CHAPTER 283*
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC UTILITY CONTROL:
TELEGRAPH, TELEPHONE, ILLUMINATING,
POWER AND WATER COMPANIES

      *Cited. 12 CA 499.

Table of Contents

Sec. 16-228. Telegraph and telephone lines.
Sec. 16-229. Excavation in highway.
Sec. 16-230. Bond requirement.
Sec. 16-231. Appeal.
Sec. 16-232. Rights of companies organized under general law.
Sec. 16-233. Municipal and state signal wires.
Sec. 16-234. Rights of adjoining proprietors.
Sec. 16-235. Control by local authorities. Orders. Appeals.
Sec. 16-236. Appraisal of damages; costs.
Sec. 16-237. No prescriptive right.
Sec. 16-238. Wires may be cut; notice.
Sec. 16-239. Dispatches transmitted in order. Exceptions.
Sec. 16-240. Delivery of messages.
Sec. 16-241. Mortgage by telegraph company.
Sec. 16-242. Telephone service to telegraph companies.
Sec. 16-243. Jurisdiction of department over electricity transmission lines.
Sec. 16-243a. Private power producers. Purchase and sale of electricity. Avoided costs. Small renewable power projects. Interconnectivity standards.
Sec. 16-243b. Definitions. Jurisdiction.
Sec. 16-243c. Electricity transmission and distribution services for electric cooperatives utilizing cogeneration technology and renewable energy resources.
Sec. 16-243d. Project by private power producer deemed "industrial project".
Sec. 16-243e. Electric company purchase of electricity generated by municipal resources recovery facilities.
Sec. 16-243f. Private power providers. Regulations concerning the purchase and sale of electricity.
Sec. 16-243g. Assignment of electricity purchase agreements.
Sec. 16-243h. Credit to residential customers who generate electricity; metering.
Sec. 16-243i. Awards to retail end use electric customers and electric distribution companies re customer-side distributed resources.
Sec. 16-243j. Long-term financing for customer-side distributed resources and advanced power monitoring and metering equipment.
Sec. 16-243k. Assessment of customer-side and grid-side distributed resources, effectiveness of award program.
Sec. 16-243l. Rebate for customer-side distributed resource projects that use natural gas.
Sec. 16-243m. Measures to reduce federally mandated congestion charges.
Sec. 16-243n. Time-of-use, mandatory peak, shoulder, off-peak and seasonal rates. Optional interruptible or load response rates.
Sec. 16-243o. Waiver of back-up power rates.
Sec. 16-243p. Recovery of costs and investments by an electric distribution company.
Sec. 16-243q. Class III renewable energy portfolio standards.
Sec. 16-243r. Customer-side distributed resources and grid-side distributed resources. Qualifications for applicability of certain provisions.
Sec. 16-243s. Awards to electric distribution companies for programs for load curtailment, demand reduction and retrofit conservation.
Sec. 16-243t. Class III credits.
Sec. 16-243u. Plan to build peaking generation.
Sec. 16-243v. Connecticut electric efficiency partner program.
Sec. 16-243w. Advanced metering system plan and deployment.
Sec. 16-244. Electric deregulation; findings and declarations.
Sec. 16-244a. Rate freeze for electric service.
Sec. 16-244b. Electric customers to choose electric suppliers. Phase-in of electric deregulation.
Sec. 16-244c. Standard offer. Transitional standard offer. Standard service. Alternative transitional standard offer and standard service. Supplier of last resort. Back-up generation service. Participating electric suppliers.
Sec. 16-244d. Education outreach program for electric deregulation. Consumer Education Advisory Council established. Determination of environmental costs and benefits of energy sources.
Sec. 16-244e. Unbundling by electric companies of generation functions from transmission and distribution functions. Plan.
Sec. 16-244f. Divestiture of nonnuclear electric generation facilities. Plan. Approval of sale by department.
Sec. 16-244g. Divestiture of nuclear electric generation facilities. Plan. Approval of sale by department.
Sec. 16-244h. Code of conduct for electric distribution companies, generation entities or affiliates and electric suppliers. Contents of code. Penalties, damages.
Sec. 16-244i. Duties of electric distribution companies.
Sec. 16-244j. Electric transmission lines from Bethel to Norwalk. Moratorium. Working group and comprehensive assessment.
Sec. 16-244k. Allocation of the proceeds of the retail adder.
Sec. 16-244l. Modification of fuel cell electricity purchase agreements.
Sec. 16-245. Licensing of electric suppliers. Procedures. Penalties. Registration of electric aggregators. Procedures. Penalties.
Sec. 16-245a. Renewable energy portfolio standards.
Sec. 16-245b. Municipalities and regional water authorities acting as electric aggregators; registration with department.
Sec. 16-245c. Municipal electric utilities participating in deregulated environment. Authority to provide generation services outside service area.
Sec. 16-245d. Billing of electric service; standard format; contents.
Sec. 16-245e. Stranded costs of electric companies. Definitions. Calculation by department, procedures, adjustments. Mitigation. Defeasance or purchase of rate reduction bonds.
Sec. 16-245f. Funding of certain disbursements to the General Fund. Funding of stranded costs through rate reduction bonds. Funding of economic recovery transfer through economic recovery revenue bonds. Assessment.
Sec. 16-245g. Competitive transition assessment. Determination by department of amount and how applied to electric customers. Duration.
Sec. 16-245h. Transition property. Surplus competitive transition assessment. Restrictions on use of transition property by electric or electric distribution companies.
Sec. 16-245i. Financing orders re the economic recovery transfer, the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund, the Renewable Energy Investment Fund and stranded costs.
Sec. 16-245j. Rate reduction bonds and economic recovery revenue bonds; terms.
Sec. 16-245k. Security interest in transition property described; creation; perfection. Transferring transition property. Duration of department's authority to issue financing orders.
Sec. 16-245l. Systems benefits charge. Determination by department of amount and how applied to customers.
Sec. 16-245m. Assessment for conservation and load management programs. Disbursement of funds raised pursuant to financing orders. Establishment of Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund. Energy Conservation Management Board.
Sec. 16-245n. Renewable Energy Investment Fund created; charge assessed against electric customers to fund Investment Fund; purpose.
Sec. 16-245o. Restrictions on use of customer information for marketing. Promotional inserts in electric bills prohibited. Procedures for entering and terminating service contracts. Penalties.
Sec. 16-245p. Information re electric supplier and electric distribution company to be provided to customers.
Sec. 16-245q. Changing electric suppliers.
Sec. 16-245r. Discrimination by electric suppliers prohibited.
Sec. 16-245s. Switching electric suppliers; procedures; penalties; regulations.
Sec. 16-245t. Complaints to department re electric suppliers; procedures; remedies.
Sec. 16-245u. Unfair and discriminatory conduct and unfair trade practices in electric market prohibited. Investigations.
Sec. 16-245v. List of displaced electric utility employees to be provided to distribution companies and electric suppliers.
Sec. 16-245w. Fee to be paid by self-generation facilities in lieu of certain assessments; study by department.
Sec. 16-245x. Monitoring and reporting by department of electric rates of each customer class. Action to minimize rate differential.
Sec. 16-245y. Annual reporting re status of electric deregulation.
Sec. 16-245z. Internet links to Energy Star program.
Sec. 16-245aa. Municipal renewable energy and efficient energy generation grant program.
Sec. 16-245bb. Bond authorization.
Sec. 16-245cc. Demand charge waiver for fuel cells.
Sec. 16-245dd. Residential electric space heating tariff.
Sec. 16-246. Other companies which may sell electricity.
Sec. 16-246a. Definitions.
Secs. 16-246b to 16-246d. Area within which domestic company may generate and transmit electric energy. Area within which foreign electric company may generate and transmit electric energy. Joint ownership of facility; waiver of right to petition.
Sec. 16-246e. Procurement and sale by department of electric power capacity and power output from out-of-state producers. Approval by Governor.
Sec. 16-246f. Electric company emergency assistance.
Sec. 16-246g. Pilot program for electric generation.
Sec. 16-247. Foreign telephone companies.
Sec. 16-247a. Goals of the state. Definitions.
Sec. 16-247b. Unbundling of telephone company's network, services and functions. Access to telephone company's telecommunications services, functions and unbundled network elements. Rates for competitive or emerging competitive service. Subsidization prohibited.
Sec. 16-247c. Provision of intrastate telecommunications services. Civil penalty. Competition.
Sec. 16-247d. Biennial reports on competition for intrastate interexchange telecommunications service. Plan for implementing competition. General Assembly approval required.
Sec. 16-247e. Basic telecommunications services. Lifeline and telecommunications relay service programs. Universal service program.
Sec. 16-247f. Regulation of telecommunications services: Initial classifications, reclassifications, tariffs.
Sec. 16-247g. Certificate of public convenience and necessity for intrastate telecommunications services: Application, requirements, suspension, revocation. Fees. Obligation to serve.
Sec. 16-247h. Use of public right-of-way for provision of intrastate telecommunications service.
Sec. 16-247i. Telecommunications service and regulation status report.
Sec. 16-247j. Regulations.
Sec. 16-247k. Alternative forms of regulation for telephone companies: Plan requirements, monitoring period, modification.
Sec. 16-247l. Access by certified telecommunications providers to occupied buildings: Service, wiring, compensation, regulations, civil penalty.
Sec. 16-247m. Withdrawal by telephone company of retail telecommunications service. Applications.
Sec. 16-247n. Certification of telephone company's operations support systems interface. Rates. Proceedings.
Sec. 16-247o. Consultant to test operations support systems interface.
Sec. 16-247p. Quality-of-service standards. Performance standards.
Sec. 16-247q. Education outreach program for telecommunications competition, scope. Consumer Education Advisory Council established.
Sec. 16-247r. Discrimination by telephone companies and certified telecommunications providers prohibited.
Sec. 16-247s. Directory assistance database. Disclosure and distribution of cellular mobile telephone numbers.
Sec. 16-247t. Customer inquiries and complaints regarding cellular mobile telephone service.
Sec. 16-247u. Unauthorized procurement and sale of telephone records. Definitions. Exclusions. Telephone company protection of records. Penalties. Unfair trade practice.
Sec. 16-248. Rights of telephone company in operation May 23, 1985.
Sec. 16-249. Department to authorize extension of operations of telephone companies.
Sec. 16-250. Determination of public convenience and necessity for extension.
Sec. 16-250a. Reselling or sharing of line purchased or leased from telephone company.
Sec. 16-250b. Cellular mobile telephone service. Department jurisdiction over. Regulations.
Sec. 16-251. Bonds of telephone company.
Sec. 16-252. Bonds may be secured by mortgage.
Secs. 16-253 and 16-254. Amount of capital to be paid in. Subscriptions for cash.
Sec. 16-255. General powers.
Secs. 16-255a to 16-255i. Acquisition of control of domestic telephone companies limited; statement; expenses of department. Form of statement. Hearing re department approval of acquisition; standard of review. Nonvotable securities; injunctive relief. Regulations. Appeals. Remedial and penal provisions. Exemptions. Severability.
Sec. 16-256. Notice of offense in party line usage in telephone directory.
Sec. 16-256a. Directory assistance charge prohibited.
Sec. 16-256b. Special telecommunications equipment for deaf and hearing impaired persons. Fund. Amplification controls for coin and coinless telephones installed for public or semipublic use.
Sec. 16-256c. Extended local calling criteria. Calling volume. Subscriber survey and vote. Petitions.
Sec. 16-256d. Itemized telephone bills for business customers.
Sec. 16-256e. Recorded telephone message devices prohibited.
Sec. 16-256f. Blocking service available to customers.
Sec. 16-256g. Proceeding to determine monthly subscriber fee. Assessment of subscribers for Enhanced 9-1-1 Telecommunications Fund.
Sec. 16-256h. Business to residential pricing ratio for basic exchange service.
Sec. 16-256i. Primary local or intrastate interexchange carrier orders. Unauthorized switching. Penalty.
Sec. 16-256j. Billing for telecommunications services. Information re carriers, basic, local service and taxes.
Sec. 16-256k. Disclosure for removal or change in telecommunications service. Disclosure for promotional offerings.
Sec. 16-257. Recording of agreement of consolidation or merger of electric and gas companies.
Sec. 16-258. Standards concerning electricity and gas.
Sec. 16-258a. Registration of natural gas sellers. Procedures. Penalties.
Sec. 16-258b. Registration of electric generating facilities.
Sec. 16-258c. Dual-fuel capability requirements for electric generating facilities.
Sec. 16-259. Inspection of meters.
Sec. 16-259a. Inaccurate billing. Financial liability of customer. Payment plan.
Sec. 16-260. Water meters may be required.
Sec. 16-261. Extension of electric lines to unserved areas. Determination of rates.
Sec. 16-261a. Interagency electric and magnetic fields task force; composition; study. Assessment of electric public service companies for specified expenses of task force.
Sec. 16-262. Gas companies authorized to deal in natural gas.
Sec. 16-262a. Water company to have area resident as director or advisory council of area residents.
Sec. 16-262b. Notice of discharge of explosives or highway excavation to gas companies.
Sec. 16-262c. Termination of utility service for nonpayment, when prohibited. Amortization agreements. Moneys allowed to be deducted from customers' accounts and moneys to be included in rates as an operating expense. Hardship cases. Notice. Regulations. Annual reports. Privacy of individual customer utility usage and billing information.
Sec. 16-262d. Termination of residential utility service on account of nonpayment. Notice. Nontermination in event of illness during pendency of customer complaint or investigation. Amortization agreement. Appeal. Notice re credit rating information.
Sec. 16-262e. Notice furnished tenants re intended termination of utility service. Assumption by tenants of liability for future service. Liability of landlords for certain utility services. Deduction from rent. Access to meters.
Sec. 16-262f. Action for receivership of rents and common expenses by electric, electric distribution, gas and telephone companies; petition; hearing; appointment; duties; termination.
Sec. 16-262g. Penalty.
Sec. 16-262h. Nonexclusivity of remedy.
Sec. 16-262i. Regulations.
Sec. 16-262j. Refusal of residential utility service. Regulations. Refusal of telecommunications service to a candidate or committee. Interest on customer security deposits. Deposit index.
Sec. 16-262k. Interconnection of public water supply systems to relieve site-specific water shortages.
Sec. 16-262l. Receivership of water companies for failure to provide adequate service. Personal liability of directors, officers and managers.
Sec. 16-262m. Construction specifications for water companies.
Sec. 16-262n. Definition. Economic viability of water companies. Reviews. Failure to comply with orders. Hearings.
Sec. 16-262o. Acquisition of water company ordered by department. Rates and charges. Recovery of acquisition costs.
Sec. 16-262p. Improvements by acquiring entity.
Sec. 16-262q. Compensation for acquisition of water company.
Sec. 16-262r. Satellite management of water companies. Expedited rate proceedings.
Sec. 16-262s. Voluntary acquisition of water company. Surcharges.
Sec. 16-262t. Action for receivership of rent and common expenses by water companies; petition; hearing; appointment; duties; termination.
Sec. 16-262u. Replacement and repair of water service connections.
Sec. 16-262v. Water company infrastructure projects: Definitions.
Sec. 16-262w. Water company rate adjustment mechanisms.
Sec. 16-262x. Termination of residential utility service. Requirements.

