in relation to human health of the consumption or other use of any product, substance or element.

      (42) Aircraft held for resale by certain air carriers and used for purposes other than retention, demonstration or display. Repealed by P.A. 85-240, S. 5, 6.

      (43) Replacement parts in enterprise zones. Sales of any replacement parts for machinery to any business entity located in any enterprise zone designated pursuant to section 32-70 for use within such zone.

      (44) Certain motion picture, video, television and radio production and broadcast equipment. (A) Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of any filmed and taped television and radio programs and any materials which become an ingredient or component part of films or tapes which are used directly in the production and transmission of finished programs (i) broadcast to the general public by a television or radio station or (ii) used on or after October 1, 1986, for purposes of accredited medical or surgical training, including any equipment used for such purpose; (B) sales of and the storage, use, rental, lease or other consumption of any motion picture or video production equipment or sound recording equipment purchased or leased for use in this state for production activities which become an ingredient or component part of any master tapes, records, video tapes or film produced for commercial entertainment, commercial advertising or commercial educational purposes; or (C) sales of and the storage, use, rental or lease of equipment, including, but not limited to, antennas used directly in the production or broadcast of programs to the general public by a television or radio station.

      (45) Gold or silver bullion, legal tender of any nation, rare and antique coins. Sales of and the storage or use of rare or antique coins, gold or silver bullion and gold or silver legal tender of any nation, traded according to its value as precious metal, provided such exemption shall not be applicable with respect to any such sale, storage or use in which the total value of such bullion or legal tender sold by the retailer is less than one thousand dollars.

      (46) Meals delivered to homes of persons who are elderly, disabled or otherwise confined. Sales of home delivered meals to elderly, disabled and other homebound persons.

      (47) Articles of clothing or footwear costing under fifty dollars. Repealed by P.A. 11-6, S. 166.

      (48) Nonprescription drugs and medicines. Repealed by P.A. 11-6, S. 166.

      (49) Property tax payments under motor vehicle leases. Any payment made by a lessee of a motor vehicle to a lessor for the purpose of paying the property taxes on any such vehicle under a lease which is otherwise subject to the taxes imposed by this chapter if such lease requires the lessee to pay such property taxes and if a separate statement of the amount of any such property tax payment is contained in such lease or in any bill rendered pursuant to such lease.

      (50) Lease or rental of any motion picture film for display by theater owner or operator. The leasing or rental of any motion picture film by the owner or operator of a motion picture theater for purposes of display at such theater.

      (51) Any meal the cost of which is less than two dollars. Repealed by P.A. 89-251, S. 202, 203.

      (52) Cloth or fabric purchased for noncommercial sewing. Repealed by P.A. 11-6, S. 166.

      (53) Disposable pads used for incontinency. Sales of certain disposable pads prepared for use in the manner of a diaper or as an underpad, and commonly used by persons who are incontinent.

      (54) Test strips and tablets, lancets and glucose monitoring equipment used in care of diabetes and associated repair or replacement parts. Sales of test strips and tablets, lancets and glucose monitoring equipment for purposes of certain tests and monitoring required in the care of diabetes and repair or replacement parts for such equipment, whether such repair or replacements parts are purchased separately or in conjunction with the sale of such equipment, and whether such parts continue the original function or enhance the functionality of such equipment.

      (55) Certain personal property used in burial or cremation. Sales of (A) tangible personal property by any funeral establishment performing the primary services in preparation for and the conduct of burial or cremation, provided any such property must be used directly in the performance of such services and the total amount of such exempt sales with respect to any single funeral may not exceed two thousand five hundred dollars, or (B) caskets used for burial or cremation.

      (56) Sales of certain items by nursing homes, rest homes, residential care homes, convalescent homes or adult day care centers. Sales of items for not more than one hundred dollars each by any nursing home, rest home, residential care home, convalescent home or any adult day care center approved for such purpose by the Commissioner of Social Services, provided (1) such sales are made through a gift shop located in such home or center and (2) any profits from such sales are retained by such home or center for the benefit of the patients, in the case of any such home, or persons using any such adult day care center.

      (57) Items purchased with supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits. Sales of any items purchased with supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits.

      (58) Services related to personnel, management or research when company rendering service and recipient are participating in a joint venture for purposes of research and new product development. Sales of any services rendered for purposes of (A) personnel services, (B) commercial or industrial marketing, development, testing or research services, or (C) business analysis and management services, whenever, pursuant to a joint venture agreement, the recipient of any such services is either a corporation, a partnership, or a limited liability company, and such services are rendered by one or more corporate shareholders, or a corporate partner or corporate member in such joint venture, and in accordance with which the company rendering such service must have an ownership interest equivalent to not less than twenty-five per cent of total ownership in such joint venture, provided (i) the purpose of such joint venture is directly related to production or development of new or experimental products or systems and the marketing and support thereof, (ii) at least one of the corporations participating in such joint venture shall have been actively engaged in business in this state for not less than ten years, and (iii) exemption for such sales in accordance with this subsection, with respect to any single joint venture, shall not be allowed for a period in excess of twenty consecutive years from the date of such venture's incorporation, formation or organization, or in the case of a joint venture in existence prior to January 1, 1986, within the aircraft industry, for a period in excess of thirty consecutive years, and such exemption shall be applicable to sales of such services rendered on or after January 1, 1986.

      (59) Aviation fuel used exclusively and directly in the experimental testing of any product. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of any aviation fuel used exclusively and directly in the experimental testing of any product.

      (60) Motor vehicle or vessel purchased but not registered in this state by a person who is not a resident of this state. The sale of any motor vehicle or vessel, as defined in section 15-127, in this state when the purchaser of such motor vehicle or vessel is not a resident of this state and does not maintain a permanent place of abode in this state, provided such motor vehicle or vessel is not presented for registration with the Department of Motor Vehicles in this state and such purchaser submits a declaration, prescribed as to form by the commissioner and bearing notice to the effect that false statements made in such declaration are punishable, or other evidence as may be requested by the Commissioner of Revenue Services concerning such purchaser's residency or place of abode.

      (61) Ambulances. Repealed by June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 166, 168.

      (62) Services rendered between parent companies and wholly-owned subsidiaries. (A) Sales of any of the services enumerated in subparagraph (I), (K) or (L) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 12-407 that are rendered for a business entity affiliated with the business entity rendering such service in such manner that (i) either business entity in such transaction owns a controlling interest in the other business entity, or (ii) a controlling interest in each business entity in such transaction is owned by the same person or persons or business entity or business entities.

      (B) For purposes of this subdivision, (i) "business entity" means a corporation, trust, estate, partnership, limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company, single member limited liability company, sole proprietorship, nonstock corporation or a federally-recognized Indian tribe; (ii) "controlling interest" means, in the case of a business entity that is a corporation, ownership of stock possessing one hundred per cent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or one hundred per cent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of such corporation; in the case of a business entity that is a trust or estate, ownership of a beneficial interest of one hundred per cent in such trust or estate; in the case of a business entity that is a partnership, limited partnership or limited liability partnership, ownership of one hundred per cent of the profits interest or capital interest in such partnership, limited partnership or limited liability partnership; in the case of a limited liability company with more than one member, ownership of one hundred per cent of the profits interest, capital interest or membership interests in such limited liability company; in the case of a business entity that is a sole proprietorship or single member limited liability company, ownership of such sole proprietorship or single member limited liability company; in the case of a business entity that is a nonstock corporation with voting members, control of one hundred per cent of all voting membership interests in such corporation; and in the case of a business entity that is a nonstock corporation with no voting members, control of one hundred per cent of the board of directors of such corporation; (iii) whether a controlling interest in a business entity is owned shall be determined in accordance with Section 267 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended, provided where a controlling interest is owned in a business entity other than a stock corporation, the term "stock" as used in said Section 267 of the Internal Revenue Code means, in the case of a partnership, limited partnership, limited liability partnership or limited liability company treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, the profits interest or capital interest in such partnership, in the case of a business entity that is a trust or estate, the beneficial interests in such trust or estate, and in the case of a business entity that is a nonstock corporation, the voting membership interests in such corporation, or if it has no voting members, the control of the board of directors; (iv) a business entity has "control of" the board of directors of a nonstock corporation if one hundred per cent of the voting members of the board of directors are either representatives of, including ex-officio directors, or persons appointed by such business entity, or "control of" one hundred per cent of the voting membership interests in a nonstock corporation if one hundred per cent of the voting membership interests are held by the business entity or by representatives of, including ex-officio members, or persons appointed by such business entity.

      (63) Items sold for use in agricultural production by a farmer engaged in such production as a business. (A) Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of tangible personal property exclusively for use in agricultural production, as defined in this subsection, by a farmer engaged in agricultural production as a trade or business and to whom the Department of Revenue Services has issued a farmer tax exemption permit, provided such farmer's gross income from such agricultural production, as reported for federal income tax purposes, shall have been (i) not less than two thousand five hundred dollars for the immediately preceding taxable year, or (ii) on average, not less than two thousand five hundred dollars for the two immediately preceding taxable years.

      (B) The Commissioner of Revenue Services shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 requiring periodic registration for purposes of the issuance of farmer tax exemption permits, including (i) a procedure related to the application for such permit, such application to include a declaration, prescribed as to form by the Commissioner of Revenue Services and bearing notice to the effect that false statements made in such declaration are punishable, to be signed by the applicant, and (ii) a form of notice concerning the penalty for misuse of such permit.

      (C) As used in this subsection, (i) "agricultural production" means engaging, as a trade or business, in (I) the raising and harvesting of any agricultural or horticultural commodity, (II) dairy farming, (III) forestry, (IV) the raising, feeding, caring for, shearing, training or management of livestock, including horses, bees, poultry, fur-bearing animals or wildlife or (V) the raising and harvesting of fish, oysters, clams, mussels or other molluscan shellfish; and (ii) "farmer" means any person engaged in agricultural production as a trade or business.

      (D) The Department of Revenue Services may issue a farmer tax exemption permit to a farmer, notwithstanding the fact that, in the farmer's immediately preceding taxable year, such farmer's gross income from agricultural production engaged in as a trade or business may have been less than two thousand five hundred dollars, provided (i) such farmer purchased, during such farmer's current or immediately preceding taxable year, an agricultural trade or business from a seller who was issued a farmer tax exemption permit by such department at the time of such purchase and (ii) such agricultural production shall be carried on as a trade or business by such purchaser during the period commencing upon the purchase and ending two years after the date of purchase. Such purchaser shall be liable for the tax otherwise imposed, during the period commencing upon such purchase and ending two years after the date of purchase, if such agricultural production is not carried on as a trade or business by such purchaser during the period commencing upon such purchase and ending two years after the date of purchase.

      (E) (i) The Department of Revenue Services, under such regulations as the Commissioner of Revenue Services may adopt in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, may issue a farmer tax exemption permit to an applicant, provided such applicant has satisfied the commissioner that the applicant intends to carry on agricultural production as a trade or business for at least two years, notwithstanding the fact that the applicant was not engaged in agricultural production as a trade or business in the immediately preceding taxable year or, if the applicant was engaged in agricultural production as a trade or business in the immediately preceding taxable year, notwithstanding the fact that the applicant's gross income from such agricultural production, as reported for federal income tax purposes, was less than two thousand five hundred dollars for the immediately preceding taxable year or, on average, less than two thousand five hundred dollars for the two immediately preceding taxable years.

      (ii) Such applicant shall be liable for the tax imposed under this chapter during the period commencing upon the issuance of the permit and ending two years after the date of issuance of the permit if agricultural production is not carried on as a trade or business by such applicant during such entire period.

      (iii) Such applicant shall also be liable for the tax otherwise imposed, during the period commencing upon the issuance of the permit and ending two years after the date of issuance of the permit, if (I) such applicant's gross income from such agricultural production, as reported for federal income tax purposes, is less than two thousand five hundred dollars for the immediately preceding taxable year or, on average, less than two thousand five hundred dollars for the two immediately preceding taxable years, and (II) such applicant's expenses from such agricultural production, as reported for federal income tax purposes, are less than two thousand five hundred dollars for the immediately preceding taxable year or, on average, less than two thousand five hundred dollars for the two immediately preceding taxable years.

      (iv) Any applicant liable for tax under clause (ii) or (iii) of this subparagraph shall not be eligible to be issued another permit under clause (i) of this subparagraph.

      (64) Computer-related cleaning equipment. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of equipment used directly in the production and cleaning of computer discs for purposes of creating and maintaining the atmospheric environment necessary in the area immediately surrounding such production and cleaning process, including with respect to such area, climate control, air quality and a positive pressure mode adapted to the particular climate and air quality requirements of such production and cleaning process.

      (65) Molds, dies, patterns and sand handling equipment for metal casting foundries. The purchase and sale by metal casting foundries of molds, dies, patterns and sand handling equipment.

      (66) Molds, dies and patterns for pattern shops and metal casting foundries. The sale by pattern shops of molds, dies and patterns to metal casting foundries or their customers for use in such foundries, and the purchase and use of such items by pattern shops in connection with any such sales.

      (67) New motor vehicles exclusively powered by clean alternative fuels. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption, prior to July 1, 2008, of a new motor vehicle which is exclusively powered by a clean alternative fuel. As used in this subdivision and subdivisions (68) and (69) of this section, "clean alternative fuel" shall mean natural gas, hydrogen or electricity when used as a motor vehicle fuel or propane when used as a motor vehicle fuel if such a vehicle meets the federal fleet emissions standards under the federal Clean Air Act or any emissions standards adopted by the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection as part of the state's implementation plan under said act.

      (68) Conversion equipment associated with converting vehicles to exclusive use of clean alternative fuels or dual use of such fuel and any other fuel. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption, prior to July 1, 2008, of conversion equipment incorporated into or used in converting vehicles powered by any other fuel to either exclusive use of a clean alternative fuel or dual use of any other fuel and a clean alternative fuel, including, but not limited to, storage cylinders, cylinder brackets, regulated mixers, fill valves, pressure regulators, solenoid valves, fuel gauges, electronic ignitions and alternative fuel delivery lines.

      (69) Equipment associated with compressed natural gas filling or electric recharging station. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption, prior to July 1, 2008, of equipment incorporated into or used in a compressed natural gas or hydrogen filling or electric recharging station for vehicles powered by a clean alternative fuel, including, but not limited to, compressors, storage cylinders, associated framing, tubing and fittings, valves, fuel poles and fuel delivery lines used for clean alternative fuel storage and filling facilities.