      Sec. 16-228. Telegraph and telephone lines. Each telegraph company may maintain and construct telegraph lines, and, subject to the restrictions of sections 16-18, 16-248, 16-249 and 16-250, each telephone company may construct and maintain telephone lines, upon any highway or across any waters in this state, by the erection and maintenance of the necessary fixtures, including posts, piers or abutments, for sustaining wires; but the same shall not be so constructed as to incommode public travel or navigation or injure any tree without the consent of the owner, nor shall such company construct any bridge across any waters. Such lines shall be personal property.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5639; P.A. 85-187, S. 9, 15.)

      History: P.A. 85-187 deleted obsolete reference to Sec. 16-247.

      See Sec. 16-236 re appraisal of damages and assessment of costs.

      Selectmen's permission does not justify telephone company in cutting trees on highway. 66 C. 559. Right of nonresident telegraph company to enter state and use highways. 91 C. 38. Cited. 235 C. 408.

      Cited. 44 CS 45.


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      Sec. 16-229. Excavation in highway. Any public service company incorporated under the provisions of the statutes or by special act for the purpose of transmitting or distributing gas, water or electricity or for telephone purposes, desiring to open or make any excavation in a portion of any public highway for the carrying out of any purpose for which it may be organized other than the placing or replacing of a pole or of a curb box, shall, if required by the authority having jurisdiction over the maintenance of such highway, make application to such authority, which may, in writing, grant a permit for such opening or excavation upon such terms and conditions as to the manner in which such work shall be carried on as may be reasonable.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5640; 1959, P.A. 262.)

      History: 1959 act added water companies to scope of section.

      Cited. 162 C. 53.

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      Sec. 16-230. Bond requirement. Before any such public service company makes any such application, it shall file with the Secretary of the State a bond, with surety, in form and amount satisfactory to and approved by him, to save harmless any person or corporation which may be injured by the negligent carrying on of such work, which bond may be a continuing bond to cover all of such work conducted by such public service company in this state during the term of such bond, but said Secretary may dispense with the filing of any such bond upon the furnishing to him of satisfactory proof of the solvency and the financial ability of such public service company to pay any damages resulting from such negligent carrying on of such work, and said Secretary shall issue to such company his certificate that such bond has been filed or proof of solvency furnished. No such bond or further proof of solvency and financial ability shall be required by the Secretary of the State, or by any other authority, of any such public service company which has, within the preceding twelve months, filed with the Secretary of the State a certification, attested by the secretary of such company, that the combined paid-in capital and surplus of such company is not less than five hundred thousand dollars.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5641; 1957, P.A. 85; 1971, P.A. 367.)

      History: 1971 act made waiver of bond applicable to companies with capital and surplus of $500,000 or more rather than $150,000 or more.

      Cited. 162 C. 53.

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      Sec. 16-231. Appeal. Any such company aggrieved by the neglect or refusal of the authority having such jurisdiction to grant such permit, or by the terms and conditions therein imposed, may appeal to the Department of Public Utility Control, which may, upon giving reasonable notice of such appeal and of the time and place where it will be heard, determine whether such permit ought to be granted, or such terms and conditions altered, and may, subject to such right of appeal to the Superior Court as provided in the case of other orders, authorizations and decisions of the department, grant such permit in writing upon such terms and conditions as to the carrying on of such work as it finds just and reasonable.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5642; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 100, 348.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation.

      Cited. 162 C. 53.

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      Sec. 16-232. Rights of companies organized under general law. No electric light or electric power company organized under any former joint stock law of this state shall use or occupy any highway or public grounds or be entitled to the powers or privileges enumerated in this chapter, without special authority from the General Assembly.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5643.)

      Electric light and power company is a public service corporation. 84 C. 312.

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      Sec. 16-233. Municipal and state signal wires. Each town, city, borough, fire district or the Department of Transportation shall have the right to occupy and use for municipal and state signal wires, without payment therefor, one gain upon each public utility pole or in each underground communications duct system installed by a public service company within the limits of any such town, city, borough or district. The location or relocation of any such gain shall be prescribed by the Department of Public Utility Control. Any such gain shall be reserved for use by the town, city, borough, fire district or the Department of Transportation.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5644; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 101, 348; P.A. 94-188, S. 14.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 94-188 granted the department of transportation the right to occupy and use for state signal wires, without payment therefor, one gain upon each public utility pole or in each underground communications duct system installed by a public service company and added a provision that any such gain would be reserved for use by the town, city, borough, fire district or the department of transportation.

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      Sec. 16-234. Rights of adjoining proprietors. No telegraph, telephone or electric light company or association, nor any company or association engaged in distributing electricity by wires or similar conductors or in using an electric wire or conductor for any purpose, shall exercise any powers which may have been conferred upon it to change the location of, or to erect or place, wires, conductors, fixtures, structures or apparatus of any kind over, on or under any highway or public ground, without the consent of the adjoining proprietors, or, if such company or association is unable to obtain such consent, without the approval of the Department of Public Utility Control, which shall be given only after a hearing upon notice to such proprietors; or to cut or trim any tree on or overhanging any highway or public ground, without the consent of the owner thereof, or, if such company or association is unable to obtain such consent, without the approval of the tree warden or the consent of the department, which consent shall be given only after a hearing upon notice to such owner; but the department may, if it finds that public convenience and necessity require, authorize the changing of the location of, or the erection or placing of, such wires, conductors, fixtures, structures or apparatus over, on or under such highway or public ground; and the tree warden in any town or the department may, if he or it finds that public convenience and necessity require, authorize the cutting and trimming and the keeping trimmed of any brush or tree in such town on or overhanging such highway or public ground, which action shall be taken only after notice and hearing as aforesaid, which hearing shall be held within a reasonable time after the application therefor.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5645; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 102, 348.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation.

      See Secs. 16-11 and 16-18 re powers of Department of Public Utility Control.

      See Sec. 16-236 re appraisal of damages and assessment of costs.

      See Sec. 23-65 re defacement, pruning or removal of trees.


      In use of public streets for transmission of electric currents, high degree of care is required. 67 C. 445; 70 C. 65; 75 C. 548; 80 C. 470. See 91 C. 563. Right of telephone company in street; effect of consent by abutting owners; mere maintenance of line illegally would not justify injunctive relief. 90 C. 182; 92 C. 635. Cited. 161 C. 430. Cited. 162 C. 93. A railroad's right-of-way is not a "highway" as contemplated by this section. 168 C. 478. The term "adjoining proprietors" as used in this section means owners of property contiguous to the highway or public ground over, on or under which the transmission line or other facility in question is erected or placed. Id.

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      Sec. 16-235. Control by local authorities. Orders. Appeals. Except as provided in section 16-243, the selectmen of any town, the common council of any city and the warden and burgesses of any borough shall, subject to the provisions of section 16-234, within their respective jurisdictions, have full direction and control over the placing, erection and maintenance of any such wires, conductors, fixtures, structures or apparatus, including the relocation or removal of the same and the power of designating the kind, quality and finish thereof, but no authority granted to any city or borough or a town planning, zoning, inland wetland, historic district, building, gas, water or electrical board, commission or committee created under authority of the general statutes or by virtue of any special act, shall be construed to apply to so much of the operations, plant, building, structures or equipment of any public service company as is under the jurisdiction of the Department of Public Utility Control, or the Connecticut Siting Council, but zoning commissions and inland wetland agencies may, within their respective municipalities, regulate and restrict the proposed location of any steam plant, gas plant, gas tank or holder, water tank, electric substation, antenna, tower or earth station receiver of any public service company not subject to the jurisdiction of the Connecticut Siting Council. Any local body mentioned in this section and the appellate body, if any, may make all orders necessary to the exercise of such power, direction or control, which orders shall be made within thirty days of any application and shall be in writing and recorded in the records of their respective communities, and written notice of any order shall be given to each party affected thereby. Each such order shall be subject to the right of appeal within thirty days from the giving of such notice by any party aggrieved to the Department of Public Utility Control, which, after rehearing, upon notice to all parties in interest, shall as speedily as possible determine the matter in question and shall have jurisdiction to affirm or modify or revoke such orders or make any orders in substitution thereof.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5646; 1971, P.A. 575, S. 12; P.A. 73-458, S. 13; P.A. 75-375, S. 10, 12; 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 79-251; P.A. 80-482, S. 103, 348; P.A. 86-187, S. 7, 10; P.A. 87-589, S. 6, 30, 87.)

      History: 1971 act added references to power facility evaluation council; P.A. 73-458 clarified jurisdiction of local boards, commissions etc. over companies "not subject to ... the power facility evaluation council"; P.A. 75-375 included references to inland wetland and historic district commissions and gave these two types of commission jurisdiction over companies not subject to power facility evaluation council rather than boards, commissions etc. having power to regulate location of structures, trades, industries and business; P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-251 allowed regulation of antennas, towers and earth station receivers; P.A. 80-482 made division of public utility control an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 86-187 replaced power facility evaluation council with Connecticut siting council; P.A. 87-589 made technical change, substituting Connecticut siting council for power facility evaluation council.

      Telephone and railway companies may use the same pole for wires. 70 C. 54. Consent of adjoining proprietors need not precede action by municipal authorities; whether action by municipal authority on petition is mandatory, quaere. 71 C. 381. Charter power to construct underground conduits held to leave power of regulation with local authorities. Id., 657. Contract permitting telephone company to use poles belonging to city construed. 74 C. 326. Power of municipalities to regulate wires and fixtures of street railway; appeal. 80 C. 623. Zoning commission acts as special agency of the state and is empowered to issue orders regulating and restricting subject to appeal to public utilities commission. Constitutionality upheld. 140 C. 650; 145 C. 243. If order is on records of zoning commission, it is properly recorded. Id. Personal service need only be made on those under duty to comply with order. Id. Provisions re recording and notice of order are directory. Id. Standard used by zoning commission should be that used in public utility regulation. Contract commitments of public utility outside franchise area held valid consideration for public utility commission's finding. Id. Zoning board of appeals may hear request of public service company for extension of nonconforming use and in such capacity acts as special agency of state. 147 C. 229. Cited. 149 C. 101. This is not a condemnation statute. 152 C. 688. Claim that, for the purposes of section 16-236, phrase "anything done" under this section is restricted to case where there has been a physical invasion of plaintiff's property is without merit. Id., 690. Boards of zoning or selectmen do not have power to regulate power transmission lines over private property. 161 C. 430. Cited. 162 C. 53. Jurisdiction of water resources commission over transmission lines above rivers. Id., 89. Cited. Id., 93. Cited. 206 C. 65.

      Cited. 20 CA 474.


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      Sec. 16-236. Appraisal of damages; costs. Any judge of the Superior Court may, upon the application of any party interested, and after notice, unless the application has been unreasonably delayed, appoint three disinterested persons to make a written appraisal of all damages due any person by reason of anything done under any provision of section 16-228 or 16-234 or which is in violation of any order made under section 16-235. Such appraisal, when approved by such judge, shall be returned to and recorded by the clerk of the superior court for the judicial district where the cause of action arose, and thereupon the sum specified therein shall be paid immediately by the company to the party entitled to the same, or the judge may order the same to be paid immediately into the hands of such clerk, to be delivered by him on demand to such party. The costs of such proceedings shall be taxed by such judge and paid by such company, and he may issue execution therefor and for such damages.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5647; 1963, P.A. 349; P.A. 78-280, S. 2, 127.)

      History: 1963 act added "violations of orders under" Sec. 16-235 to first sentence; P.A. 78-280 substituted "judicial district" for "county".

      Section valid; taking of land is not for private purpose. 90 C. 179; 92 C. 635. Cited. 149 C. 100. Legislative history. Id., 102. Indicates legislative intent to depart from strict eminent domain principles as basis for damages and to provide for payment, to any party interested, of damages for anything done under or by authority of section 16-235. Id., 104. Claim that plaintiff asking for damages under this section is required first to appeal to public utilities commission from the granting of the permit is without merit. 152 C. 690. Claim that phrase "anything done" under section 16-235 is restricted to case where there has been a physical invasion of plaintiff's property is without merit. Id. Whether plaintiff's application has been "unreasonably delayed" is an issue of fact, dependent upon the surrounding circumstances. Id., 691.

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      Sec. 16-237. No prescriptive right. No person or corporation building and maintaining telegraph, telephone or electric light or power wires or fixtures, or electrical wires, conductors or fixtures of any kind shall, by reason of any occupation or use of any buildings or lands for the support of the wires of such person or corporation, or by reason of such wires passing over or through any buildings or lands, acquire by the continuance of such use or occupation any prescriptive right to so occupy or use the same. No length of possession, user or occupancy of any buildings or land, or adverse to any easement therein or right thereto belonging to a telegraph, telephone or electric light or power corporation, and used or acquired for use for its corporate purposes, shall create or continue any right in or to such land, or adverse to any such easement.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5648.)

      Trial court properly determined that statute precluded defendants from invoking the law of adverse possession to justify their continued unauthorized use of plainitff utility company's property; defendants' claim that statute was inapplicable because waters of lake were not "buildings or land" was unavailing given that dock was attached to land owned by plaintiff. 92 CA 753.