      (70) Commercial trucks, truck tractors, tractors and semitrailers and vehicles used in combination therewith. (A) Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of commercial trucks, truck tractors, tractors and semitrailers, and vehicles used in combination therewith, which (i) have a gross vehicle weight rating in excess of twenty-six thousand pounds or (ii) are operated actively and exclusively during the period commencing upon its purchase and ending one year after the date of purchase for the carriage of interstate freight pursuant to a certificate or permit issued by the Interstate Commerce Commission or its successor agency. As used in this subsection, "gross vehicle weight rating" means the value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of the single or combination vehicle and, if the manufacturer has not specified a value for a towed vehicle, means the value specified for the towing vehicle plus the loaded weight of the towed unit.

      (B) Each purchaser of a commercial truck, truck tractor, tractor or semitrailer or vehicle used in combination therewith exempt from tax pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (A)(ii) of this subsection shall, in order to qualify for said exemption, present to the retailer (i) a copy of the certificate or permit that was issued by the Interstate Commerce Commission or its successor agency to the purchaser and (ii) a certificate, in such form as the commissioner may prescribe, certifying that such commercial truck, truck tractor, tractor or semitrailer or vehicle used in combination therewith will be operated actively and exclusively for the carriage of interstate freight. The purchaser shall be liable for the tax otherwise imposed if, during the period commencing upon its purchase and ending one year after the date of purchase, such commercial truck, truck tractor, tractor or semitrailer or vehicle used in combination therewith is not operated actively and exclusively for the carriage of interstate freight.

      (71) Machinery, equipment, tools, materials and supplies used in commercial printing. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of machinery, equipment, tools, materials and supplies used predominantly in the production of printed material by a commercial printer or publisher. For purposes of this subsection, "the production of printed material" is defined to include all processes necessary to convert manuscript copy into printed material, including but not limited to, layout, color separation and typesetting.

      (72) Machinery, equipment, tools, materials and supplies for typesetting, color separation, finished copy, or similar products. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of machinery, equipment, tools, materials and supplies used predominantly in the production of typesetting, color separation, finished copy with type proofs and artwork or similar content mounted for photomechanical reproduction, or other similar products to be sold for use in the production of printed materials.

      (73) Component parts for assembly of manufacturing machinery. The sale of any part of a machine purchased exclusively for the purpose of assembling a machine for use directly in a manufacturing production process, provided the purchaser submits a certified statement at the time of such purchase, on a form prepared by the Commissioner of Revenue Services, certifying that such part is purchased exclusively for use in a machine to be assembled by the purchaser, or someone acting on behalf of the purchaser, and that such machine shall be used directly in a manufacturing production process. The purchaser shall prepare a record of the use of such part which shall be maintained by the purchaser for a period of not less than three years following the date of purchase.

      (74) Certain sales of computer and data processing services. (A) Sales of computer and data processing services rendered to a customer (i) by a retailer which, on or after July 1, 1991, acquired the operations of a data processing facility from the customer, provided such customer operated the facility for its own use or (ii) by a retailer which, on or after July 1, 1993, acquired the operations of the data processing facility from the retailer described in subparagraph (A)(i) of this subsection, provided such customer formerly operated the facility for its own use. (B) Sales of computer and data processing services rendered to a customer by a retailer which, on or after July 1, 1995, acquired the data processing operations from the customer, provided such customer formerly conducted such data processing operations for its own use. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of computers or data processing equipment, when sold to the retailer described in this subparagraph and used by such retailer to provide the services described in this subparagraph. The provisions in this subparagraph shall not apply if the retailer is a related person, as defined in section 12-217w, with respect to the customer or the customer is a related person, as defined therein, with respect to the retailer.

      (75) Aviation fuel. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of aviation fuel used exclusively for aviation purposes.

      (76) Aircraft repair or replacement parts. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of repair or replacement parts exclusively for use (A) in aircraft, or (B) in the significant overhauling or rebuilding of aircraft or aircraft parts or components on a factory basis.

      (77) Aircraft repair services. Sales of aircraft repair services when such services are rendered in connection with (A) aircraft, or (B) the significant overhauling or rebuilding of aircraft or aircraft parts or components on a factory basis.

      (78) Materials, tools, fuel, machinery and equipment in an aircraft manufacturing facility. On or after July 1, 1993, sales of and the storage, use or other consumption by an aircraft manufacturer operating an aircraft manufacturing facility in this state of materials, tools, fuel, machinery and equipment used in such facility. For purposes of this subsection, (A) "machinery and equipment" means tangible personal property (i) which is installed in an aircraft manufacturing facility operated by an aircraft manufacturer and (ii) the predominant use of which is for the manufacturing of aircraft or aircraft parts or components or for the significant overhauling or rebuilding of aircraft or aircraft parts or components on a factory basis and (B) "aircraft manufacturing facility" means that portion of a plant, building or other real property improvement used for the manufacturing of aircraft or aircraft parts or components or for the significant overhauling or rebuilding of aircraft or aircraft parts or components on a factory basis.

      (79) Marine fuel. Sales and the storage, use or other consumption of bunker fuel oil, intermediate fuel, marine diesel oil and marine gas oil for use in any vessel having a displacement exceeding four thousand dead weight tons or for use in any vessel primarily engaged in interstate commerce.

      (80) Equipment and associated repair and replacement parts installed in motor vehicles for persons with physical disabilities. (A) Sales and the storage, use or other consumption of special equipment installed in a motor vehicle for the exclusive use of a person with physical disabilities and repair or replacement parts for such equipment, whether such repair or replacement parts are purchased separately or in conjunction with such equipment, and whether such parts continue the original function or enhance the functionality of such equipment.

      (B) When a motor vehicle in which special equipment exclusively for the use of a person with physical disabilities has previously been installed is sold by a licensed motor vehicle dealer for use by a person with physical disabilities, the taxes imposed by this chapter shall not apply to the portion of the sales price attributable to such equipment. Unless established otherwise, the portion of the sales price attributable to the motor vehicle shall be deemed to be the value determined pursuant to subsection (b) of section 12-431.

      (81) Machinery, equipment, tools and materials used in fabricating optical lenses. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of machinery, equipment, tools and materials used exclusively in the fabrication of optical lenses.

      (82) Sales of commercial motor vehicles where seventy-five per cent of days-in-service revenue derives from trips involving other states. (A) The sale of and the storage, use or other consumption of any commercial motor vehicle, as defined in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subdivision (15) of section 14-1, that is operating pursuant to the provisions of section 13b-88 or 13b-89, during the period commencing upon its purchase and ending one year after the date of purchase, provided seventy-five per cent of its revenue from its days in service is derived from out-of-state trips or trips crossing state lines.

      (B) Each purchaser of a commercial motor vehicle exempt from tax pursuant to the provisions of this subsection shall, in order to qualify for said exemption, present to the retailer a certificate, in such form as the commissioner may prescribe, certifying that seventy-five per cent of such vehicle's revenue from its days in service will be derived from out-of-state trips or trips crossing state lines. The purchaser of the motor vehicle shall be liable for the tax otherwise imposed if, during the period commencing upon its purchase and ending one year after the date of purchase, seventy-five per cent of the vehicle's revenue from its days in service is not derived from out-of-state trips or trips crossing state lines.

      (83) Sales of motor buses where seventy-five per cent of day-in-service revenue derives from trips involving other states. (A) The sale of and the storage, use or other consumption of any motor bus, as defined in section 14-1, that is operating pursuant to the provisions of section 13b-88 or 13b-89, during the period commencing upon its purchase and ending one year after the date of purchase provided seventy-five per cent of its revenue from its days in service is derived from out-of-state trips or trips crossing state lines.

      (B) Each purchaser of a motor bus exempt from tax pursuant to the provisions of this subsection shall, in order to qualify for said exemption, present to the retailer a certificate, in such form as the commissioner may prescribe, certifying that seventy-five per cent of such bus's revenue from its days in service will be derived from out-of-state trips or trips crossing state lines. The purchaser of the motor bus shall be liable for the tax otherwise imposed if, during the period commencing upon its purchase and ending one year after the date of purchase, seventy-five per cent of the bus's revenue from its days in service is not derived from out-of-state trips or trips crossing state lines.

      (84) Sales of goods and services to The University of Connecticut Educational Properties, Incorporated. Sales of tangible personal property and services to The University of Connecticut Educational Properties, Incorporated, with regard to Connecticut Technology Park.

      (85) Landscaping, horticulture, window cleaning or maintenance services rendered to certain disabled persons. Sales of any landscaping and horticultural services, window cleaning services or maintenance services, as described in subparagraph (I) of subdivision (37) of subsection (a) of section 12-407, on or after July 1, 1994, which are rendered to a person determined to be eligible for, and currently receiving, total disability benefits under the Social Security Act, provided such services are rendered at the residence of such person.

      (86) Sales by an affiliate participating in certain community economic development programs. Sales of services by an affiliate participating in implementation of the community economic development program established pursuant to section 8-240k to another affiliate participating in said program.

      (87) Sales of eligible benefits under Title XVIII or XIX of Social Security Act or CHAMPUS. Sales of items that are eligible benefits and that are made to an eligible beneficiary pursuant to Title XVIII, 42 USC Section 1395 et seq., or Title XIX, 42 USC Section 1396 et seq., of the Social Security Act or pursuant to the federal Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services, 10 USC Section 1071 et seq.

      (88) Commercial photographic film and paper processing materials. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of machinery, equipment, tools and materials used exclusively in the commercial processing of photographic film and paper.

      (89) Machinery, equipment, tools, materials, supplies and fuel used in the biotechnology industry. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of machinery, equipment, tools, materials, supplies and fuel used directly in the biotechnology industry. For the purposes of this subdivision, "biotechnology" means the application of technologies, such as recombinant DNA techniques, biochemistry, molecular and cellular biology, genetics and genetic engineering, biological cell fusion techniques, and new bioprocesses, using living organisms, or parts of organisms, to produce or modify products, to improve plants or animals, to identify targets for small molecule pharmaceutical development, to transform biological systems into useful processes and products or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.

      (90) Water companies. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of any personal property or any services to a water company, as defined in section 16-1, for use in maintaining, operating, managing or controlling any pond, lake, reservoir, stream, well or distributing plant or system employed for the purpose of supplying water to fifty or more consumers.

      (91) Safety apparel. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of safety apparel. For the purposes of this subsection "safety apparel" means any item of clothing or protective equipment worn by an employee for protection during the course of the employee's employment.

      (92) Services or tangible personal property for the operation of projects of the Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority. The sales and use of any services or tangible personal property to be incorporated into or used or otherwise consumed in the operation of any project of the Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority established pursuant to section 22a-261 whether such purchases are made directly by the authority or are reimbursed by the authority to the lessee or operator of such project.

      (93) Tangible personal property or services to tourism districts. Sales of tangible personal property or services to any tourism district, as defined in section 10-397.

      (94) Tangible personal property at bazaars, fairs, picnics, tag sales by nonprofit organizations. Sales of tangible personal property by nonprofit organizations at bazaars, fairs, picnics, tag sales or similar events to the extent of five such events of a day's duration held during any calendar year.

      (95) Services or tangible personal property used or consumed in operating solid waste-to-energy facilities. The sales or use of any services or tangible personal property to be incorporated into or used or otherwise consumed in the operation of a solid waste-to-energy facility, certified as approved for such purpose by the Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection, whether such purchases are made directly by an authority or an operating committee, or are reimbursed by an authority or operating committee to the lessee or operator of such facility.

      (96) Vegetable seeds. Sales of vegetable seeds suitable for planting to produce food for human consumption.

      (97) Yarn. Repealed by P.A. 11-6, S. 166.

      (98) Tangible personal property by historical societies. Sales of tangible personal property by historical societies.

      (99) Certain aircraft. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of, aircraft having a maximum certificated takeoff weight of six thousand pounds or more. "Certificated takeoff weight" means the maximum such weight contained in the type certificate or airworthiness certificate.

      (100) Services used or consumed in the development, construction, rehabilitation, renovation or repair of housing facilities for low and moderate income families in qualified census tracts or difficult development areas. Sales of and the acceptance, use or other consumption of any service described in subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 12-407 that is accepted, used or consumed in the development, construction, rehabilitation, renovation or repair of housing facilities for low and moderate income families and persons, provided such facilities are situated in qualified census tracts or difficult development areas as designated by the Secretary of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development and provided, further, that the development of such facilities is assisted by an allocation of Low Income Housing Tax Credits pursuant to Section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code. For purposes of this subdivision, (A) "housing facilities" means facilities having as their primary purpose the provision of safe and adequate housing and related facilities for low and moderate income families and persons, notwithstanding that said housing provides other dwelling accommodations for low and moderate income families; (B) "related facilities" means those facilities defined in subsection (d) of section 8-243; and (C) "low and moderate income families" means those families as defined in subsection (h) of said section 8-243.

      (101) Firearm safety devices. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of firearm safety devices. For purposes of this subdivision, "firearm safety devices" shall include safes, lock boxes, trigger and barrel locks and other items designed to enhance home firearm safety.

      (102) Bicycle helmets. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of bicycle helmets. For the purposes of this subdivision, "bicycle" means any vehicle propelled by the person riding the same by foot or hand power and "helmet" means protective headgear which conforms to the minimum specifications established by the American National Standards Institute or the Snell Memorial Foundation's Standard for Protective Headgear for Use in Bicycling.

      (103) Machinery, equipment and supplies of freight railroads. Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of railroad locomotives, track ballasts, ties, rails, machinery and equipment used to maintain the railroad right-of-way which is used or operated exclusively for the carriage of freight.

      (104) Calibration services. Sales, use or other consumption of (A) calibration services for machinery, equipment or instrumentation used in a manufacturing production process; or (B) other sales, use or other consumption of services or compliance practices associated with registration and compliance of quality management and quality assurance standards as part of standards created by the International Organization of Standards. For purposes of this subdivision, "calibration services" means independent inspection services performed to verify accuracy in the provision, calibration or recalibration of equipment used to test, measure, monitor or gage any quality, process or environmental equipment used in conjunction with maintaining quality standards or meeting regulatory requirements.

      (105) Shoe repair services. Sales of shoe repair services.

      (106) "Call before you dig" services. Sales of services enumerated in subparagraph (J) of subdivision (37) of subsection (a) of section 12-407, on or after July 1, 1999, which services are rendered to the central clearinghouse organized and operated under the direction of the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority, by the public utilities of this state for receiving and giving the notices required by section 16-349.