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      Sec. 16-238. Wires may be cut; notice. When it is deemed necessary to cut or otherwise disconnect the wires or fixtures of any telegraph, telephone, electric light or power company or other company or association hereinbefore referred to, or to remove such wires from the poles or fixtures to which they are attached, for the transportation of any object on the highway or upon any waterway, any person or corporation may do so, exercising reasonable care therein, after obtaining written consent of the municipality or other authority having control over such highway or waterway and the public service company or companies affected, which consent may be granted under such reasonable conditions as such municipality or other authority having such control and such company or companies may impose. If such consent cannot be secured, or if any of such conditions is not acceptable to the person or corporation seeking such consent, the Department of Public Utility Control shall, upon written application by such person or corporation and after notice to all parties affected, determine the necessity of such disconnection or removal and order the terms and conditions under which it shall be made.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5649; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 104, 348.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation.

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      Sec. 16-239. Dispatches transmitted in order. Exceptions. Section 16-239 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5651; P.A. 88-220, S. 8, 11.)

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      Sec. 16-240. Delivery of messages. Each telegraph company, engaged in the business of dispatching messages for the public, shall, in towns where no free delivery is maintained, deliver all dispatches to the persons to whom the same are addressed, or their agents, by messenger, upon prepayment by the person sending such dispatch of any proper charge for such delivery, provided such persons addressed, or their agents, reside within one mile of the telegraph station to which the dispatch is sent. For each failure to deliver a dispatch as required by this section, the person to whom the dispatch should have been delivered may recover of such company twenty dollars in an action on this section.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5652.)

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      Sec. 16-241. Mortgage by telegraph company. The mortgage by any telegraph company, to secure its bonds or other evidences of indebtedness, of all or any part of its lines, appliances, machines or machinery, whether owned by it at the date of such mortgage, or thereafter to be acquired by it, or both, shall be valid and effectual as respects all the property therein included and may be foreclosed in the same manner as mortgages of real estate; and the record thereof in the office of the Secretary of the State shall be a sufficient record and notice to protect the title under the mortgage, notwithstanding such company may remain in possession of all or any part of the mortgaged property.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5653.)

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      Sec. 16-242. Telephone service to telegraph companies. Each person or corporation owning, controlling or operating a telephone exchange or service in this state shall, on application of any telegraph company, furnish such company with the use of a telephone or telephones and telephone service and connection with their respective exchanges and the subscribers thereto, without discrimination between telegraph companies as to such connections, service or use of instruments furnished, or charges therefor, for the same class of service. Any court in this state having equity jurisdiction shall, upon petition of any party in interest, enforce the provisions of this section by any suitable process or decree in equity.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5654.)

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      Sec. 16-243. Jurisdiction of department over electricity transmission lines. The Department of Public Utility Control shall have exclusive jurisdiction and direction over the method of construction or reconstruction in whole or in part of each system used for the transmission or distribution of electricity, with the kind, quality and finish of all materials, wires, poles, conductors and fixtures to be used in the construction and operation thereof, and the method of their use, including all plants and apparatus used for generating electricity located upon private property upon which there are conductors capable of transmitting electricity to other premises in such manner as to endanger any person or property. The department may make any order necessary to the exercise of such power and direction, which order shall be in writing and entered in the records of the department. Each person or corporation operating any such system or generating plant shall, at its expense, comply with such order. Any person violating any provision of any such order shall be subject to the penalty prescribed in section 16-41.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5655; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 105, 348; P.A. 98-28, S. 101, 117.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 98-28 added the distribution of electricity, effective July 1, 1998.

      See Sec. 16-235 re control of placing, erection and maintenance of wires and other fixtures by local authorities.

      Cited. 140 C. 650. Exclusive jurisdiction over direction of power line on private land is within the public utilities commission. 161 C. 430. Cited. 162 C. 89. Contains constitutionally adequate standards. 165 C. 687. Cited. 168 C. 478.

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      Sec. 16-243a. Private power producers. Purchase and sale of electricity. Avoided costs. Small renewable power projects. Interconnectivity standards. (a) As used in this section, "avoided costs" means the incremental costs to an electric public service company, municipal electric energy cooperative organized under chapter 101a or municipal electric utility organized under chapter 101, of electric energy or capacity or both which, but for the purchase from a private power producer, as defined in section 16-243b, such company, cooperative or utility would generate itself or purchase from another source.

      (b) Each electric public service company, municipal electric energy cooperative and municipal electric utility shall: (1) Purchase any electrical energy and capacity made available, directly by a private power producer or indirectly under subdivision (4) of this subsection; (2) sell backup electricity to any private power producer in its service territory; (3) make such interconnections in accordance with the regulations adopted pursuant to subsection (h) of this section necessary to accomplish such purchases and sales; (4) upon approval by the Department of Public Utility Control of an application filed by a willing private power producer, transmit energy or capacity from the private power producer to any other such company, cooperative or utility or to another facility operated by the private power producer; and (5) offer to operate in parallel with a private power producer. In making a decision on an application filed under subdivision (4) of this subsection, the department shall consider whether such transmission would (A) adversely impact the customers of the company, cooperative or utility which would transmit energy or capacity to the private power producer, (B) result in an uncompensated loss for, or unduly burden, such company, cooperative, utility or private power producer, (C) impair the reliability of service of such company, cooperative or utility, or (D) impair the ability of the company, cooperative or utility to provide adequate service to its customers. The department shall issue a decision on such an application not later than one hundred twenty days after the application is filed, provided, the department may, before the end of such period and upon notifying all parties and intervenors to the proceeding, extend the period by thirty days. If the department does not issue a decision within one hundred twenty days after receiving such an application, or within one hundred fifty days if the department extends the period in accordance with the provisions of this subsection, the application shall be deemed to have been approved. The requirements under subdivisions (3), (4) and (5) of this subsection shall be subject to reasonable standards for operating safety and reliability and the nondiscriminatory assessment of costs against private power producers, approved by the Department of Public Utility Control with respect to electric public service companies or determined by municipal electric energy cooperatives and municipal electric utilities.

      (c) The Department of Public Utility Control, with respect to electric public service companies, and each municipal electric energy cooperative and municipal electric utility shall establish rates and conditions of service for: (1) The purchase of electrical energy and capacity made available by a private power producer and (2) the sale of backup electricity to a private power producer. The rates for electricity purchased from a private power producer shall be based on the full avoided costs of the electric public service company, municipal electric energy cooperative or municipal electric utility, regardless of whether the purchaser is simultaneously making sales to the private power producer. Payment for energy and capacity purchased from a private power producer by any such company, cooperative or utility shall be pursuant to such rates and conditions or the terms of a contract between the parties. The rates and conditions of service for the purchase of energy and capacity established by the department pursuant to this subsection shall include specific schedules for pricing in long-term contracts for the sale of electricity from small renewable power projects to electric public service companies by private power producers. Such schedules shall not exceed the present worth of the projected avoided costs of the electric public service company over the term of the contract. The department shall apply to a proposed contract filed with the department after January 1, 1992, by a private power producer for a small renewable power project the rates and conditions of service, including the pricing schedule, in effect on the date the private power producer submits its proposed contract to the department, regardless of the subsequent creation of differing schedules or the subsequent amendment of existing schedules.

      (d) When any person, firm or corporation proposes to enter into a contract to sell energy and capacity as a private power producer, an electric public service company, municipal electric energy cooperative or municipal electric utility shall respond promptly to all requests and offers and negotiate in good faith to arrive at a contract which fairly reflects the provisions of this section and the anticipated avoided costs over the life of the contract. Upon application by a private power producer, the department may approve a contract which provides for payment of less than the anticipated avoided costs if, considering all of the provisions, the contract is at least as favorable to the private power producer as a contract providing for the full avoided costs. The contract may extend for a period of not more than thirty years at the option of the private power producer if it has a generating facility with a capacity of at least one hundred kilowatts.

      (e) The department shall consider generating capacity available from cogeneration technology and renewable energy resources in its periodic reviews of electric public service companies and shall require the companies to include the availability of such capacity in applications for rate relief filed in accordance with section 16-19a.

      (f) If a private power producer believes that an electric company has violated any provision of this section it may submit a written petition alleging such violation to the department. Upon receipt of the petition, the department shall fix a time and place for a hearing and mail notice of the hearing to the parties in interest at least one week in advance. Upon the hearing, the department may, if it finds the company has violated any such provision, prescribe the manner in which it shall comply.

      (g) After January 1, 1992, the department shall approve each proposed contract submitted by a private power producer for a small renewable power project, with any modifications agreed to by the parties to the contract, if the filing meets the standards for exemption from the proposal process and for an approvable contract established pursuant to section 16-6b, and is consistent with the pricing schedules adopted pursuant to subsection (c) of this section. Nothing in this section shall preclude a modification of such a contract if the parties to the contract agree to the modification. Any such modification shall be approved by the department. The department shall reconsider each decision issued pursuant to this section between January 1, 1992, and June 29, 1993, regarding such contracts and shall make any modifications to each such decision necessary to ensure that each such decision conforms with the provisions of this section.

      (h) Not later than January 1, 2008, the Department of Public Utility Control shall issue a final decision approving interconnection standards that meet or exceed national standards of interconnectivity. If the department does not issue a final decision by October 1, 2008, each electric distribution company, municipal electric energy cooperative and municipal electric utility shall meet the standards set forth in Title 4, Chapter 4, Subchapter 9, "Net Metering and Interconnection Standards for Class I Renewable Energy Systems" of the New Jersey Administrative Code.

      (P.A. 79-214, S. 2; P.A. 80-167, S. 2; 80-482, S. 4, 40, 345, 348; P.A. 81-439, S. 6, 14; P.A. 82-164; P.A. 85-534, S. 4, 5; P.A. 86-289, S. 2, 5; 86-403, S. 111, 132; P.A. 89-43, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-299, S. 1, 3; P.A. 07-242, S. 37, 38.)

      History: P.A. 80-167 included municipal electric energy cooperatives under provisions of section; P.A. 80-482 made division of public utility control an independent department and abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 81-439 repealed Subsecs. (a) and (b) and amended and relettered Subsecs. (c) and (d) to make rates and conditions of service applicable to all electricity generated by private power producer, rather than to excess electricity generated by producer of more than one megawatt by cogeneration or use of renewable resources, and to all electricity generated by producer of one megawatt or less by such methods; P.A. 82-164 substantially amended the section, adding provisions concerning avoided costs, interconnections, wheeling, parallel operations, contracting, and petitioning department of public utility control; P.A. 85-534 extended, from 20 to 30 years, the maximum contract period where a private power producer has a generating facility with a capacity of at least 100 kilowatts; P.A. 86-289 made requirement under Subsec. (b)(4) subject to department approval, set forth department considerations and deadlines for such approval proceedings and made technical revisions, effective June 5, 1986, but not applicable to applications filed under the section with the public utility control department before March 1, 1986; P.A. 86-403 changed applicable date in effective date of P.A. 86-289 from March 1 to May 7, 1986; P.A. 89-43 added provision in Subsec. (c) for specific schedules for pricing in long-term contracts; P.A. 93-299 amended Subsec. (c) by adding provision regarding rates and conditions to be applied to proposed contracts for small renewable power projects, deleting reference to producers with a capacity of five megawatts or less and added new Subsec. (g) regarding approval and modification of proposed contracts for small renewable power projects, effective June 29, 1993; P.A. 07-242 amended Subsec. (b)(3) to require interconnections be made in accordance with regulations adopted pursuant to Subsec. (h) and added Subsec. (h) re interconnectivity standards.

      Cited. 210 C. 349.

      Subsec. (c):

      Department of Public Utility Control's conclusion that word "electricity" as used in this section means renewable energy was reasonable. 283 C. 672.


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      Sec. 16-243b. Definitions. Jurisdiction. (a) As used in this title:

      (1) "Private power production facility" means a facility which generates electricity in the state (A) solely through the use of cogeneration technology, provided the average useful thermal energy output of the facility is at least twenty per cent of the total energy output of the facility, (B) solely through the use of renewable energy sources or (C) through both only;

      (2) "Useful thermal energy output" means the thermal energy made available for use in any industrial or commercial process, or used in any heating or cooling application;

      (3) "Private power producer" means (A) a subsidiary of a gas public service company which is not affiliated with an electric public service company, or a subsidiary of a holding company controlling, directly or indirectly, a gas public service company but not an electric public service company, which generates electricity solely through ownership of fifty per cent or less of a private power production facility or, with the approval of the Department of Public Utility Control, through ownership of one hundred per cent of a private power production facility which (i) uses a source of energy other than gas as the primary energy source of the facility, or (ii) uses gas as the primary energy source of the facility and uses an improved and innovative technology which furthers the state energy policy as set forth in section 16a-35k, (B) a subsidiary of any other public service company or a subsidiary of a holding company controlling, directly or indirectly, such a public service company, which generates electricity solely through ownership of fifty per cent or less of a private power production facility, (C) the state, a political subdivision of the state or any other person, firm or corporation other than a public service company or any corporation which was a public service company, prior to July 1, 1981, and which consents to be regulated as a public service company or a holding company for a public service company, which generates electricity solely through ownership of one hundred per cent or less of a private power production facility, or (D) any combination thereof;

      (4) "Private power provider" means any person, firm, corporation, nonprofit corporation, limited liability company, governmental entity, or other entity, including any public service company, holding company, or subsidiary, which provides energy conservation or demand management measures pursuant to section 16-243f and regulations and orders issued hereunder, which replace the need for electricity generating capacity that electric public service companies would otherwise require;

      (5) "Electricity conservation or demand management measures" means the provision pursuant to this section and section 16-243f and regulations and orders adopted hereunder by a private power provider to an electric public service company or its customers of equipment or services or both designed to conserve electricity or to manage electricity load; and

      (6) "Small renewable power project" means any private power production facility which has a capacity of five megawatts or less and is fueled by a renewable resource, as defined in section 16a-2, other than wood.

      (b) No provision of this section shall limit the jurisdiction of the Department of Public Utility Control with regard to the effects on a public service company of a private power producer which is an affiliate or a subsidiary of the public service company.

      (P.A. 81-439, S. 1, 14; P.A. 85-534, S. 1, 5; P.A. 86-289, S. 1, 5; 86-403, S. 110, 111, 132; P.A. 88-195, S. 1, 3; P.A. 93-299, S. 2, 3; P.A. 95-79, S. 51, 189; P.A. 03-278, S. 50.)

      History: P.A. 85-534 added Subsec. (b), enabling utilities to be deemed to be private power producers on limited basis; P.A. 86-289 replaced entire section with new provisions, effective June 5, 1986, but not applicable to applications filed under the section with the public utility control department before March 1, 1986; P.A. 86-403 made technical changes in definition of "private power production facility" enacted by P.A. 86-289 and changed applicable date in effective date from March 1 to May 7, 1986; P.A. 88-195 redefined "private power producer" to include any corporation which was a public service company before 1981 and which consents to be regulated and added definitions of "private power provider" and "electricity conservation or demand management measures"; P.A. 93-299 added Subsec. (a)(6) defining "small renewable power project", effective June 29, 1993; P.A. 95-79 redefined "private power provider" to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 03-278 made technical changes in Subsec. (a)(3), effective July 9, 2003.

      Subsec. (a):

      Subdiv. (1) cited. 210 C. 349. Subdiv. (3) cited. Id.


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      Sec. 16-243c. Electricity transmission and distribution services for electric cooperatives utilizing cogeneration technology and renewable energy resources. The Department of Public Utility Control may issue orders requiring electric companies to provide, within their service areas, electricity transmission and distribution services between a generating facility operated by an electric cooperative under subsection (b) of section 33-219 and those members of the cooperative operating the facility to whom the cooperative is authorized to furnish electricity under subsection (d) of section 33-221 and governing the rates for the service. The department may not issue any order under this subsection which would significantly impair the ability of an electric company to perform its responsibilities to the public or would otherwise be contrary to the purposes of this title.

      (P.A. 81-439, S. 11, 14; P.A. 84-512, S. 15, 30.)

      History: P.A. 84-512 deleted reference to repealed Sec. 16a-35.

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      Sec. 16-243d. Project by private power producer deemed "industrial project". A project to be used for the production of electricity by a private power producer, as defined in section 16-243b, shall be deemed an "industrial project" under chapter 579, provided that a portion of such electricity is produced for sale to other persons.

      (P.A. 81-439, S. 12, 14.)

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      Sec. 16-243e. Electric company purchase of electricity generated by municipal resources recovery facilities. (a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, any electric company, as defined in section 16-1, that, prior to July 6, 2007, purchased electricity generated by a resources recovery facility, as defined in section 22a-260, owned by, or operated by or for the benefit of, a municipality or municipalities, pursuant to a contract with the owner of such facility requiring the electric company to purchase all of the electricity generated at such facility from waste that originated in the franchise area of the electric company, for a period beginning on the date that the facility began generating electricity and having a duration of not less than twenty years, at the same rate that the electric company charges the municipality or municipalities for electricity, shall pay the rate set forth in the contract or, for contracts entered into and approved during calendar year 1999, the rate established by the department, for the remaining period of the contract. No electric company or electric distribution company shall be required to enter into such a contract on or after July 6, 2007.

      (b) Not later than October 1, 2000, and annually thereafter, the department shall calculate the difference between the amount paid by the successor electric distribution company pursuant to each such contract in effect during the preceding fiscal year for electricity generated at the facility from waste that originated within such franchise area and the amount that would have been paid had the company been obligated to pay the rate in effect during calendar year 1999, as determined by the department. The difference, if positive, shall be recovered through the systems benefits charge established under section 16-245l and remitted to the regional resource recovery authority acting on behalf of member municipalities.

      (P.A. 83-529, S. 1; P.A. 85-297, S. 3, 4; P.A. 94-92, S. 1; P.A. 98-28, S. 61, 117; P.A. 07-228, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 85-297 required electricity to be purchased by contract where previously electric companies were required to compensate municipalities for electricity produced by recovery facilities; P.A. 94-92 required purchase of all electricity generated at such facility from waste which originated in the franchise area of the electric company; P.A. 98-28 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and added new Subsec. (b) re the maintenance of municipal rates at rate in effect during calendar year 1999, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 07-228 amended Subsec. (a) to establish rates for remainder of contracts entered into prior to July 6, 2007, and make conforming changes and amended Subsec. (b) to delete provision re determination of rates on or before April 1, 2000, effective July 6, 2007.

      Does not require purchase of all electrical output of Southeastern Conn. Regional Resources Recovery Authority at "municipal rate". 210 C. 349. Provides for exclusive use of the "municipal rate" for purchase by an electric company from a resource recovery facility of electrical output attributable to franchise waste and that the parties' agreement unambiguously requires payment of the "municipal rate" for the entire output so attributed. 244 C. 280.