      (107) Diesel fuel used in portable generators. Sales of, and the storage, use or other consumption of, diesel fuel to be used exclusively in portable power system generators that are larger than one hundred fifty kilowatts.

      (108) Child car seats. Sales of child car seats.

      (109) College textbooks. Sales of college textbooks to full and part-time students enrolled at institutions of higher education or private occupational schools authorized pursuant to sections 10a-22a to 10a-22o, inclusive, provided the student presents a valid student identification card. For purposes of this subdivision, "college textbooks" means new or used books and related workbooks required or recommended for a course at an institution of higher education or a private occupational school authorized pursuant to sections 10a-22a to 10a-22o, inclusive.

      (110) High mileage motor vehicles. On and after January 1, 2008, and prior to July 1, 2010, the sale of any passenger motor vehicle, as defined in section 14-1, that has a United States Environmental Protection Agency estimated city or highway gasoline mileage rating of at least forty miles per gallon.

      (111) Products which aid in the cessation of smoking. Repealed by P.A. 11-6, S. 166.

      (112) Equipment transmitting information at not less than two hundred kilobits per second. Sales of equipment to a telecommunications company or community antenna television company, as defined under section 16-1, that is used to provide telecommunications, high-speed data transmission or broad-band Internet services which offer the capability to transmit information at a rate that is not less than two hundred kilobits per second in at least one direction.

      (113) Materials, tools, fuel, machinery and equipment used in fuel cell manufacturing. (A) Sales to, and the storage, use or other consumption by, a fuel cell manufacturing facility in this state of materials, tools, fuel, machinery and equipment used in such facility.

      (B) For purposes of this subdivision, (i) "fuel cell" means a device that directly or indirectly produces electricity directly from hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuel through a noncombustive electro-chemical process, (ii) "machinery and equipment" means tangible personal property which is installed in a fuel cell manufacturing facility operated by a fuel cell manufacturer, and the predominant use of which is for the manufacturing of fuel cells, and (iii) "fuel cell manufacturing facility" means that portion of a plant, building or other real property improvement used for the manufacturing of fuel cell parts or components or for the significant overhauling or rebuilding of such parts or components on a factory basis.

      (114) Magazines and newspapers. (A) Sales of magazines, including publications which only contain puzzles, by subscription; (B) sales of newspapers.

      (115) Hybrid passenger cars. On and after October 1, 2004, and prior to October 1, 2008, the sale of any hybrid passenger car that has a United States Environmental Protection Agency estimated highway gasoline mileage rating of at least forty miles per gallon. For purposes of this subdivision, "hybrid passenger car" means a passenger car that draws acceleration energy from two onboard sources of stored energy, which are both an internal combustion or heat engine using combustible fuel and a rechargeable energy storage system and, for a passenger car or light truck with a model year of 2004 or later, is certified to meet or exceed the tier II bin 5 low emission vehicle classification.

      (116) Marine vessel brokerage services. Sales of marine vessel brokerage services provided by marine vessel brokers selling such vessels for the owners.

      (117) Solar energy electricity generating, water and space heating systems and geothermal resource systems. Machinery, equipment, tools, materials, supplies and fuel used in renewable energy and clean energy technology industries. (A) Sales and use of solar energy electricity generating systems and passive or active solar water or space heating systems and geothermal resource systems, including equipment related to such systems, and sales of services relating to the installation of such systems.

      (B) Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of machinery, equipment, tools, materials, supplies and fuel used directly in the renewable energy and clean energy technology industries. As used in this subdivision, "renewable energy and clean energy technology industries" means industries that apply technologies to produce, improve or develop solar energy electricity generating systems, passive or active solar water or space heating systems, geothermal resource systems and wind power electric generation systems, including equipment related to such systems.

      (118) Ice storage systems for cooling. Sales and use of ice storage systems used for cooling, including equipment related to such systems, and sales of services relating to the installation of such systems by a utility ratepayer who is billed by such utility on a time-of-service metering basis.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2096; 1953, S. 1167d; 1953, 1955, S. 1166d; 1955, S. 1168d; 1957, P.A. 195; 389; 390; 1959, P.A. 578, S. 11; 1961, P.A. 80; 1967, P.A. 57, S. 28; 754, S. 20; 1969, P.A. 187; 188; 758, S. 14; June, 1969, P.A. 1, S. 23; 1971, P.A. 455; 516, S. 1; 794, S. 1, 2; 872, S. 38, 150; June, 1971, P.A. 5, S. 129; 8, S. 6, 7; 1972, P.A. 46, S. 1; 285, S. 4; P.A. 73-196, S. 1, 2; 73-288, S. 4, 8; 73-299, S. 1, 2; 73-439; 73-452, S. 1, 2; P.A. 74-4, S. 1-3; 74-200; 74-263, S. 1, 2; P.A. 75-213, S. 33, 52, 53; 75-495, S. 1, 2; 75-567, S. 47, 48, 80; 75-607, S. 1; 75-613, S. 2, 4; P.A. 76-390, S. 1, 2; 76-435, S. 47, 82; P.A. 77-46; 77-266, S. 1, 2; 77-370, S. 9, 13; 77-395, S. 2, 3; 77-427, S. 1, 2; 77-457; P.A. 78-71, S. 3-5; 78-172, S. 1, 2; P.A. 79-33, S. 1, 2; 79-400, S. 1, 2; 79-419, S. 1, 2; 79-547, S. 1, 2; 79-627, S. 1, 6; P.A. 80-71, S. 21, 30; 80-98, S. 1, 2; 80-406, S. 2, 5; P.A. 81-323, S. 1, 2; 81-327, S. 1, 2; 81-399, S. 1, 3; 81-445, S. 5, 11; P.A. 82-25, S. 8, 10; 82-192, S. 1, 2; 82-416, S. 2, 3; 82-444; 82-467, S. 1, 3; P.A. 83-18, S. 1, 4, 5; 83-509, S. 1, 3; P.A. 84-415, S. 1-3; 84-507, S. 1, 3, 4; P.A. 85-3, S. 1, 3; 85-159, S. 7, 8, 16, 19; 85-240, S. 5, 6; 85-435, S. 1, 2; 85-462, S. 1, 2; 85-469, S. 4, 6; 85-513, S. 2, 3; 85-534, S. 3, 5; P.A. 86-120, S. 1, 2; 86-397, S. 1, 5, 10; P.A. 87-50; 87-119, S. 1, 2; 87-177, S. 1, 2; 87-238, S. 1, 2; 87-311, S. 1, 2; 87-315, S. 1, 2; 87-422, S. 2, 3; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 87-1, S. 1, 9; P.A. 88-307, S. 1, 4; 88-364, S. 19, 123; P.A. 89-123, S. 5, 9-11; 89-190; 89-251, S. 12-14, 202, 203; P.A. 90-255, S. 1, 2; 90-262, S. 3, 4; 90-295, S. 4, 5; 90-336, S. 2, 3; P.A. 91-179, S. 2, 5; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 114-117, 166, 168; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-14, S. 27, 30; P.A. 92-133, S. 8, 9; 92-188, S. 2, 4; 92-193, S. 7, 8; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-5, S. 28, 37; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-17, S. 28, 29, 40, 59; P.A. 93-44, S. 19, 24; 93-74, S. 27-31, 67; 93-122; 93-199, S. 3, 6; 93-262, S. 1, 87; 93-332, S. 14, 20, 23, 42; 93-360, S. 16, 17, 19; 93-361, S. 14, 17; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 93-1, S. 29, 35; P.A. 94-9, S. 19, 41; 94-82, S. 4, 5; 94-175, S. 24, 26, 32; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 18, 19, 75, 80, 85; P.A. 95-160, S. 40-47, 64, 69; 95-359, S. 2-7, 18, 19; P.A. 96-139, S. 12, 13; 96-172, S. 2, 3; 96-222, S. 8, 9, 41; 96-252, S. 5, 8; P.A. 97-112, S. 2; 97-243, S. 21-25, 67; 97-295, S. 6, 25; 97-315, S. 1, 4; 97-316, S. 1-4, 8-11; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-4, S. 5, 11; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-11, S. 63, 65; P.A. 98-110, S. 8, 9, 27; 98-262, S. 6, 14, 22; Dec. Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 30, 43; P.A. 99-173, S. 16-27, 65; 99-241, S. 54, 66; P.A. 00-140, S. 22, 40; 00-170, S. 1-6, 42; 00-174, S. 8-12, 64, 75, 83; 00-196, S. 4, 66; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-6, S. 18, 22, 30, 61, 66, 85; P.A. 02-103, S. 8-15, 47, 48, 54; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-4, S. 10; P.A. 03-2, S. 28, 58; 03-225, S. 9, 10; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 98; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 54, 239; P.A. 04-201, S. 11, 12; 04-217, S. 22; 04-231, S. 1, 7; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 04-2, S. 103, 104; P.A. 05-251, S. 86, 87; 05-288, S. 53; P.A. 06-150, S. 20; 06-161, S. 5; 06-186, S. 74; 06-187, S. 80, 82; P.A. 07-242, S. 20, 68; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4, S. 72, 121; P.A. 08-150, S. 34; P.A. 09-9, S. 4; P.A. 10-32, S. 38; 10-75, S. 11; P.A. 11-6, S. 166; 11-61, S. 60, 184; 11-80, S. 1.)