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      Sec. 16-243f. Private power providers. Regulations concerning the purchase and sale of electricity. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, which establish procedures to determine the manner in which capacity needs of electric public service companies may be met through the provision of electricity conservation and demand management measures by private power providers, in addition to or in lieu of electricity generation facilities and to determine the monitoring and evaluation plans to be employed in documenting the demand and energy savings achieved, including, where practicable and cost-effective, impact measurement methods implemented through metering arrangements, with appropriate adjustment for weather normalization and other factors influencing usage levels. In adopting and implementing said regulations, the department shall take into account state energy policy, pursuant to section 16a-35k.

      (b) A private power provider may offer to provide electricity conservation or demand management measures to an electric public service company pursuant to section 16-243b and this section and the regulations adopted under subsection (a) of this section. The department shall review and evaluate such proposals based on the factors specified in said regulations, and after notice and a hearing, render a determination as to the feasibility of the proposed electricity conservation and demand management measures. The department may, in accordance with such regulations, order an electric public service company to enter into an agreement with a private power provider where the private power provider would furnish electricity conservation or demand management measures to the electric public service company or its customers.

      (P.A. 88-195, S. 2, 3; P.A. 92-122, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 92-122 amended Subsec. (a) to require department to include in its regulations the determination of monitoring and evaluation plans to be employed in documenting savings.

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      Sec. 16-243g. Assignment of electricity purchase agreements. Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes or of any special act to the contrary, no electric company, as defined in section 16-1, municipal electric energy cooperative established under chapter 101a or municipal electric utility established under chapter 101 which has entered into a contract to purchase electricity from a private power producer, as defined in section 16-243b, shall refuse or neglect to execute an assignment of an electricity purchase agreement or contract to a trustee as security for or protection of bonds issued to refinance outstanding bonds originally issued or reissued to finance the major portion of the costs of the acquisition, construction and installation of a private power production facility, as defined in section 16-243b.

      (P.A. 94-92, S. 2.)

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      Sec. 16-243h. Credit to residential customers who generate electricity; metering. On and after January 1, 2000, each electric supplier or any electric distribution company providing standard offer, transitional standard offer, standard service or back-up electric generation service, pursuant to section 16-244c, shall give a credit for any electricity generated by a customer from a Class I renewable energy source or a hydropower facility that has a nameplate capacity rating of two megawatts or less. The electric distribution company providing electric distribution services to such a customer shall make such interconnections necessary to accomplish such purpose. An electric distribution company, at the request of any residential customer served by such company and if necessary to implement the provisions of this section, shall provide for the installation of metering equipment that (1) measures electricity consumed by such customer from the facilities of the electric distribution company, (2) deducts from the measurement the amount of electricity produced by the customer and not consumed by the customer, and (3) registers, for each billing period, the net amount of electricity either (A) consumed and produced by the customer, or (B) the net amount of electricity produced by the customer. If, in a given monthly billing period, a customer-generator supplies more electricity to the electric distribution system than the electric distribution company or electric supplier delivers to the customer-generator, the electric distribution company or electric supplier shall credit the customer-generator for the excess by reducing the customer-generator's bill for the next monthly billing period to compensate for the excess electricity from the customer-generator in the previous billing period at a rate of one kilowatt-hour for one kilowatt-hour produced. The electric distribution company or electric supplier shall carry over the credits earned from monthly billing period to monthly billing period, and the credits shall accumulate until the end of the annualized period. At the end of each annualized period, the electric distribution company or electric supplier shall compensate the customer-generator for any excess kilowatt-hours generated, at the avoided cost of wholesale power. A customer who generates electricity from a generating unit with a nameplate capacity of more than ten kilowatts of electricity pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be assessed for the competitive transition assessment, pursuant to section 16-245g and the systems benefits charge, pursuant to section 16-245l, based on the amount of electricity consumed by the customer from the facilities of the electric distribution company without netting any electricity produced by the customer. For purposes of this section, "residential customer" means a customer of a single-family dwelling or multifamily dwelling consisting of two to four units.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 43, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 3; P.A. 07-242, S. 39.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998 (Revisor's note: In codifying this section, incorrect references to "section 11 of this act" and "section 16 of this act" were deemed by the Revisors to be references to "section 10" and "section 18" and codified as section 16-245g and section 16-245l, respectively); P.A. 03-135 made technical changes, made the section applicable to electric distribution companies providing standard offer, transitional standard offer, standard service or back-up electric generation service, and added "electricity from a generating unit with a name plate capacity of more than ten kilowatts of", effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 07-242 deleted "residential" and applied provisions to all customers and to facility with nameplate capacity rating of two megawatts or less, and specified that electric distribution company or electric supplier shall credit customer-generator at rate of one kilowatt hour per each kilowatt hour produced, accumulate credits and at the end of each annualized period compensate customer-generator for any excess kilowatt hours.

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      Sec. 16-243i. Awards to retail end use electric customers and electric distribution companies re customer-side distributed resources. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall, not later than January 1, 2006, establish a program to grant awards to retail end use customers of electric distribution companies to fund the capital costs of obtaining projects of customer-side distributed resources, as defined in section 16-1. Any project shall receive a one-time, nonrecurring award in an amount of not less than two hundred dollars and not more than five hundred dollars per kilowatt of capacity for such customer-side distributed resources, recoverable from federally mandated congestion charges, as defined in section 16-1. No such award may be made unless the projected reduction in federally mandated congestion charges attributed to the project for such distributed resources is greater than the amount of the award. The amount of an award shall depend on the impact that the customer-side distributed resources project has on reducing federally mandated congestion charges, as defined in section 16-1. Not later than October 1, 2005, the department shall conduct a contested case proceeding, in accordance with chapter 54, to establish additional standards for the amount of such awards and additional criteria and the process for making such awards.

      (b) The Department of Public Utility Control shall, not later than January 1, 2006, establish a program to grant to an electric distribution company a one-time, nonrecurring award to educate, assist and promote investments in customer-side distributed resources developed in such company's service territory, which resources the department determines will reduce federally mandated congestion charges, in accordance with the following: (1) On or before January 1, 2008, two hundred dollars per kilowatt of such resources, (2) on or before January 1, 2009, one hundred fifty dollars per kilowatt of such resources, (3) on or before January 1, 2010, one hundred dollars per kilowatt of such resources, and (4) fifty dollars per kilowatt of such resources thereafter. Payment of the award shall be made at the time each such resource becomes operational. The cost of the award shall be recoverable from federally mandated congestion charges. Revenues from such awards shall not be included in calculating the electric distribution company's earnings for the purpose of determining whether its rates are just and reasonable under sections 16-19, 16-19a and 16-19e.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 8.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005.

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      Sec. 16-243j. Long-term financing for customer-side distributed resources and advanced power monitoring and metering equipment. (a) Not later than January 1, 2006, the Department of Public Utility Control shall select, pursuant to a competitive bid process, one or more persons to provide long-term financing for customer-side distributed resources, as defined in section 16-1, and advanced power monitoring and metering equipment purchased or leased by customers of electric distribution companies. Such person may not be an electric distribution company, as defined in said section 16-1, but may be a generation affiliate of such company. The department may retain a consultant to assist it in selecting such person or persons.

      (b) A successful bidder pursuant to this section shall give preference for such long-term financing to projects of customer-side distributed resources and monitoring and metering equipment that maximize the reduction of the federally mandated congestion charges. Costs eligible for such financing shall include, but not be limited to, the capital costs of projects of customer-side distributed resources and advanced power monitoring and metering equipment. For financing provided by a successful bidder pursuant to this section, the department shall implement a buydown mechanism to reduce the effective annual interest rate to the person receiving the financing to a level that is no greater than the prime rate in effect on the date that the buydown begins for the person receiving the financing.

      (c) A person providing financing pursuant to this section shall, after receiving approval from the department, enter into an agreement with an electric distribution company, as defined in section 16-1, for such company to provide billing services with respect to the payments due to the financing entity from the person receiving financing. The electric distribution company, as defined in said section 16-1, shall recover all reasonable costs incurred in implementing this section, including costs associated with the buydown pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, as federally mandated congestion charges, as defined in section 16-1.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 9.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005.

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      Sec. 16-243k. Assessment of customer-side and grid-side distributed resources, effectiveness of award program. Not later than January 1, 2007, and annually thereafter, the Department of Public Utility Control shall assess the number and types of customer-side and grid-side distributed resources, as defined in section 16-1, projects financed pursuant to the provisions of public act 05-1 of the June special session* and such projects' contributions to achieving fuel diversity, transmission support, and energy independence in the state. Not later than January 1, 2007, and biennially thereafter, the department shall collect the information in such annual assessments and report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, on the effectiveness of the award program established in section 16-243i and on its findings to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 10.)

      *Note: Public act 05-1 of the June special session is entitled "An Act Concerning Energy Independence". (See Reference Table entitled "Public Acts of June, 2005" in Volume 16 which lists the sections amended, created or repealed by the act.)


      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005.

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      Sec. 16-243l. Rebate for customer-side distributed resource projects that use natural gas. On or before January 1, 2006, each electric distribution company shall institute a program to rebate to its customers with projects that use natural gas, which projects are customer-side distributed resources, as defined in section 16-1, an amount equivalent to the customer's retail delivery charge for transporting natural gas from the customer's local gas company to such customer's project of customer-side distributed resources. Costs of such a rebate shall be recoverable by the electric distribution company from the federally mandated congestion charges, as defined in section 16-1. The department may adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 11.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005.