      History: 1959 act made technical changes and added definition of "machinery" to Subsec. (r) (now (18)); 1961 act added subdivision (l)(6) (now (12)(F)); 1967 acts added Subsecs. (u) (now (21)) and (v) (now (22)) re industrial waste and air pollution control facilities; 1969 acts amended Subsecs. (u) (now (21)) and (v) (now (22)) to include property "...used and consumed in the operation of facilities", substituted clean air commission for air pollution control commission in Subsec. (v) (now (22)) and allowed certification of portions of property which reduce, control or eliminate air pollution; and amended Subsec. (j) (now (10)) to exempt only clothing for children less than 10 years old for period between July 1, 1969, and July 1, 1971; 1971 acts included syringes and needles in Subsec. (d) (now (4)), specified applicability to manufacturers of aircraft located in this state, specifically included "take out" meals as taxable in Subsec. (m) (now (13)) and amended Subsec. (q) (now (17)) accordingly, substituted commissioner of environmental protection for water resources commission and clean air commission in Subsecs. (u) (now (21)) and (v) (now (22)) respectively, made exemption limited to clothing for children under ten permanent in Subsec. (j) (now (10)), clarified utility exemption in Subsec. (c) (now (3)) by including specific provisions for each type of utility service and amended Subsec. (p) (now (16)) to include gas and electricity sold for domestic purposes; 1972 acts included food products and meals sold to patients in hospitals, nursing homes, etc. in Subsec. (i) (now (9)) and amended Subsec. (c) (now (3)) to exempt utility services to first $10 a month rather than to first $20; P.A. 73-196 added Subsec. (w) (now (23)) re flags; P.A. 73-288 deleted references to "consumption" in Subsec. (r) (now (18)); P.A. 73-299 added Subsec. (x) (now (24)) re municipal publications, etc.; P.A. 73-439 added Subsec. (y) (now (25)) re motor vehicles sold for use outside state; P.A. 73-452 added Subsec. (z) (now (26)) re sales of $2 or less for items sold by eleemosynary organizations; P.A. 74-4 amended Subsec. (c) (now (3)) to include sales of bottled gas and community antenna television and cable services and to delete special provisions added in 1971 and amended Subsec. (p) (now (16)) to refer simply to fuel for heating purposes rather than to list specific fuel sources, effective March 1, 1974, and applicable to all sales, furnishing or service of gas, including bottled gas, water, electricity, community antenna television and cable services, telephone, telegraph and heating fuel for billing periods commencing on and after that date; P.A. 74-200 amended Subsec. (l)(6) (now (12)(F)) to exempt sales of all horses except race horses rather than just sales of draft horses; P.A. 74-263 added Subsec. (aa) (now (27)) re one-cent vending machines; P.A. 75-213 added exception in Subsec. (k) (now (11)) and included references to "services" in Subsecs. (a) (now (1)) and (b) (now (2)); P.A. 75-495 amended Subsec. (c) (now (3)) to state that bottled gas is propane gas; P.A. 75-567 included references to "services" in Subsecs. (e) (now (5)) and (h) (now (8)); P.A. 75-607 added Subsec. (bb) (now (28)) re ambulance-type vehicles; P.A. 75-613 added Subsec. (cc) (now (29)) re housing facilities for low and moderate income persons and families; P.A. 76-390 included vital life support equipment in Subsec. (s) (now (19)); P.A. 76-435 make technical changes; P.A. 77-46 replaced "crippled" with "handicapped" in Subsec. (s) (now (19)); P.A. 77-266 added Subsec. (dd) (now (30)) re commodities; P.A. 77-370 added Subsec. (ee) (now (31)) re special order printing for use outside state; P.A. 77-395 included sales of steam in Subsec. (c) (now (3)), effective June 20, 1977, and applicable to any sale or furnishing of steam on or after March 1, 1974; P.A. 77-427 added Subsec. (ff) (now (32)) re vessels sold for use outside state; P.A. 77-457 added Subsec. (gg) (now (33)) re solar collectors; P.A. 78-71 deleted provisions re machinery in Subsec. (r) (now (18)) and added Subsec. (hh) (now (34)) re machinery; P.A. 78-172 clarified exemption re newspapers in Subsec. (f) (now (6)); P.A. 79-33 included sales of walkers in Subsec. (s) (now (19)); P.A. 79-400 added Subsec. (ii) (now (35)) re centers of service for the elderly; P.A. 79-419 added Subsec. (jj) (now (36)) re motor vehicle driving services; P.A. 79-547 extended provisions of Subsec. (gg) (now (33)) to apply to solar energy systems rather than just to collectors; P.A. 79-627 added Subsec. (kk) (now (37)) re fuel for use in high-occupancy commuter vehicles, effective July 1, 1979, and applicable to sale of fuel with respect to which motor fuel tax is refunded on or after July 1, 1979; P.A. 80-71 repealed Subsec. (g) (now (7)) re cigarettes; P.A. 80-98 added Subsec. (ll) (now (38)) re special telephone equipment for the deaf or blind; P.A. 80-406 added Subsec. (mm) (now (39)) re alternative energy systems; P.A. 81-323 added Subsec. (nn) (now (40)) allowing exemption for sales or use of commercial fishing vessels and machinery or equipment designed exclusively for use in such vessels; P.A. 81-327 added Subsec. (oo) (now (41)) allowing exemption for sales of services used to determine the effect on human health of consumption or use of a certain product or substance, effective July 1, 1981, and applicable to services rendered on or after that date; P.A. 81-399 added Subsec. (pp) (now (42)) allowing exemption from sales and use tax for aircraft held for resale by certain air carriers and used for purposes other than retention, demonstration or display, but receipts from uses of such aircraft are not exempt, effective July 1, 1981, and applicable to any purchase of such aircraft by such air carriers on or after January 1, 1977; P.A. 81-445 added Subsec. (qq) (now (43)) concerning replacement parts for machinery in enterprise zones, effective July 1, 1982; P.A. 82-25 changed statutory reference in Subsec. (kk) (now (37)) re the type of high-occupancy commuter vehicle with respect to which sales of fuel for use therein are exempt, conforming with amendments to Sec. 12-459 and repeal of Sec. 12-460 in said P.A. 82-25, effective July 1, 1982, and applicable to fuel sales by distributors on or after that date; P.A. 82-192 eliminated requirement in Subsec. (mm) (now (39)) that exemption is only applicable if such vessel or machinery or equipment was designed exclusively for use in commercial fishing, substituting in lieu thereof that such vessel or machinery or equipment be used exclusively in commercial fishing; P.A. 82-416 amended Subsec. (ff) (now (32)), which allows exemption from sales tax for sale of or vessel by a shipbuilder to a nonresident for use outside the state, by allowing the same exemption when sale is made by a marine dealer; P.A. 82-444 added Subdiv. (rr) (now (44)) re exemption for materials or equipment becoming part of or used in production or transmission of radio or television broadcasts; P.A. 82-467 amended Subsec. (pp) (now (42)) so that the exemption thereunder for aircraft held for resale by certain air carriers, which exemption is applicable although such aircraft is used for purposes other than retention, demonstration or display, shall be applicable irrespective of the classification of such aircraft for accounting and tax purposes. (Previously it was deemed necessary that such aircraft would have to be classified as inventory to be eligible for the exemption under this subsection), effective June 8, 1982, and applicable to use of aircraft by certificated air carriers on or after July 1, 1981; P.A. 83-18 amended Subsec. (l) (now (12)) to delete the exemption for seeds and fertilizer unless used directly in an agricultural production process, amended Subsec. (m) (now (13)) to delete the exemption for meals the total charge for which is less than $1 and repealed former Subsec. (q) (now (17)) which had exempted meals under $1 from sales tax; P.A. 83-509 added Subsec. (ss) (now (45)), effective July 1, 1983, and applicable to sales of gold or silver bullion and gold or silver legal tender occurring on or after said date; P.A. 84-415 amended the definition of food products in Subsec. (m) (now (13)) by clarifying the meaning of meals which when served by an eating establishment are not exempt from sales tax as in the case of the food products constituting such meals and added Subsec. (tt) (now (46)) re home-delivered meals, effective July 1, 1984, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 84-507 repealed Subsec. (gg) (now (33)), merging its provisions into Subsec. (mm) (now (39)) and extending the exemption under Subsec. (mm) (now (39)) to July 1, 1986; (Revisor's note: Substitution of numeric Subsec. indicators for alphabetic Subsec. indicators and of alphabetic Subdiv. indicators for numeric Subdiv. indicators was made editorially by the Revisors in 1984, and first published in the general statutes revised to 1985); P.A. 85-3 added Subdiv. (47) re exemption for articles of clothing or footwear, with certain exceptions, costing under $50, effective March 15, 1985, and applicable to sales of clothing or footwear occurring on or after April 1, 1985; P.A. 85-159 further amended Subdiv. (47) by changing the applicable price for clothing exempted to $75, effective May 16, 1985, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1985, amended Subdiv. (12) to restore exemption for all seeds and fertilizer deleted by P.A. 83-18, effective May 16, 1985, and applicable with respect to sales occurring on or after April 1, 1986, and added Subdiv. (48) re exemption of nonprescription drugs and medicines, effective May 16, 1985, and applicable with respect to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1985; P.A. 85-240 repealed Subdiv. (42) which had exempted aircraft held for resale by certain air carriers and used for purposes other than retention, demonstration or display; P.A. 85-435 added Subdiv. (49) concerning payments of property taxes under motor vehicle leases, effective July 1, 1985; P.A. 85-462 amended Subdiv. (26) by increasing the maximum allowable sales price for exempt items from two to $5, effective July 1, 1985, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1985; P.A. 85-469 revised effective date of P.A. 85-159 but without affecting this section; P.A. 85-513 added Subdiv. (50) providing exemption from sales tax for the lease or rental of any motion picture film by the owner or operator of a theater for display at such theater, effective July 1, 1985, and applicable to contracts of lease or rental of motion picture films becoming effective on or after July 1, 1985; P.A. 85-534 applied exemption under Subdiv. (39) to systems utilizing cogeneration technology, extended expiration of said exemption from July 1, 1986, to July 1, 1991, and added definition of "cogeneration technology"; P.A. 86-120 added new Subsec., designated as Subsec. (58), providing exemption for sales of services related to personnel, management or research when company rendering service and recipient are participating in a joint venture for purposes of research and new product development; P.A. 86-397 added Subsecs. (51), (52), (53), (54), (55) and (56), effective June 11, 1986, and applicable to sales of meals and certain tangible personal property occurring on or after July 1, 1986, and also added Subsec. (57) providing exemption from sales tax for items purchased with federal food stamp coupons, effective June 11, 1986, and applicable to purchases with food stamps on or after October 1, 1986, except as such date may be deferred in accordance with Sec. 12-412e; P.A. 87-50 amended Subsec. (14) by providing that returnable containers do not include nonrefillable beverage containers; P.A. 87-119 added Subsec. (59) providing exemption from sales tax for aviation fuel used exclusively and directly in the experimental testing of any product, effective July 1, 1987, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 87-177 amended Subsec. (13) to provide that a meal exempt from sales tax under Subsec. (51) may include a nonalcoholic beverage which is not a food product, and added a statement as to when a meal is a taxable sale, effective July 1, 1987, and applicable to sales of meals occurring on or after that date; P.A. 87-238 added Subsec. (60) providing exemption from sales tax for a motor vehicle purchased but not registered in this state by a person who is not a resident and does not maintain a permanent place of abode in this state, effective July 1, 1987, and applicable to sales of motor vehicles occurring on or after that date; P.A. 87-311 amended Subsec. (56) to increase the limit to $100 and to include nonprofit adult day care centers, effective July 1, 1987, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 87-315 amended Subsec. (48) by adding any medication to be used in a person's eyes for care and treatment of any disease of the eyes to the list of medicines available without prescription and exempt from sales tax, effective July 1, 1987, and applicable to sales of medication for diseases of the eye on or after that date; P.A. 87-422 added Subsec. (61) providing exemption from sales tax for the storage, use or other consumption of ambulances operating in accordance with Sec. 19a-180, effective April 1, 1988, and applicable to sale of any ambulance on or after that date; July Sp. Sess. P.A. 87-1 added Subsec. (62) allowing exemption from sales tax for certain sales of services between parent companies and wholly-owned subsidiaries; P.A. 88-307 amended Subsec. (62) by deleting June 30, 1988, as the date for termination of the exemption and allowing the exemption to continue without a date for termination; P.A. 88-364 made minor change in wording of Subsec. (54); P.A. 89-123 amended Subsec. (18) by removing the exemption for certain items used in agricultural production because of the addition by this act of Subsec. (63) providing exemption for all items sold exclusively for use in agricultural production, amended Subsec. (34) by removing the exemption for machinery used in agricultural production because of the addition by this act of Subsec. (63) providing exemption for all items sold exclusively for use in agricultural production, amended Subsec. (56) by making a technical change in the description of the sale of items to which the exemption applies and added Subsec. (63) providing exemption for sales of any items for use in agricultural production by a farmer engaged in such production as a business, with a certain minimum income requirement from such business, and providing for issuance of an agricultural sales tax exemption permit; P.A. 89-190 amended Subsec. (35) by eliminating the requirement that elderly service centers qualified for the exemption had to be approved for such purpose by the tax assessor in the municipality, and accordingly the commissioner of revenue services is authorized to approve such centers for purposes of the exemption; P.A. 89-251 amended Subsec. (3) to provide the following: (1) Continued exemption for gas and electricity in the case of residential use, (2) limited exemption for gas and electricity in the case of agricultural production, fabrication of products to be sold or manufacturing, requiring that at the location of such production, fabrication or manufacturing at least 75% of the gas or electricity consumed is for such purpose, (3) exemption for telephone and cable television service to remain in effect until January 1, 1990, when such service is to be subject to sales tax, (4) exemption of charges for electricity not exceeding $150 per month, if not otherwise exempt and (5) exemption for gas, water, steam or electricity used in furnishing same to consumers, deleted reference in Subsec. (13) to exemption for any meal the cost of which is less than $2, as provided under Subsec. (51) which is repealed by this act and amended Subsec. (16) to provide the following: (1) Continued exemption in the case of residential use and (2) limited exemption in the case of agricultural production, fabrication of products to be sold or manufacturing, requiring that at the location of such production, fabrication or manufacturing at least 75% of the fuel consumed is for heating in the building used for such production, fabrication or manufacturing; P.A. 90-255 amended Subsec. (26) by increasing the maximum amount of such exempt sales from $5 to $20 each; P.A. 90-262 added Subsec. (64) providing an exemption for the sales, storage, use or other consumption of certain computer related cleaning equipment, effective June 8, 1990, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1990; P.A. 90-295 amended Subsec. (44) by providing for exemption, in addition to that already allowed under said Subsec. (44), applicable to material or equipment used directly in production and transmission of programs, on or after October 1, 1986, for purposes of accredited medical or surgical training; P.A. 90-336 added Subsec. (64) providing an exemption for molds, dies, patterns and sand handling equipment for metal casting foundries and Subsec. (65) providing an exemption for molds, dies and patterns for pattern shops and metal casting foundries, effective June 12, 1990, and applicable to purchases and sales occurring on or after April 1, 1985; P.A. 91-179 added Subdivs. (67), (68) and (69) providing exemptions from sales tax for the sale of a motor vehicle powered by clean alternative fuel, for equipment used to convert a vehicle to a vehicle powered by clean alternative fuel and for equipment used in a natural gas filling station, respectively, effective October 1, 1991, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3 (1) amended Subsec. (6) to provide that the exemption for newspapers would apply to subscriptions only, (2) amended Subsec. (44) to narrow the exemption for broadcast materials and equipment, (3) amended Subsec. (47) to reduce the exemption for clothing from $75 to $50, (4) added Subsecs. (70), concerning commercial vehicles, (71) and (72), concerning printed materials, and (73), concerning component parts, and (5) repealed Subsecs. (10), (12), (28), (32), (39) and (61), effective August 22, 1991, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1991; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-14 repealed Subsec. (32); P.A. 92-133 amended Subsec. (40) to expand the definition of commercial vessels to vessels with a certain certification from the United States Coast Guard; P.A. 92-188 amended Subsecs. (67), (68) and (69) to authorize an exemption from the sales and use tax for vehicles powered by electricity, effective July 1, 1992, and applicable to sales made on or after July 1, 1992; P.A. 92-193 added Subsec. (74) providing an exemption for sales of computer and data processing services rendered by a retailer which acquired the operations of a data processing facility from the customer receiving such services, effective July 1, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after January 1, 1993; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-5 amended Subsec. (71) to make a technical change, effective June 19, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1992; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-17 amended Subsec. (14) to include returnable dairy product containers, effective June 19, 1991, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1992, amended Subsec. (40) to change the words "coastwide fishing" to "coastwise fishery", effective June 19, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1991, and added Subsecs. (75), concerning aviation fuel, Subsec. (76), concerning aircraft repair or replacement parts, Subsec. (77), concerning aircraft repair services, Subsec. (78), concerning materials, tools, fuel, machinery and equipment in an aircraft manufacturing facility, Subsec. (79), concerning marine fuel, and Subsec. (80), concerning equipment for persons with physical disabilities installed in motor vehicles, effective June 19, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1992; P.A. 93-44 amended Subsec. (5) to except any transaction under Sec. 12-407(2)(o), effective April 23, 1993; P.A. 93-74 amended Subsec. (8) to include sales to nonprofit organizations which receive at least 75% of their funding from the state or municipality to provisions of exemption, amended Subsec. (19) by adding custom-made wigs or hairpieces for persons with medically diagnosed hair loss, hearing aid repairs and apnea monitors to provisions of exemption, amended Subsec. (27) to eliminate nonprofit requirement, to add rest homes and homes for the aged to qualify for the exemption and to delete Subdiv. (3) which had required that gift shop staff be provided by a nonprofit auxiliary service organization, amended Subsec. (44) by adding equipment used for medical or surgical training to provisions of exemption, and added Subsecs. (82) to (85), inclusive, providing exemption from the sales tax for certain commercial motor vehicles and buses deriving 75% of day's revenue from out-of-state trips, for sales of tangible personal property and services to The University of Connecticut Educational Properties, Inc. with regard to Connecticut Technology Park and for sales of certain services to persons eligible to receive permanent total disability benefits under Social Security, effective May 19, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on and after January 1, 1994; P.A. 93-122 amended Subsec. (63) to clarify the qualifications for the exemption for certain property used in agriculture; P.A. 93-199 made Subsecs. (67), (68) and (69) applicable to sales prior to January 1, 1998, redefined "clean alternative fuel" in Subsec. (67) to include propane and added reference to electric recharging stations in Subsec. (69), effective July 1, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-262 authorized substitution of commissioner and department of social services for commissioner and department on aging in Subsec. (56), effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-332 amended Subsec. (5) by exempting from the sales and use tax nonprofit nursing homes, nonprofit rest homes and nonprofit homes for the aged, amended Subsec. (8) by deleting language added in section 28 of public act 93-74 and providing that in determining exemption under the provisions of said Subsec. funds received by 501(c)(3) organizations shall be considered private donations, and amended Subsec. (74) by making existing language Subdiv. (A) and adding a Subdiv. (B) exempting computer and data processing services to a customer by a retailer which acquired the operations of the data processing facility from the retailer described in Subdiv. (A) from the sales and use tax, effective June 25, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on and after July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-360 amended Subsec. (4) to clarify exemption of prescription medicine and apply the exemption to medicine provided for no consideration and materials which become an ingredient or component part of medicine, effective July 1, 1993, and applicable to sales and the storage, use or other consumption occurring on or after January 1, 1990, and added Subsec. (81) re machinery, equipment, tools and materials used in fabrication of optical lenses, effective July 1, 1993, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-361 amended Subsec. (1) by making existing Subsec. a Subdiv. (A) and adding a new Subdiv. (B) exempting sale of personal property or services used to develop property which the state is under contract to purchase through a long-term financing contract from the sales tax, effective July 1, 1993; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 93-1 added Subsec. (1)(C) exempting sale of personal property or services used to construct or equip the stadium facility, the stadium facility site, the practice facility or the practice facility site, effective September 28, 1993; P.A. 94-9 amended Subsec. (5) to delete reference to Subdiv. (o) and add reference to Subdiv. (i) of Sec. 12-407(2), effective April 1, 1994; P.A. 94-82 added Subdiv. (86) providing an exemption to sales of services by an affiliate participating in the community economic development program established pursuant to Sec. 8-240k to another affiliate participating in said program, effective May 25, 1994; P.A. 94-175 amended Subsec. (5) to add reference to Subpara. (GG), effective June 2, 1994, and applicable to sales on and after April 1, 1994, and added new Subsec. (87) concerning sales of items that are eligible benefits under federal Title XVIII or Title XIX or CHAMPUS, effective June 1, 1994, and applicable to sales on and after April 1, 1994 (Revisor's note: On and after July 1, 1996, Subpara. (GG), mentioned in Subsec. (5), is relettered as (FF)); May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 amended (1) Subsec. (6) to include publications which only contain puzzles, effective July 1, 1996, and applicable to sales occurring on or after said date, (2) in Subsec. (34) specified that "machinery" is limited to equipment directly related to manufacturing processes, effective June 9, 1994, and applicable to income years commencing on or after July 1, 1989, (3) added new Subsecs. concerning water companies and safety apparel, respectively, effective July 1, 1996, and applicable to sales occurring on or after said date and revised effective date of P.A. 94-175 but without affecting this section (Revisor's note: New Subsecs. enacted by May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 were originally codified in Connecticut General Statutes, Revision of 1958, revised to 1995, as Subsecs. (88) and (89), but because of their delayed effective date were redesignated by the Revisors as Subsecs. (90) and (91) to accommodate intervening legislation); P.A. 95-160 (1) amended Subsec. (19) to add repair services, effective July 1, 1995, applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, (2) amended Subsec. (24) to include book sales by library support groups, amended Subsec. (27) to add sales of food products from vending machines, and amended Subsec. (44) to add Subpara. (B) re motion picture and video production and sound recording equipment, effective July 1, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, (3) amended Subsec. (45) to add rare and antique coins, effective July 1, 1996, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, (4) amended Subsec. (74) to add new Subpara. (B) re computer and data processing services rendered to a customer by a retailer which acquired the data processing operations from the customer, effective July 1, 1995, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, (5) amended Subsec. (79) to add vessels primarily used in interstate commerce, and added new Subdiv. (92) re projects of the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority, effective July 1, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date and (6) changed effective date of May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 19, which added new Subsecs. (88) and (89) (codified by the Revisors as Subsecs. (90) and (91) because of the delayed effective date), to July 1, 1997, and applicable to sales on or after that date; P.A. 95-359 (1) amended Subdiv. (8) by deleting reference to charitable and religious organizations and substituting requirement that organization is exempt under Section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and that the U.S. Treasury Department has expressly determined by letter that the organization is an organization described in Section 501(c)(3) or (13) of the Internal Revenue Code and set out the exemption requirements, (2) amended Subdiv. (19) to extend exemption for oxygen, blood and blood plasma to animals as well as humans, (3) repealed Subdiv. (25) re unregistered motor vehicles in interstate commerce, (4) amended Subdiv. (63) to add conditions under which department may issue a farmer exemption permit when a farmer's gross income from agricultural production is less than $2,500, (5) amended Subdiv. (70) to require vehicle purchased under exemption to be operated actively and exclusively for the carriage of interstate freight during the 1-year period commencing with the date of purchase and added Subpara. (B) re qualifications for exemption under Subpara. (A)(ii), (6) amended Subdivs. (82) and (83) to require that the vehicles purchased under exemption derive 75% of their revenue from their days in service from out-of-state trips or trips crossing state lines during the 1-year period commencing with the date of purchase and (7) amended Subdiv. (85) to make technical changes and added requirement that recipient is currently receiving disability benefits, all changes effective July 13, 1995, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1995, and July 1, 1996; P.A. 96-139 changed effective date of P.A. 95-160 but without affecting this section; P.A. 96-172 added new Subdiv. (88) re machinery, equipment, tools and materials used in commercial processing of photographic film and paper, effective July 1, 1996, and applicable to sales occurring on or after said date; P.A. 96-222 amended Subsec. (70) to insert "or its successor agency" after "Interstate Commerce Commission", effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 96-252 added Subsec. (89) re machinery, equipment, tools, materials, supplies and fuel used in the biotechnology industry, effective July 1, 1996, and applicable to sales made on or after that date; P.A. 97-112 replaced "home for the aged" with "residential care home"; P.A. 97-243 amended Subsec. (29) to add sales of services used and consumed in development, construction, rehabilitation, renovation, repair and operation of housing facilities for low and moderate income families, to add requirements re letter of determination from the commissioner and to make technical changes, amended Subsec. (62) to delete expense allocation requirement and to make technical changes, amended Subsecs. (71) and (72) to change use requirement from exclusive to predominant, and amended Subsec. (85) to delete Subpara. references and insert landscaping and horticulture services, window cleaning services and maintenance services, effective June 24, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1997, and further amended Subsec. (79) to clarify exemption of fuels for use in vessel primarily engaged in interstate commerce, effective June 24, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1997; P.A. 97-295 amended Subsec. (74) to change reference from Sec. 12-217m to Sec. 12-217w, effective July 8, 1997, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1998; P.A. 97-315 amended Subdiv. (29) to add provisions re services described in Subsec. (2) of Sec. 12-407, effective July 10, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on and after September 1, 1995; P.A. 97-316 amended Subsec. (19) to exempt oxygen supply equipment used for animals and Subsec. (44) to add Subpara. (C) re broadcast equipment, effective July 10, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1997, amended Subsecs. (76) and (77) to add aircraft having a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 6,000 pounds or more, effective July 10, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1997, added new Subsec. (93) re sales of tangible personal property or services to tourism districts, effective July 10, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after May 28, 1996, added new Subsec. (94) re sales by nonprofit organizations at certain events up to five days a year, effective July 10, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after June 1, 1997, added new Subsecs. (95) to (98) re property or services to be incorporated, used or consumed in solid waste to energy facilities, sales of vegetable seeds, yarn and tangible personal property by historical societies, respectively, effective July 10, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1997, and added new Subsec. (99) re aircraft having a maximum certificated takeoff weight of 6,000 pounds or more, effective July 10, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1997; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-4 added new Subsec. (100) re low and moderate income housing facilities located in Qualified Census Tracks or Difficult Development Areas, effective June 30, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after January 1, 1997; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-11 changed effective date of June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-4 but without affecting this section; P.A. 98-110 amended Subsec. (6)(B) to delete subscription sales, effective May 19, 1998, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1998, and amended Subsec. (34) to exclude component parts and contrivances whether purchased separately or in conjunction with a machine, effective May 19, 1998, and applicable to sales occurring on or after January 1, 1999; P.A. 98-262 amended Subsec. (13) to remove vending machines from the definition of "eating establishments", effective June 8, 1998, and revised effective date of P.A. 97-295, but without affecting this section; Dec. Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 amended Subdiv. (1) to delete existing language in Subpara. (C) and insert new provisions re the stadium facility and site, training facility and site, infrastructure improvements and the NFL pavilion, effective January 12, 1999; P.A. 99-173 amended Subdiv. (19) to exempt inclined chairlifts, repair and replacement parts for wheelchairs and other vital life function equipment, and artificial limbs and to make technical changes, amended Subdiv. (29) to make technical changes, to designate existing provisions as Subpara. (A) and expand the exemption for certain goods and services used or consumed in the construction, development and rehabilitation of housing facilities for low and moderate income housing to projects run by housing authorities and to add Subpara. (B) re services for mutual housing, amended Subdiv. (48) to expand the list of drugs and medicines to which the exemption applies, amended Subdiv. (54) to exempt repair and replacement parts for glucose monitoring devices, amended Subdiv. (58) to make technical changes, to add "and the marketing and support thereof" in Subpara. (c)(i), and to allow exemption for 30 years of joint venture in existence prior to January 1, 1986, within the aircraft industry, amended Subdiv. (60) to add vessels, and amended Subdiv. (62) to make technical changes, to expand exemption to include sales of services between noncorporate business entities when 100% wholly-owned and to eliminate the tax on telecommunication and cable services rendered between parent companies and wholly-owned subsidiaries, effective June 23, 1999, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1999, amended Subdivs. (67), (68) and (69) to extend the sunset for exemption to January 1, 2002, effective June 23, 1999, and applicable to sales occurring on or after January 1, 1998, amended Subdiv. (80) to exempt repair and replacement parts, effective June 23, 1999, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1999, and added new Subdivs. (101) to (107), inclusive, re fire arm safety devices, bicycle helmets, machinery, equipment and supplies of freight railroads, calibration services, shoe repair services, "call before you dig" services and diesel fuel used in portable generators, respectively, effective June 23, 1999, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1999; P.A. 99-241 amended Subdiv. (1) to delete stadium facility site and training facility site and add convention center site, sportsplex site and parking facilities site, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 00-140 amended Subdiv. (1)(C) to delete references to former convention center site, sportsplex site and parking facilities site and add references to the Adriaen's Landing and the stadium facility site, effective May 2, 2000; P.A. 00-170 (1) amended Subdiv. (27) to exempt sales of items for $0.50 or less from vending machines, amended Subdiv. (47) to exempt articles of clothing or footwear which are less than $75 and to make technical changes and added Subdivs. (108) to (110), inclusive, re child car seats, college textbooks and cars with mileage ratings of at least 50 miles per gallon, respectively, effective July 1, 2000, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, and (2) amended Subdiv. (19) to include exemptions for closed circuit television equipment used as a reading aid, canes and medically necessary support hose, amended Subdiv. (55) to exempt caskets used for burial and added Subdiv. (111) re smoking cessation products and Subdiv. (112) re certain high-speed telecommunications equipment, effective July 1, 2001, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 00-174 (1) amended Subsec. (60) to delete requirement for an affidavit for certain information required to be submitted and to add provisions re declaration, effective July 1, 2000, and (2) amended Subdiv. (5) to make a technical change, amended Subdiv. (9) to exempt candy, confectionery and nonalcoholic beverages sold at educational institutions and certain health care and adult living facilities, amended Subdiv. (15) to specify that the exemption for motor vehicle fuels is for fuel sold for use in licensed motor vehicles, whether or not the tax under Ch. 221 has been paid or for any other use if said tax has been paid but not refunded, amended Subdiv. (40) to divide existing provisions into Subparas. (A) and (C), to coordinate requirements for the exemption under this section with the taxpayer's federal return in Subpara. (A) and to add Subpara. (B) allowing certain start-up commercial fishermen to avail themselves of the provisions of this section, amended Subdiv. (48) to delete requirement that exempted drugs and medicines be for use in or on the human body and amended Subdiv. (63) to divide existing provisions into Subparas. (A) to (D), inclusive, to make technical changes, to add provisions re declaration and delete requirement re notarization in Subpara. (B), to change "five years" to "two years" in Subpara. (D) and to add Subpara. (E), to facilitate issuance of permits for certain start-up farmers, effective October 1, 2000, and applicable to sales made on or after that date; P.A. 00-196 made a technical change in Subdiv. (5). (Revisor's note: The beginning sentence of Subdiv. (13) which reads "Sales of food products for human consumption", that had been carried as a bold face Subdiv. catchline in the general statutes, was re-instated by the Revisors for the 2001 revision as part of the Subdiv. text, to reflect Sec. 1 of P.A. 87-177, and the Subdiv. catchline revised to read "Food products".); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-6 amended Subdiv. (27) to make a technical change and amended Subdiv. (55) to exempt caskets used for cremation, effective July 1, 2001, amended Subdiv. (62) to include federally-recognized Indian tribes in the definition of "business entity" for purposes of subdivision, effective October 1, 2001, and applicable to sales or purchases made on or after that date, amended Subdivs. (67) to (69) to extend their sunset provisions from January 1, 2002, to July 1, 2002, effective July 1, 2001, and added new Subdiv. (113) re materials used in fuel cell manufacturing facility, effective July 1, 2001, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 02-103 amended Subdivs. (5), (11), (14), (19), (40), (62), (63), (67), (85), (100) and (106) to make technical changes, effective October 1, 2002, except amendment to Subdiv. (19) which is effective July 1, 2002 (Revisor's note: In Subdivs. (5) and (19) the words "of subsection (a)" were added editorially by the Revisors for consistency with changes made elsewhere in the act to Sec. 12-407); May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-4 amended Subdivs. (67) to (69) to extend the exemptions in those subdivisions to July 1, 2004, and added hydrogen to the fuels covered by Subdivs. (67) and (69), effective July 1, 2002; P.A. 03-2 repealed Subdiv. (6) re sales of magazines and newspapers, effective April 1, 2003, and amended Subdiv. (47) to lower the threshold for the clothing exemption from $75 to $50, effective April 1, 2003, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 03-225 amended Subdiv. (40) to substantially revise existing provisions, to allow start-up fishermen to obtain exemption permits, to add provisions re regulations and fisherman tax exemption permits and to make conforming changes, effective October 1, 2003, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, and amended Subdiv. (89) to make a technical change and delete "to develop microorganisms for specific uses", effective July 9, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 added Subdiv. (114) re sales of magazines and newspapers, effective July 1, 2004; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subdiv. (5) to add exemption for sales of certain medical equipment and supplies for patient care to and by acute care, for-profit hospitals, effective August 20, 2003, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 2005, and amended Subsec. (93) to change section reference for tourism district, effective August 20, 2003; P.A. 04-201 amended Subdiv. (5) to exempt sales of tangible personal property at hospitals by certain nonprofit entities, effective June 3, 2004, and applicable to sales occurring on or after January 1, 2002; P.A. 04-217 amended Subdiv. (82)(A) to replace reference to Sec. 14-1(11) with reference to Sec. 14-1(13) and amended Subdiv. (83)(A) to eliminate reference to Sec. 14-1(44), effective January 1, 2005; P.A. 04-231 amended Subdivs. (67) to (69), inclusive, to extend the sunset dates for the exemptions from July 1, 2004, to July 1, 2008, effective July 1, 2004, and added Subdiv. (115) re sale of certain passenger cars utilizing hybrid technology; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 04-2 amended Subdiv. (5) to delete exemption for equipment and supplies for patient care to and by acute care, for-profit hospitals which was to have taken effect July 1, 2005, and added exemption for tangible personal property or services to an acute care, for-profit hospital in connection with constructing or equipping certain facilities, effective May 12, 2004, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 2005; (Revisor's note: In 2005 a reference in Subdiv. (92) to "Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority"); P.A. 05-251 amended Subdiv. (109) by adding provisions re textbooks used at private occupational schools, effective July 1, 2005, and added Subdiv. (116) re sales of marine vessel brokerage services; P.A. 05-288 made technical changes in Subdiv. (82)(A), effective July 13, 2005; P.A. 06-150 amended Subdiv. (109) to change statutory references from Sec. 10a-22k to Sec. 10a-22o; P.A. 06-161 amended Subdiv. (115) to apply exemption to a hybrid passenger car rather than a passenger car utilizing hybrid technology and to define "hybrid passenger car"; P.A. 06-186 amended Subdivs. (76) and (77) by eliminating requirements that aircraft be owned or leased by certificated air carrier and have a maximum weight of 6,000 pounds or more, effective July 1, 2006; P.A. 06-187 amended Subdiv. (1) by adding the Connecticut Center for Science and Exploration in Subpara. (C)(ii), effective July 1, 2006, and amended Subdiv. (58) to add limited liability company as recipient of services and to extend exemption for sales from 10 years to 20 years from date of venture's incorporation, formation or organization, effective May 26, 2006; P.A. 07-242 amended Subdiv. (110) to extend sunset provision from on and after July 1, 2000, and prior to July 1, 2002, to on and after January 1, 2008, and prior to July 1, 2010, and to change mileage rating from at least 50 miles per gallon to at least 40 miles per gallon, effective January 1, 2008, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, and added Subdiv. (117) re exemption for solar energy electricity generating systems and passive or active solar water or space heating systems and geothermal resource systems and Subdiv. (118) re exemption for ice storage systems, effective July 1, 2007, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-4 amended Subdiv. (27)(B) by replacing provision re sales of food products through vending machines with provision re meals sold through vending machines or "honor boxes", effective July 1, 2007, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date, and amended Subdiv. (110) by replacing "passenger car" with "passenger motor vehicle, as defined in section 14-1", effective January 1, 2008, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 08-150 amended Subdiv. (82)(A) to make a technical change; P.A. 09-9 amended Subdiv. (57) to replace provision re federal food stamp coupons with "supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits", effective May 4, 2009; P.A. 10-32 made a technical change in Subdiv. (82)(A), effective May 10, 2010; P.A. 10-75 amended Subdiv. (117) by designating existing provisions as Subpara. (A) and adding Subpara. (B) re renewable energy and clean energy technology industries, effective July 1, 2010, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 2010; P.A. 11-6 repealed Subdivs. (47), (48), (52), (95), (97) and (111) re sale of articles of clothing or footwear costing under $50, nonprescription drugs and medicines, cloth or fabric purchased for noncommercial sewing, services or tangible personal property used or consumed in operating solid waste-to-energy facilities, yarn and products which aid in smoking cessation, effective July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date; P.A. 11-61 amended P.A. 11-6, S. 166, by deleting Subdiv. (95) re services or tangible personal property used or consumed in operating solid waste-to-energy facilities from list of Subdivs. to be repealed, effective June 21, 2011, and amended Subdiv. (80) by designating existing provisions as Subpara. (A) and adding Subpara. (B) re exemption for portion of the sales price of a vehicle attributable to previously-installed adaptive equipment, effective June 21, 2011, and applicable to all open tax periods; pursuant to P.A. 11-80, "Commissioner of Environmental Protection" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Commissioner of Energy and Environmental Protection" in Subdivs. (21), (22), (67) and (95), and "Department of Public Utility Control" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Public Utilities Regulatory Authority" in Subdiv. (106), effective July 1, 2011.