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      Sec. 16-243m. Measures to reduce federally mandated congestion charges. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall, on or before November 1, 2005, identify those measures that can reduce federally mandated congestion charges, as defined in section 16-1, and that can be implemented, in whole or in part, on or before January 1, 2006. Such measures may include, but shall not be limited to, demand response programs, other distributed resources, and contracts between an electric distribution company, as defined in said section 16-1, and an owner of generation resources for the capacity of such resources. The department shall order each electric distribution company to implement, in whole or in part, on or before January 1, 2006, such measures as the department considers appropriate. The company's costs associated with complying with the provisions of this section shall be recoverable through federally mandated congestion charges.

      (b) The department shall conduct a contested case, in accordance with chapter 54, to establish the principles and standards to be used in developing and issuing a request for proposals under this section. The department shall complete such contested case on or before January 1, 2006.

      (c) On or before February 1, 2006, the department shall conduct a proceeding to develop and issue a request for proposals to solicit the development of long-term projects designed to reduce federally mandated congestion charges for the period commencing on May 1, 2006, and ending on December 31, 2010, or such later date specified by the department. For purposes of this section, projects shall include (1) customer-side distributed resources, (2) grid-side distributed resources, (3) new generation facilities, including expanded or repowered generation, and (4) contracts for a term of no more than fifteen years between a person and an electric distribution company for the purchase of electric capacity rights. Such request for proposals shall encourage responses from a variety of resource types and encourage diversity in the fuel mix used in generation. An electric distribution company may submit proposals pursuant to this subsection on the same basis as other respondents to the solicitation. A proposal submitted by an electric distribution company shall include its full projected costs such that any project costs recovered from or defrayed by ratepayers are included in the projected costs. An electric distribution company submitting a bid under this subsection shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the department that its bid is not supported in any form of cross subsidization by affiliated entities. If such electric distribution company's proposal is approved pursuant to subsection (g) of this section, the costs and revenues of such proposal shall not be included in calculating such company's earning for purposes of, or in determining whether its rates are just and reasonable under, sections 16-19, 16-19a and 16-19e. Electric distribution companies may under no circumstances recover more than the full costs identified in the proposals, as approved under subsection (g) of this section and consistent with subsection (h) of this section. Affiliates of the electric distribution company may submit proposals consistent with section 16-244h, regulations adopted under section 16-244h and other requirements the department may impose. The department may request from a person submitting a proposal further information that the department determines to be in the public interest to be used in evaluating the proposal. The department shall determine whether costs associated with subsection (l) of this section shall be considered in the evaluation or selection of bids.

      (d) The department shall publish such request for proposals in one or more newspapers or periodicals, as selected by the department, and shall post such request for proposals on its web site. The department may retain the services of a third-party entity with expertise in the area of energy procurement to oversee the development of the request for proposals and to assist the department in its approval of proposals pursuant to this section. The reasonable and proper expenses for retaining such third-party entity shall be recoverable through federally mandated congestion charges, as defined in section 16-1, which charges the department shall allocate to electric distribution companies in proportion to their revenue.

      (e) Any person, other than an electric distribution company, submitting a proposal pursuant to subdivision (2), (3) or (4) of subsection (c) of this section shall include with its proposal a draft of a contract that includes the transfer to the electric distribution company of all the rights to the installed capacity, including, but not limited to, forward reserve capacity, locational forward reserve capacity and similar rights associated with such proposal, provided such rights shall not include energy. No such draft of a contract shall have a term exceeding fifteen years. Such draft contract shall include such provisions as the Department of Public Utility Control directs.

      (f) Each person submitting a proposal pursuant to this section shall agree to forgo or credit reliability must run payments, locational installed capacity payments or payments for similar purposes for any project approved pursuant to subsection (g) of this section.

      (g) The department shall, on or before May 1, 2006, evaluate such proposals received pursuant to subsection (c) of this section and may approve one or more of such proposals. The department shall give preference to proposals that (1) result in the greatest aggregate reduction of federally mandated congestion charges for the period commencing on May 1, 2006, and ending on December 31, 2010, or such later date specified by the department, (2) make efficient use of existing sites and supply infrastructure, and (3) serve the long-term interests of ratepayers. Projects proposed by persons other than electric distribution companies approved pursuant to this subsection may enter into long-term contracts pursuant to subsection (i) of this section. Projects approved pursuant to this subsection are eligible for expedited siting pursuant to subsection (a) of section 16-50k. Customer-side distributed resource projects approved pursuant to this subsection shall be eligible for the incentives provided pursuant to sections 16-243j, 16-243l, and 16-243o and this section, but shall not be eligible for the programs described in section 16-243i.

      (h) If a proposal from an electric distribution company is approved pursuant to subsection (g) of this section, such company may develop, own and operate such resource, provided such company shall, not later than five years after such resource begins commercial operation, (1) sell such resource in accordance with section 16-43, or (2) auction the power or capacity, or both, associated with such resource pursuant to a plan approved by the department. The department shall, after notice and hearing, waive the requirements of subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection if it determines that compliance with such requirements would be detrimental to retail customers. Such electric distribution company shall recover, as federally mandated congestion charges, the unrecovered portions of the full projected costs in its proposal made under subsection (c) of this section.

      (i) An electric distribution company shall negotiate in good faith the final terms of the draft contract, submitted under subsection (e) of this section and included in a proposal approved under subsection (g) of this section, and shall apply to the department for approval of each such contract. After thirty days, either party may request the assistance of the department to resolve any outstanding issues. No such contract may become effective without approval of the department. The department shall hold a hearing that shall be conducted as a contested case, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to approve, reject or modify an application for approval of a capacity purchase contract. No contract shall be approved unless the department finds that approval of such contract would (1) result in the lowest reasonable cost of such products and services, (2) increase reliability, and (3) minimize federally mandated congestion charges to the state over the life of the contract. Such a contract shall contain terms that mitigate the long-term risk assumed by ratepayers. No contract approved by the department shall have a term exceeding fifteen years. As determined by the department, the electric distribution company shall either sell into the capacity markets all or a portion of capacity rights transferred pursuant to this section and use all proceeds from such sales to offset federally mandated congestion charges incurred by all customers, or shall retain such capacity rights to offset electric capacity charges associated with transitional standard offer, standard service or service as supplier of last resort under section 16-244c. The costs associated with long-term electric capacity contracts shall be recovered through federally mandated congestion charges.

      (j) The provisions of section 16a-7c shall not apply to projects approved pursuant to this section.

      (k) The department may order an electric distribution company to submit a proposal pursuant to the provisions of this section and may approve such a proposal under this section. Nothing in sections 16-1, 16-19ss, 16-32f, 16-50i, 16-50k, 16-50x, 16-243i to 16-243q, inclusive, 16-244c, 16-244e, 16-245d, 16-245m, 16-245n and 16-245z and section 21 of public act 05-1 of the June special session* shall limit the department's ability to conduct requests for proposals, in addition to that in subsection (c) of this section, to reduce federally mandated congestion charges and to approve such proposals or otherwise to meet its responsibility under this title.

      (l) The department shall hold a hearing that shall be conducted as a contested case, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to investigate any impact on the financial condition of electric distribution companies of long-term contracts entered into pursuant to this section and to establish, before issuing a request for proposals in accordance with subsection (c) of this section, the methodology for compensating the companies for such impacts. The methodology for addressing such impacts shall be included in the request for proposals under subsection (c) of this section, if appropriate. If the department determines that entering into such long-term contracts results in increased costs incurred by the electric distribution companies, the department, annually, shall allow such costs to be recovered through rates or in such manner as the department considers appropriate. The department shall determine whether such costs shall be considered in the evaluation or selection of bids under this section.

      (m) An electric distribution company may not submit a proposal under this section on or after February 1, 2011. On or before January 1, 2010, the department shall submit a report, in accordance with section 11-4a, to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy with a recommendation as to whether the period during which such company may submit proposals under this section should be extended.

      (n) For purposes of subdivision (1) of subsection (c) of section 16-50p, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that there is a public benefit in building a facility, as defined in subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 16-50i, that has been approved by the Department of Public Utility Control pursuant to this section.

      (o) The aggregate electric generating capacity for all approved proposals by electric distribution companies pursuant to subsections (g) and (k) of this section may not exceed two hundred fifty megawatts of generating capacity state-wide. The department shall give guiding preference in approving the amount of generation capacity in proposals from electric distribution companies to the approximate proportion of each company's service area load.

      (p) When the department selects a bid pursuant to subdivisions (2) and (3) of subsection (c) of this section from a person other than an electric distribution company, the department shall grant the electric distribution company that serves the area in which the subject grid-side distributed resource or new generation facility is to be located a one-time, nonrecurring award, for investments necessary to improve the electric distribution company's transmission and distribution system to accommodate such facilities, in accordance with the following: For a grid-side distributed resource or new generation facility that is operational (1) on or before January 1, 2010, twenty-five dollars per kilowatt, (2) on or before January 1, 2011, fifteen dollars per kilowatt, and (3) on or before January 1, 2012, five dollars per kilowatt. The cost of the award shall be recoverable from federally mandated congestion charges. No such award may be made unless the projected reduction in federally mandated congestion charges attributed to the investment is greater than the amount of the award. Revenues from such award shall not be included in calculating the electric distribution company's earnings for the purpose of determining whether its rates are just and reasonable under sections 16-19, 16-19a and 16-19e.

      (q) Sixty days after the Department of Public Utility Control issues a final decision approving long-term contracts pursuant to this section, the department shall direct an electric distribution company to negotiate, in good faith, long-term contracts for the electric energy output of each of the generation projects selected and approved by the department to provide capacity pursuant to this section, provided the rates paid for such electric energy output when added to the payments made pursuant to such capacity contracts shall be the project's cost of service plus a reasonable rate of return. The electric distribution company shall apply to the department for approval of any such energy output contract. No such contract shall be effective unless approved by the department. The department may approve only such contracts it finds would reduce and stabilize the cost of electricity to Connecticut ratepayers. Such contract may not exceed the term of the capacity contract for such generation project.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 12; P.A. 06-196, S. 232; P.A. 07-242, S. 86.)