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      Sec. 12-412b. Regulations related to exemption for any article of clothing or footwear costing less than fifty dollars. Section 12-412b is repealed, effective July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date.

      (P.A. 85-3, S. 2, 3; 85-159, S. 9, 19; 85-469, S. 4, 6; P.A. 11-6, S. 166.)

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      Sec. 12-414. Returns and payment. (1) Due date; exception. The taxes imposed by this chapter are due and payable to the commissioner monthly on or before the last day of the month next succeeding each monthly period except that every person whose total tax liability for the twelve-month period ended on the preceding June thirtieth was less than four thousand dollars shall file returns on a quarterly basis. "Quarterly" means a period of three calendar months commencing on the first day of January, April, July or October of each year or, if any seller commences business on a date other than the first day of January, April, July or October, a period beginning on the date of commencement of business and ending on March thirty-first, June thirtieth, September thirtieth or December thirty-first, respectively.

      (2) Return. On or before the last day of the month following each monthly or quarterly period, as the case may be, a return for the preceding period shall be filed with the commissioner in such form as the commissioner may prescribe. For purposes of the sales tax a return shall be filed by every seller. For purposes of the use tax a return shall be filed by every retailer engaged in business in the state and by every person purchasing services or tangible personal property, the storage, acceptance, consumption or other use of which is subject to the use tax, who has not paid the use tax due a retailer required to collect the tax, except that every person making such purchases for personal use or consumption in this state, and not for use or consumption in carrying on a trade, occupation, business or profession, need file only one use tax return covering purchases during a calendar year. Such return shall be filed and the tax due thereon paid on or before the fifteenth day of the fourth month succeeding the end of the calendar year for which such return is filed. Returns shall be signed by the person required to file the return or by his authorized agent but need not be verified by oath, provided a return required to be filed by a corporation shall be signed by an officer of such corporation.

      (3) Contents of return. For purposes of the sales tax the return shall show the gross receipts of the seller during the preceding reporting period. For purposes of the use tax, in case of a return filed by a retailer, the return shall show the total sales price of the services or property sold by him, the storage, acceptance, consumption or other use of which became subject to the use tax during the preceding reporting period; in case of a return filed by a purchaser, the return shall show the total sales price of the service or property purchased by him, the storage, acceptance, consumption or other use of which became subject to the use tax during the preceding reporting period. The return shall also show the amount of the taxes for the period covered by the return in such manner as the commissioner may require and such other information as the commissioner deems necessary for the proper administration of this chapter. The Commissioner of Revenue Services is authorized in his discretion, for purposes of expediency, to permit returns to be filed in an alternative form wherein the person filing the return may elect to report his gross receipts, including the tax reimbursement to be collected as provided for herein, as a part of such gross receipts or to report his gross receipts exclusive of the tax collected in such cases where the gross receipts from sales have been segregated from tax collections. In the case of the former, the percentage of such tax-included gross receipts that may be considered to be the gross receipts from sales exclusive of the taxes collected thereon shall be computed by dividing the numeral one by the sum of the rate of tax provided in section 12-408, expressed as a decimal, and the numeral one.

      (4) Filing return. Returns, together with the amount of the tax due thereon, shall be filed with the Commissioner of Revenue Services.

      (5) Return periods. The commissioner, if he deems it necessary in order to insure payment to or facilitate the collection by the state of the amount of taxes, may permit or require returns and payment of the amount of taxes for other than monthly or quarterly periods.

      (6) Extension of time. The commissioner for good cause may extend the time for making any return and paying any amount required to be paid under this chapter, if a written request therefor is filed with the commissioner together with a tentative return which must be accompanied by a payment of the tax, which shall be estimated in such tentative return, on or before the last day for filing the return. Any person to whom an extension is granted shall pay, in addition to the tax, interest at the rate of one per cent per month or fraction thereof from the date on which the tax would have been due without the extension until the date of payment.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2098; 1951, 1953, June, 1955, S. 1170d; November, 1955, S. N147; 1957, P.A. 553, S. 4; 1961, P.A. 574, S. 5; June, 1969, P.A. 1, S. 21; June, 1971, P.A. 5, S. 108; 8, S. 8; 1972, P.A. 285, S. 5; P.A. 73-288, S. 5, 8; P.A. 74-73, S. 4, 5; P.A. 75-2, S. 4, 5; 75-213, S. 35, 53; Dec. Sp. Sess. P.A. 75-1, S. 1-4, 12; P.A. 76-322, S. 9, 27; P.A. 77-614, S. 139, 610; P.A. 80-71, S. 20, 30; 80-307, S. 17, 31; P.A. 81-399, S. 2, 3; 81-411, S. 25, 42; P.A. 82-467, S. 2, 3; P.A. 85-316, S. 1, 7; P.A. 89-251, S. 200, 203; P.A. 90-148, S. 9, 34; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 119, 168; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-5, S. 30, 37; P.A. 93-44, S. 5, 24; 93-74, S. 32, 67; P.A. 94-9, S. 18, 41; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 37, 85; P.A. 95-160, S. 64, 69; P.A. 96-139, S. 5, 13; 96-180, S. 27, 166; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 74; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3, S. 112; P.A. 11-6, S. 127.)

      History: 1961 act changed technical language in Subsec. (3) and changed amount of gross income considered as gross receipts from 97% to 96.6%; 1969 act amended Subsec. (3) to lower amount of gross income considered as gross receipts from 96.6% to 95.2% for period from July 1, 1969, to June 30, 1971; 1971 acts made 95.2% the permanent amount, then changed it to 93.9% as of September 1, 1971; 1972 act changed amount to 93.5%; P.A. 73-288 changed amount to 93.9%; P.A. 74-73 changed amount to 94.3%; P.A. 75-2 changed amount to 93.5%; P.A. 75-213 included references to "services" and "acceptance" in Subsecs. (2) and (3); Dec. Sp. Sess. P.A. 75-1 changed section to reflect monthly and quarterly payments, provisions for which were detailed in Subsec. (1), amended Subsec. (5) to allow commissioner to permit payments on basis other than monthly or quarterly and increased interest rate in Subsec. (6) from 0.5% to 0.75%; P.A. 76-322 increased interest rate in Subsec. (6) to 1%; P.A. 77-614 substituted commissioner of revenue services for tax commissioner, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-71 changed amount of gross income which may be considered as gross receipts to 93%; P.A. 80-307 temporarily increased interest rate in Subsec. (6) to 1.25% for taxes due on or after July 1, 1980, but not later than June 30, 1981; P.A. 81-399 amended Subsec. (4) by providing that any return and payment shall be deemed to have been filed within the time required if postmarked on or before the date such return and payment are required to be filed; P.A. 81-411 continued interest applicable under Subsec. (6) when an extension of time for payment is granted at 1.25% per month, effective July 1, 1981, and applicable to taxes becoming due on or after that date; P.A. 82-467 amended Subsec. (1) by eliminating certain redundant language and changing the order of certain dates in the definition of "quarterly" for clarification; P.A. 85-316 amended Subsec. (2) so as to require that a return filed by a corporation shall be signed by an officer of such corporation; P.A. 89-251 amended Subsec. (3) with respect to a person filing a return who elects to report gross receipts including the taxes collected, changing the percentage of gross receipts considered to be from sales, exclusive of taxes, to 92.5% of gross receipts, corresponding to the 8% rate of tax; P.A. 90-148 amended Subsec. (6) to increase the rate of interest added during the period of extension from 1.25% to 1.66% per month, effective July 1, 1990, and applicable to taxes becoming due on or after that date; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3 amended Subsec. (3) with respect to a person filing a return who elects to report gross receipts including the taxes collected, changing the percentage of gross receipts considered to be from sales, exclusive of taxes, to 94.3% of gross receipts, corresponding to the 6% rate of tax, effective August 22, 1991, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1991; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-5 amended Subsec. (2) to change the return date from the last day of the month following the end of the calendar year to the fifteenth day of the fourth month following the end of the calendar year, effective June 19, 1992, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1992; P.A. 93-44 added Subsec. (1)(b) re persons rendering services covered by Sec. 12-407(2)(o), effective April 23, 1993; P.A. 93-74 amended Subsec. (4) by deleting provision re time document is postmarked and filed, effective May 19, 1993, and applicable to taxable years commencing on and after January 1, 1993; P.A. 94-9 deleted Subsec. (1)(b) re quarterly filing by persons rendering services covered under Sec. 12-407(2)(o) and making payments in accordance with Sec. 19a-168b, effective April 1, 1994; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 in Subsec. (6) reduced interest rate from 1.66% to 1%, effective July 1, 1995, and applicable to taxes due and owing on or after said date; P.A. 95-160 revised effective date of May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 but without affecting this section; P.A. 96-139 and 96-180 both changed return due date from last day of the month succeeding the end of a calendar year to "fifteenth day of the fourth month" succeeding end of year, effective May 29, 1996, and June 3, 1996, respectively; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (1) to change the income test period for quarterly filers to the 12-month period ending the preceding June thirtieth; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 amended Subsec. (3) to change percentage of gross receipts from sales from 94.3% to 94.8%, corresponding to the 5.5% rate of tax, effective January 1, 2010 (Revisor's note: The amendments made to Subsec. (3) by Sec. 112 of June Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-3 did not take effect pursuant to Sec. 12-432c(a)); P.A. 11-6 amended Subsec. (3) by replacing 94.3% with provision re computation to determine percentage of tax-included gross receipts, effective July 1, 2011, and applicable to sales occurring on or after that date.

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      Sec. 12-430. Miscellaneous provisions. (1) Security for tax. The commissioner, whenever he deems it necessary to insure compliance with this chapter, may require any person subject thereto to deposit with him such security as the commissioner determines. The amount of the security shall be fixed by the commissioner but shall not be greater than six times the person's estimated average liability for the period for which he files returns, determined in such manner as the commissioner deems proper. The amount of the security may be increased or decreased by the commissioner subject to the limitations herein provided. The commissioner may sell the security at public auction if it becomes necessary so to do in order to recover any tax or any amount required to be collected, or any interest or penalty due. Notice of the sale may be served upon the person who deposited the security personally or by mail. If by mail, service shall be made in the manner prescribed for service of a notice of a deficiency assessment and shall be addressed to the person at his address as it appears in the records of the commissioner's office. Security in the form of a bearer bond, issued by the United States or the state of Connecticut, which has a prevailing market price may, however, be sold by the commissioner at private sale at a price not lower than the prevailing market price thereof. Upon any sale any surplus above the amounts due shall be returned to the person who deposited the security.

      (2) Penalty for delinquent filing of return. Repealed by P.A. 81-64, S. 22, 23.

      (3) Evidence of sales tax payment required before obtaining registration for motor vehicle, vessel, snowmobile or aircraft. Each person before obtaining an original or transferral registration for a motor vehicle, vessel, snowmobile or aircraft in this state shall furnish evidence that any tax due thereon pursuant to the provisions of this chapter has been paid in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Revenue Services, and on forms approved by, in the case of a motor vehicle, vessel or snowmobile, the Commissioner of Revenue Services and the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, and, in the case of an aircraft, the Commissioner of Revenue Services and the Commissioner of Transportation. The Commissioner of Motor Vehicles shall, upon the request of the Commissioner of Revenue Services, after hearing by the Commissioner of Revenue Services, suspend or revoke a motor vehicle, vessel or snowmobile registration of any person who fails to pay any tax due in connection with the sale, storage, use or other consumption of such motor vehicle, vessel or snowmobile pursuant to the provisions of this chapter. The Commissioner of Transportation shall, upon the request of the Commissioner of Revenue Services, after a hearing by the Commissioner of Revenue Services, suspend or revoke an aircraft registration of any person who fails to pay any tax due in connection with the sale, storage, use or other consumption of such aircraft pursuant to the provisions of this chapter.

      (4) Trade-in of motor vehicles, snowmobiles, aircraft, vessels or farm tractors. Where a trade-in of a motor vehicle is received by a motor vehicle dealer, upon the sale of another motor vehicle to a consumer, or where a trade-in of an aircraft, as defined in subdivision (5) of section 15-34, is received by an aircraft dealer, upon the sale of another aircraft to a consumer, or where a trade-in of a farm tractor, snowmobile or any vessel, as defined in section 15-127, is received by a retailer of farm tractors, snowmobiles or such vessels upon the sale of another farm tractor, snowmobile or such vessel to a consumer, the tax is only on the difference between the sale price of the motor vehicle, aircraft, snowmobile, farm tractor or such vessel purchased and the amount allowed on the motor vehicle, aircraft, snowmobile, farm tractor or such vessel traded in on such purchase. When any such motor vehicle, aircraft, snowmobile, farm tractor or such vessel traded in is subsequently sold to a consumer or user, the tax provided for in this chapter applies.

      (5) Payment of sales or use tax to another state. If any service or article of tangible personal property has already been subjected to a sales or use tax by any other state or political subdivision thereof and payment made thereon in respect to its sale or use in an amount less than the tax imposed by this chapter, the provisions of this chapter shall apply, but at a rate measured by the difference, only, between the rate herein fixed and the rate by which the previous tax upon the sale or use was computed. If such tax imposed in such other state or political subdivision thereof is equivalent to or in excess of the rate imposed under this chapter at the time of such sale or use, then no tax shall be due on such article.

      (6) Miscellaneous provisions. When a licensed motor vehicle dealer replaces a motor vehicle which has been registered to such dealer and the replaced motor vehicle is no longer in the possession of or used by such dealer, the tax imposed by this chapter shall be applicable only with respect to the difference between such dealer's cost for the new motor vehicle being registered, which motor vehicle is the replacement for said replaced motor vehicle, and the wholesale value of said replaced motor vehicle at the time of its replacement, determined in accordance with a standard reference book for such values acceptable to the Commissioner of Revenue Services.

      (7) Procedures for nonresident contractors. (A) As used in this subdivision:

      (i) "Nonresident contractor" means a contractor or subcontractor who does not maintain a regular place of business in this state;

      (ii) "Resident contractor" means a contractor or subcontractor who maintains a regular place of business in this state;

      (iii) "Verified contractor" means a nonresident contractor or subcontractor who (I) is registered for all applicable taxes with the department, (II) has filed all required tax returns with the department, (III) has no outstanding tax liabilities to the department, and (IV) is treated as a verified contractor by the commissioner pursuant to subparagraph (H) of this subdivision and whose status as such is verified by the commissioner pursuant to subparagraph (I) of this subdivision;

      (iv) "Unverified contractor" means a nonresident contractor or subcontractor who is not a verified contractor;

      (v) "Subcontractor" means a person who is engaged in contracting real property work and who contracts with a prime or general contractor to perform all or any part of the contract of the prime or general contractor, or who contracts with a subcontractor who has contracted to perform any part of the contract entered into by the prime or general contractor;

      (vi) "Prime or general contractor" includes (I) any person who contracts with the owner, lessee or other person having authority to enter into a contract involving the premises or property that is the subject matter of the contract, to perform services or furnish materials, or both, for the construction, alteration or improvement of any real property or project, or (II) any person who owns or leases real estate for the purpose of developing the real estate other than for his or her own occupancy, and who, in the development of the real estate, contracts, alters or makes improvements on it;

      (vii) "Regular place of business" means any bona fide office, factory, warehouse or other space in this state at which a contractor is doing business in its own name in a regular and systematic manner, and which place is continuously maintained, occupied and used by the contractor in carrying on its business through its employees regularly in attendance to carry on the contractor's business in the contractor's own name, except that "regular place of business" does not include a place of business for a statutory agent for service of process, or a temporary office or location used by the contractor only for the duration of the contract, whether or not at the site of construction, or an office maintained, occupied and used by a person affiliated with the contractor;

      (viii) "Contract price" means the total contract price, including deposits, amounts held as retainage, costs for any change orders or charges for add-ons;

      (ix) "Person doing business with an unverified contractor" does not include an owner or tenant of real property used exclusively for residential purposes and consisting of three or fewer dwelling units, in one of which the owner or tenant resides;

      (x) "Commissioner" means the Commissioner of Revenue Services;

      (xi) "Department" means the Department of Revenue Services; and

      (xii) "Certificate of compliance" means a certificate issued to an unverified subcontractor by the commissioner, exonerating such subcontractor from sales or use taxes owed by such subcontractor under this chapter and any income tax withholding owed by such subcontractor pursuant to chapter 229, but only to the extent that such taxes arise from the activities of such subcontractor on the project for which such certificate was required.

      (B) Any person doing business with a prime or general contractor who is an unverified contractor shall obtain proof that such contractor has posted with the commissioner a good and valid bond with a surety company authorized to do business in this state in an amount equal to five per cent of the contract price, to secure the payment of any sums due under this chapter either from such contractor or from any subcontractor who enters into a contract with such contractor or any subcontractor thereto to perform any part of the contract entered into by such contractor or subcontractor thereto.

      (C) (i) Every prime or general contractor who is an unverified contractor shall post with the commissioner a good and valid bond with a surety company authorized to do business in this state in an amount equal to five per cent of the contract price, to secure the payment of any sums due under this chapter either from such contractor or from any subcontractor who enters into a contract with such contractor to perform any part of the contract entered into by such contractor. The commissioner shall release such contractor from its obligations under such bond if it has been established, to the commissioner's satisfaction, that such contractor has met the requirements of either clause (ii) or (iii) of this subparagraph.

      (ii) If a prime or general contractor who is an unverified contractor establishes, to the satisfaction of the commissioner by submitting such documentation, including any forms prescribed by the commissioner, as the commissioner deems necessary, that such contractor has paid all of the taxes that it owes in connection with the contract and that its subcontractors who are unverified contractors have paid all of the taxes that they owe in connection with the contract, the commissioner shall release such contractor from its obligations under the bond.

      (iii) (I) If a prime or general contractor who is an unverified contractor establishes, to the satisfaction of the commissioner by submitting such documentation, including any forms prescribed by the commissioner, as the commissioner deems necessary, that such contractor has paid all of the taxes that it owes in connection with the contract, has held back an amount equal to five per cent of the payments being made by such contractor in connection with the contract to its subcontractors who are unverified contractors, and has complied with the provisions of either subclause (V) or (VI) of this clause, as the case may be, the commissioner shall release such contractor from its obligations under the bond.

      (II) Every prime or general contractor who is an unverified contractor and doing business with a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor shall hold back an amount equal to five per cent of such payments otherwise required to be made to such subcontractor until such subcontractor furnishes such contractor with a certificate of compliance, as described in this clause, authorizing the full or partial release of the amount held back from such payments to such subcontractor. Such contractor shall provide written notice of the requirement to hold back to each subcontractor who is an unverified contractor not later than the time of commencement of work under the contract by such subcontractor.

      (III) The amount required to be held back from a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor, when so held back, shall be held to be a special fund in trust for the state. No such subcontractor shall have any right of action against a prime or general contractor holding back under this clause with respect to any amount held back in compliance with or intended compliance with this clause.

      (IV) Any subcontractor who is an unverified contractor shall, upon the completion of its work under the contract, request the commissioner, in writing, for the issuance of a certificate of compliance to such subcontractor. Such subcontractor shall submit, with such request, such documentation, including any forms prescribed by the commissioner, as the commissioner deems necessary. The commissioner shall, after receipt of such request and such required documentation, review the documentation in the context of generally accepted construction industry cost guidelines for the scope and type of construction project. Not later than one hundred twenty days after the receipt by the commissioner of the required documentation, the commissioner shall either issue a certificate of compliance authorizing the full or partial release of an amount held back from payments being made to such subcontractor, or shall be deemed to have issued such certificate.

      (V) If the commissioner issues a certificate of compliance authorizing a full release of the amount held back from a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor, the prime or general contractor holding back such amount shall pay over such amount to such subcontractor. Such contractor shall not be liable for any claim of the commissioner for any taxes of such subcontractor arising from the activities of such subcontractor on the project.

      (VI) If the commissioner issues a certificate of compliance authorizing a partial release of the amount held back from a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor, the prime or general contractor holding back such amount shall pay over the released amount to such subcontractor and shall pay over the unreleased amount to the commissioner. When such contractor pays over to the commissioner an amount held back in accordance with this subclause, such contractor shall not be liable for any claim of such subcontractor for such amount or for any claim of the commissioner for any taxes of such subcontractor arising from the activities of such subcontractor on the project for which the amount was paid over. If the amount that such contractor is required to pay over to the commissioner is not paid over on or before the thirtieth day after the date of mailing of such certificate of compliance, such contractor shall be liable for a penalty equal to ten per cent of such amount. The amount that such contractor is required to pay over to the commissioner, and the penalty thereon, may be collected under the provisions of section 12-35.

      (VII) The commissioner shall treat the issuance to a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor of a certificate of compliance authorizing a partial release of an amount held back in the same manner as the issuance to such subcontractor of a notice of assessment under section 12-415.

      (VIII) The issuance to a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor of a certificate of compliance shall not preclude the commissioner, in the exercise of the commissioner's authority under this chapter, from examining the tax returns and books and records of such subcontractor and, if appropriate and other than in connection with the project for which the certificate of compliance was issued, from making an assessment against such subcontractor.

      (D) (i) Every prime or general contractor who is either a resident contractor or a verified contractor and doing business with a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor shall hold back an amount equal to five per cent of such payments otherwise required to be made to such subcontractor until such subcontractor furnishes such contractor with a certificate of compliance, as described in this subparagraph, authorizing the full or partial release of the amount held back from such payments to such subcontractor. Such contractor shall provide written notice of the requirement to hold back to each subcontractor who is an unverified contractor not later than the time of commencement of work under the contract by such subcontractor.

      (ii) The amount required to be held back from a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor, when so held back, shall be held to be a special fund in trust for the state. No such subcontractor shall have any right of action against a prime or general contractor holding back under this subparagraph with respect to any amount held back in compliance with or intended compliance with this subparagraph.

      (iii) A subcontractor who is an unverified contractor shall, upon the completion of its work under the contract, request the commissioner, in writing, for the issuance of a certificate of compliance to such subcontractor. Such subcontractor shall submit, with such request, such documentation, including any forms prescribed by the commissioner, as the commissioner deems necessary. The commissioner shall, after receipt of such request and such required documentation, review the documentation in the context of generally accepted construction industry cost guidelines for the scope and type of construction project. Not later than one hundred twenty days after the receipt by the commissioner of the required documentation, the commissioner shall either issue a certificate of compliance authorizing the full or partial release of an amount held back from payments being made to such subcontractor or shall be deemed to have issued such certificate.

      (iv) If the commissioner issues a certificate of compliance authorizing a full release of the amount held back from a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor, the prime or general contractor holding back such amount shall pay over such amount to such subcontractor. Such contractor shall not be liable for any claim of the commissioner for any taxes of such subcontractor arising from the activities of such subcontractor on the project.

      (v) If the commissioner issues a certificate of compliance authorizing a partial release of the amount held back from a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor, the prime or general contractor holding back such amount shall pay over the released amount to such subcontractor and shall pay over the unreleased amount to the commissioner. When such contractor pays over to the commissioner an amount held back in accordance with this clause, such contractor shall not be liable for any claim of such subcontractor for such amount or for any claim of the commissioner for any taxes of such subcontractor arising from the activities of such subcontractor on the project for which the amount was paid over. If the amount that such contractor is required to pay over to the commissioner is not paid over on or before the thirtieth day after the date of mailing of such certificate of compliance, such contractor shall be liable for a penalty equal to ten per cent of such amount. The amount that such contractor is required to pay over to the commissioner, and the penalty thereon, may be collected under the provisions of section 12-35.

      (vi) The commissioner shall treat the issuance to a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor of a certificate of compliance authorizing a partial release of an amount held back in the same manner as the issuance to such subcontractor of a notice of assessment under section 12-415.

      (vii) The issuance to a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor of a certificate of compliance shall not preclude the commissioner, in the exercise of the commissioner's authority under this chapter, from examining the tax returns and books and records of such subcontractor and, if appropriate and other than in connection with the project for which the certificate of compliance was issued, from making an assessment against such subcontractor.

      (E) When a nonresident contractor enters into a contract with the state, such contractor shall provide the Labor Department with evidence demonstrating compliance with the provisions of chapters 567 and 568, the prevailing wage requirements of chapter 557 and any other provisions of the general statutes related to conditions of employment.

      (F) (i) If any person doing business with an unverified prime or general contractor fails to comply with the provisions of this subdivision, such person shall, except as otherwise provided by clause (ii) of this subparagraph, be personally liable for payment of any taxes of the unverified contractor arising from the activities of such contractor on the project. For purposes of this clause, "taxes of the unverified contractor" means any sales or use taxes owed by the unverified contractor under this chapter and any income tax withholding owed by the unverified contractor pursuant to chapter 229.

      (ii) Except as otherwise provided in clause (iii) of this subparagraph, the personal liability of any person doing business with an unverified prime or general contractor for payment of any taxes of such unverified contractor arising from the activities of such contractor on the project shall not exceed an amount equal to five per cent of the contract price required to be paid to such unverified contractor.

      (iii) Notwithstanding the provisions of clause (ii) of this subparagraph, any person doing business with an unverified prime or general contractor shall, in addition to such person's personal liability under clause (ii) of this subparagraph, remain liable for use taxes due on purchases of services from such unverified contractor in connection with the project.

      (G) The provisions of this subdivision shall not apply to any contract in which the contract price for the entire project is less than two hundred fifty thousand dollars.

      (H) (i) The commissioner shall treat as a verified contractor or subcontractor every nonresident contractor or subcontractor who (I) has been registered for all applicable taxes with the department for at least three years preceding the contract; and (II) has filed all required tax returns with the department and has no outstanding tax liabilities to the department.

      (ii) The commissioner shall treat as a verified contractor or subcontractor every nonresident contractor or subcontractor not otherwise eligible to be treated as a verified contractor or subcontractor pursuant to clause (i) of this subparagraph who (I) is registered for all applicable taxes with the department; (II) has filed all required tax returns with the department and has no outstanding tax liabilities to the department; and (III) posts with the commissioner a good and valid bond with a surety company authorized to do business in this state in an amount determined by the commissioner, as provided in subdivision (1) of this section.

      (I) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 12-15, the commissioner shall, upon request, verify whether or not a nonresident contractor or subcontractor is a verified contractor.

      (J) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 12-15, the commissioner shall, upon request, disclose to a person doing business with a subcontractor who is an unverified contractor and otherwise required by this subdivision to hold back an amount from payments being made to such subcontractor, whether a certificate of compliance has been requested by, or issued to, such subcontractor by the commissioner, and the commissioner may disclose a copy of such certificate to such person doing business with such subcontractor.

      (K) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 12-15, the commissioner shall, upon request, disclose to a person doing business with a prime or general contractor who is an unverified contractor whether a good and valid bond with a surety company authorized to do business in this state has been posted with the commissioner by such prime or general contractor.

      (L) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 12-15, the commissioner shall, upon request, verify whether or not any contractor or subcontractor is a resident contractor.

      (1949 Rev., S. 2114; 1951, S. 1175d, 1176d; September, 1957, P.A. 13, S. 2; 1961, P.A. 399; 1969, P.A. 752, S. 13; June, 1969, P.A. 1, S. 22; June, 1971, P.A. 5, S. 128; P.A. 73-166; 73-518, S. 1, 2; 73-520; P.A. 74-338, S. 16, 94; P.A. 75-213, S. 41, 53; 75-470, S. 1, 2; Dec. Sp. Sess. P.A. 75-1, S. 10-12; P.A. 76-199, S. 1, 3; P.A. 77-614, S. 139, 610; P.A. 81-64, S. 22, 23; P.A. 82-36, S. 1, 3; P.A. 88-6, S. 5; 88-7, S. 1; P.A. 89-123, S. 6; P.A. 91-127, S. 1; P.A. 93-288, S. 6, 7; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 20, 85; P.A. 95-160, S. 64, 69; 95-260, S. 2, 24; P.A. 00-174, S. 17, 83; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-6, S. 45, 85; P.A. 03-147, S. 1; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 76; P.A. 05-260, S. 6; P.A. 11-61, S. 66.)

      History: 1961 act provided that Subsec. (4) apply only to Connecticut motor vehicle dealers; 1969 acts included snowmobiles in Subsecs. (3) and (4), deleted references to dealers "licensed under the provisions of subpart (D) of part III of chapter 246 and holding a valid seller's permit" in Subsec. (4) and added provision re computation of tax during period between July 1, 1969, and July 1, 1971, in Subsec. (4); 1971 act deleted special provisions re tax between 1969 and 1971 in Subsec. (4); P.A. 73-166 increased amount of security from $10,000 to $20,000 in Subsec. (1); P.A. 73-518 placed snowmobiles and dealers in provision re dealers of farm tractors rather than in provision re motor vehicle dealers and included dealers of vessels under Subsec. (4); P.A. 73-520 added Subsec. (6) re dealers' replacement vehicles; P.A. 74-338 made technical change in Subsec. (4); P.A. 75-213 included references to "acceptance" and "services"; P.A. 75-470 added Subsec. (7) re bond requirement for nonresident contractor; December, 1975, P.A. 75-1 increased alternate amounts of security in Subsec. (1) at six times, rather than two times, the person's estimated average liability for filing period and deleted "quarterly or other" with reference to tax periods, effective January 1, 1976, and applicable to taxes imposed by chapter 219 on or after that date; P.A. 76-199 included boats in Subsec. (3) and made technical correction; P.A. 77-614 substituted commissioner of revenue services for tax commissioner, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 81-64 repealed Subsec. (2) re penalty for delinquent filing of return; P.A. 82-36 increased the maximum security that may be required under Subsec. (1) to insure compliance with sales tax requirements, which maximum security prior to P.A. 82-36 was six times the taxpayer's estimated average liability or $20,000, whichever is less, by raising $20,000 to $100,000; P.A. 88-6 amended Subsec. (3) by including registration of aircraft as subject to the requirements of this Subsec. and adding the requirement previously in Sec. 12-431 that proof of property tax payment be made before allowing exemption from sales tax for certain transfers of motor vehicles under said Sec. 12-431; P.A. 88-7 amended Subsec. (3) by inserting provisions deleted from Sec. 12-431 by P.A. 88-7, requiring each person eligible for exemption under use tax for a motor vehicle as allowed in Sec. 12-431(a) or (b) to furnish evidence that property tax applicable to the motor vehicle has been paid in full; P.A. 89-123 amended Subsec. (3) by substituting the term "vessel" for the term "boat", wherever it appeared in the subsection; P.A. 91-127 amended Subsec. (1) to remove the upper limit of $100,000 on the required security; (Revisor's note: In 1993 the following language, which was omitted from the 1991 revision due to clerical error, was reinstated editorially at the end of Subsec. (3): "suspend or revoke an aircraft registration of any person who fails to pay any tax due in connection with the sale, storage, use or other consumption of such aircraft pursuant to the provisions of this chapter"); P.A. 93-288 amended Subsec. (7) increasing bond requirement from 3% of the total amount of the contract to 5% of the total amount of the contract and adding Subdiv. (7) re information to be supplied by nonresident contractors, effective July 1, 1993; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 in Subsec. (4) included the trade-in of aircraft, effective July 1, 1996, and applicable to sales occurring on or after said date; P.A. 95-160 changed the effective date of May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 20 to July 1, 1997, and applicable to sales on or after that date; P.A. 95-260 amended Subsec. (3) to eliminate provision requiring person to furnish evidence of payment of property tax applicable to the motor vehicle before obtaining original or transferral motor vehicle registration and provision as to what evidence of payment consists of, effective July 1, 1995 (Revisor's note: A reference in Subsec. (7) to "Department of Labor" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Labor Department" for consistency with customary statutory usage); P.A. 00-174 added Subdivs. (7)(a)(ii) and (7)(b)(ii) re security for tax required of direct payment permit holders, specified when persons other than direct payment permit holders shall make payments under this section and made technical changes, effective October 1, 2000, and applicable to contracts entered into on or after that date; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-6 amended Subdiv. (7)(b) to extend the deadline for a person who hires an out-of-state contractor to post security for payment of sales tax on property to be consumed in fulfilling the contract, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 03-147 amended Subdiv. (7) to delete former Subsecs. (a) to (c), to add new Subparas. (A) to (D) re deposit requirements for persons doing business with nonresident contractors and to redesignate existing Subsec. (d) as Subpara. (E), effective July 1, 2003, and applicable to contracts entered into on or after that date; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 added Subdiv. (7)(F) re guarantee bond in lieu of the requirements of Subpara. (B), effective August 20, 2003; P.A. 05-260 amended Subdiv. (7) by adding definitions for "contract price" and "person doing business with a nonresident contractor", providing for a certificate of compliance as alternative method of ensuring payment of tax, requiring tax payments to be held in special fund, adding Subparas. (G) and (H) re liability for taxes, and making other conforming changes, effective October 1, 2005, and applicable to contracts entered into on or after that date; P.A. 11-61 replaced former Subdiv. (7) re nonresident contractors with new Subdiv. (7) re procedures for doing business with nonresident contractors.

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      Sec. 12-431. Tax on casual sales of motor vehicles, vessels, snowmobiles and aircraft. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in subdivision (2) or (3) of this subsection, in case of the purchase of any motor vehicle, snowmobile, vessel or aircraft other than from a licensed motor vehicle dealer or licensed motor vehicle lessor, a snowmobile dealer, a licensed marine dealer or a retailer of aircraft, respectively, the receipts therefrom shall not be included in the measure of the sales tax, but the purchaser thereof shall pay a use tax on the total purchase price thereof to the Commissioner of Revenue Services, as provided in section 12-411, in the case of tangible personal property purchased from a retailer, and, in the case of motor vehicles, vessels and snowmobiles, before obtaining an original or transferal registration, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Revenue Services and on forms approved by the Commissioner of Revenue Services and the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles, and, in the case of aircraft, before obtaining an original or transferal registration, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Commissioner of Revenue Services and on forms approved by the Commissioner of Revenue Services and the Commissioner of Transportation.

      (2) No use tax shall be payable in cases of purchase (A) when the purchaser is the spouse, mother, father, brother, sister or child of the seller, (B) when a motor vehicle or vessel is sold in connection with the organization, reorganization or liquidation of an incorporated business, provided the last taxable sale or use of the motor vehicle or vessel was subjected to a tax imposed by this chapter and the purchaser is the incorporated business or a stockholder thereof, (C) when a motor vehicle is sold in connection with the organization or termination of a partnership or limited liability company, provided the last taxable sale or use of the motor vehicle was subjected to a tax imposed by this chapter and the purchaser is the partnership or limited liability company, as the case may be, or a partner or member thereof as the case may be, or (D) when a motor vehicle which has been declared a total loss pursuant to the provisions of section 14-16c is rebuilt for sale or use, provided the purchaser was subjected to the tax imposed by this chapter for the last taxable sale of said vehicle.

      (3) When a motor vehicle in which special equipment has previously been installed exclusively for the use of a person with physical disabilities is sold for use by a person with physical disabilities, the purchaser shall pay a use tax on the total purchase price of the vehicle, less the portion of such price attributable to such special equipment. Unless established otherwise, the portion of the purchase price attributable to the motor vehicle shall be deemed to be the value determined pursuant to subsection (b) of this section.

      (b) In order to determine the total purchase price of a motor vehicle for the purposes of this section, the commissioner shall, by regulation, adopt by reference a book of valuations, for various purposes, of motor vehicles published by a nationally recognized organization. The commissioner shall, by regulation, determine which of the various valuations of motor vehicles contained in any such book is appropriate for the purposes of this section and such value shall, regardless of the value placed on the motor vehicle at the time of the purchase by the parties to such transaction, be presumed to be the total purchase price of such motor vehicle for the purposes of this section unless the purchaser can prove to the satisfaction of the commissioner that such value is incorrect.

      (1951, 1953, June, 1955, S. 1177d; 1957, P.A. 459, S. 1; September, 1957, P.A. 13, S. 3; 1959, P.A. 533; 1969, P.A. 752, S. 14; P.A. 76-199, S. 2, 3; P.A. 77-614, S. 139, 610; P.A. 82-416, S. 1, 3; P.A. 86-73, S. 1, 2; P.A. 88-6, S. 6; 88-7, S. 2; 88-24, S. 1, 2; P.A. 89-123, S. 7; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 155, 168; P.A. 95-260, S. 22, 24; P.A. 97-243, S. 31, 67; P.A. 99-173, S. 29, 65; P.A. 00-174, S. 18, 83; P.A. 11-61, S. 61.)

      History: 1959 act clarified language re when use tax not paid and provided additionally that use tax not paid when transferee is the incorporated or unincorporated business involved or a stockholder, owner, member or partner of such business; 1969 act included snowmobiles under provisions of section; P.A. 76-199 included boats under provisions of section; P.A. 77-614 substituted commissioner of revenue services for tax commissioner, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 82-416 amended provision which allows transfer of a motor vehicle owned by a business without imposition of use tax in the event of dissolution or reorganization of such business and such transfer is to an owner of the business, by providing that transfer of a boat under such conditions be allowed the same exemption from use tax as in the case of a motor vehicle; P.A. 86-73 added the provision that in the case of any transfer of a motor vehicle as provided under Subdiv. (a) or (b) of this section, any property tax applicable to the motor vehicle transferred becoming due prior thereto shall be paid in full before registration of the motor vehicle transferred may be obtained, effective July 1, 1986, and applicable to such transfers occurring on or after that date; P.A. 88-6 changed "airplane" to "aircraft" and provided for payment of use tax by a purchaser of aircraft before obtaining registration; P.A. 88-7 deleted provisions requiring each person eligible for exemption under use tax for a motor vehicle as allowed in Subdiv. (a) or (b) to furnish evidence that property tax applicable to the motor vehicle has been paid in full, which provisions were inserted by P.A. 88-7 in Subsec. (3) of Sec. 12-430; P.A. 88-24 restated provisions allowing exemption from use tax for transfer of a motor vehicle in connection with the organization or termination of a partnership provided the transfer is to the partnership or a partner thereof; P.A. 89-123 substituted the term "vessel" for the term "boat" wherever it appeared; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3 added Subsec. (b), concerning the method of valuation of motor vehicles under this section, effective August 22, 1991, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1991; P.A. 95-260 amended Subsec. (a) to add a new Subdiv. (4) to allow exemption from use tax for transfer of a motor vehicle declared a total loss and rebuilt for sale or use provided transferee was subjected to tax imposed by chapter for last taxable sale of vehicle, effective June 13, 1995, and applicable to sales or transfers occurring on and after July 1, 1995; P.A. 97-243 amended Subsec. (a) to add "licensed motor vehicle lessor", effective June 24, 1997, and applicable to sales occurring on or after October 1, 1997; P.A. 99-173 amended Subsec. (a) to expand the exemption to sales in connection with the organization or termination of limited liability companies, effective June 23, 1999, and applicable to sales occurring on or after July 1, 1999; P.A. 00-174 amended Subsec. (a) to delete provision re federal treatment of casual sales for purposes of this section and to make technical changes for purposes of grammar and organization of this section, effective May 26, 2000; P.A. 11-61 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdiv. (3) re exemption for portion of the sales price of a vehicle attributable to previously installed adaptive equipment, effective June 21, 2011, and applicable to all open tax periods.

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