      *Note: Section 21 of public act 05-1 of the June special session is special in nature and therefore has not been codified but remains in full force and effect according to its terms.


      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005; P.A. 06-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (c), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 07-242 established requirements re long-term contracts for electric energy output that were added editorially by the Revisors as Subsec. (q), effective June 4, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-243n. Time-of-use, mandatory peak, shoulder, off-peak and seasonal rates. Optional interruptible or load response rates. (a) Not later than October 1, 2005, each electric distribution company, as defined in section 16-1, shall submit an application to the Department of Public Utility Control to (1) on or before January 1, 2007, implement time-of-use rates for customers that have a maximum demand of not less than three hundred fifty kilowatts that may include, but not be limited to, mandatory peak, shoulder and off-peak time-of-use rates, and (2) on or before June 1, 2006, offer optional interruptible or load response rates for customers that have a maximum demand of not less than three hundred fifty kilowatts and offer optional seasonal and time-of-use rates for all customers. The application shall propose to establish time-of-use rates through a procurement plan, revenue neutral adjustments to delivery rates, or both.

      (b) From March 1, 2006, until December 31, 2006, each electric distribution company shall issue comparative analyses to customers that have a maximum demand of not less than three hundred fifty kilowatts that would demonstrate, at current levels of consumption, the effects of the mandatory time-of-use rates as specified in subdivision (l) of subsection (a) of this section to be effective beginning January 1, 2007.

      (c) Not later than November 1, 2005, each electric distribution company shall submit an application to the Department of Public Utility Control to implement mandatory seasonal rates for all customers beginning April 1, 2007.

      (d) From April 1, 2006, until March 31, 2007, each electric distribution company shall issue comparative analyses to all customers that demonstrate, at current levels of consumption, the effects of the mandatory seasonal rates that will be effective beginning April 1, 2007.

      (e) The department shall hold a hearing that shall be conducted as a contested case, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to approve, reject or modify applications submitted pursuant to subsection (a) or (c) of this section. No application for time-of-use rates shall be approved unless (1) such rates reasonably reflect the cost of service during their respective time-of-use periods, and (2) the costs associated with implementation, the impact on customers and benefits to the utility system justify implementation of such rates, and (3) such rates alter patterns of customer consumption of electricity without undue adverse effect on the customer.

      (f) Each electric distribution company shall assist customers to help manage loads and reduce peak consumption through the comprehensive plan developed pursuant to section 16-245m.

      (g) The department shall conduct a contested case, in accordance with chapter 54, to determine the standards under which, and process by which, a customer, having a maximum demand of three hundred fifty kilowatts or more, may obtain an exemption, until July 1, 2010, from mandatory time-of-use rates as specified in subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of this section. The department shall issue a decision in the contested case no later than January 1, 2006.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 13; P.A. 07-242, S. 85.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005; P.A. 07-242 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to require implementation of time-of-use rates that may include mandatory peak, shoulder and off-peak time-of-use rates and amended Subsec. (e)(1) to make a conforming change, effective June 4, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-243o. Waiver of back-up power rates. (a) If a customer of an electric distribution company implements customer-side distributed resource capacity after January 1, 2006, and such capacity is less than the customer's maximum metered peak load, the customer shall not be required to pay back-up power rates if the customer's distributed resources are available during system peak periods, provided the customer shall continue to be required to pay otherwise applicable charges for electricity provided by the electric distribution company.

      (b) The costs that a customer is not required to pay pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall be recoverable through federally mandated congestion charges by the electric distribution companies.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 14.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005.

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      Sec. 16-243p. Recovery of costs and investments by an electric distribution company. (a) An electric distribution company may recover its costs and investments that have been prudently incurred under the provisions of sections 16-1, 16-19ss, 16-50k, 16-50x, 16-243i to 16-243q, inclusive, 16-244c, 16-244e, 16-245d, 16-245m, 16-245n, 16-245z and 16-262i and section 21 of public act 05-1 of the June special session*. The Department of Public Utility Control shall, after a hearing held pursuant to the provisions of chapter 54, determine the appropriate mechanism to obtain cost recovery in a timely manner which mechanism may be one or more of the following: (1) Approval of rates as provided in sections 16-19 and 16-19e; (2) the energy adjustment clause as provided in section 16-19b; or (3) the federally mandated congestion charges, as defined in section 16-1. If an electric distribution company has, for six consecutive months, earned a return on equity below the return authorized by the department, earnings of such electric distribution companies that are adversely affected owing to decreased energy use attributable to implementation of the provisions of sections 16-1, 16-19ss, 16-50k, 16-50x, 16-243i to 16-243q, inclusive, 16-244c, 16-244e, 16-245d, 16-245m, 16-245n, 16-245z and 16-262i and section 21 of public act 05-1 of the June special session*, are recoverable pursuant to the provisions of section 16-19kk.

      (b) Electric distribution companies shall be authorized to earn an incentive, as provided in section 16-19kk, for costs prudently incurred by such companies pursuant to this section.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 15.)

      *Note: Section 21 of public act 05-1 of the June special session is special in nature and therefore has not been codified but remains in full force and effect according to its terms.


      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005.

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      Sec. 16-243q. Class III renewable energy portfolio standards. (a) On and after January 1, 2007, each electric distribution company providing standard service pursuant to section 16-244c and each electric supplier as defined in section 16-1 shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Department of Public Utility Control that not less than one per cent of the total output of such supplier or such standard service of an electric distribution company shall be obtained from Class III sources. On and after January 1, 2008, not less than two per cent of the total output of any such supplier or such standard service of an electric distribution company shall, on demonstration satisfactory to the Department of Public Utility Control, be obtained from Class III sources. On or after January 1, 2009, not less than three per cent of the total output of any such supplier or such standard service of an electric distribution company shall, on demonstration satisfactory to the Department of Public Utility Control, be obtained from Class III sources. On and after January 1, 2010, not less than four per cent of the total output of any such supplier or such standard service of an electric distribution company shall, on demonstration satisfactory to the Department of Public Utility Control, be obtained from Class III sources. Electric power obtained from customer-side distributed resources that does not meet air and water quality standards of the Department of Environmental Protection is not eligible for purposes of meeting the percentage standards in this section.

      (b) Except as provided in subsection (d) of this section, the Department of Public Utility Control shall assess each electric supplier and each electric distribution company that fails to meet the percentage standards of subsection (a) of this section a charge of up to five and five-tenths cents for each kilowatt hour of electricity that such supplier or company is deficient in meeting such percentage standards. Seventy-five per cent of such assessed charges shall be deposited in the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund established in section 16-245m, and twenty-five per cent shall be deposited in the Renewable Energy Investment Fund established in section 16-245n, except that such seventy-five per cent of assessed charges with respect to an electric supplier shall be divided among the Energy Conservation and Load Management Funds of electric distribution companies in proportion to the amount of electricity such electric supplier provides to end use customers in the state using the facilities of each electric distribution company.

      (c) An electric supplier or electric distribution company may satisfy the requirements of this section by participating in a conservation and distributed resources trading program approved by the Department of Public Utility Control. Credits created by conservation and customer-side distributed resources shall be allocated to the person that conserved the electricity or installed the project for customer-side distributed resources to which the credit is attributable and to the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund. Such credits shall be made in the following manner: A minimum of twenty-five per cent of the credits shall be allocated to the person that conserved the electricity or installed the project for customer-side distributed resources to which the energy credit is attributable and the remainder of the credits shall be allocated to the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund, based on a schedule created by the department no later than January 1, 2007, and reviewed annually thereafter. The department may, in a proceeding and for good cause shown, allocate a larger proportion of such credits to the person who conserved the electricity or installed the customer-side distributed resources. The department shall consider the proportion of investment made by a ratepayer through various ratepayer-funded incentive programs and the resulting reduction in federally mandated congestion charges. The portion allocated to the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund shall be used for measures that respond to energy demand and for peak reduction programs.

      (d) An electric distribution company providing standard service may contract with its wholesale suppliers to comply with the conservation and customer-side distributed resources standards set forth in subsection (a) of this section. The Department of Public Utility Control shall annually conduct a contested case, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to determine whether the electric distribution company's wholesale suppliers met the conservation and distributed resources standards during the preceding year. Any such contract shall include a provision that requires such supplier to pay the electric distribution company in an amount of up to five and one-half cents per kilowatt hour if the wholesale supplier fails to comply with the conservation and distributed resources standards during the subject annual period. The electric distribution company shall immediately transfer seventy-five per cent of any payment received from the wholesale supplier for the failure to meet the conservation and distributed resources standards to the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund and twenty-five per cent to the Renewable Energy Investment Fund. Any payment made pursuant to this section shall not be considered revenue or income to the electric distribution company.

      (e) The Department of Public Utility Control shall conduct a contested proceeding to develop the administrative processes and program specifications that are necessary to implement a Class III sources conservation and distributed resources trading program. The proceeding shall include, but not be limited to, an examination of issues such as (1) the manner in which qualifying activities are certified, tracked and reported, (2) the manner in which Class III certificates are created, accounted for and transferred, (3) verification of the accuracy of conservation and customer-side distributed resources credits, (4) verification of the fact that resources or credits used to satisfy the requirement of this section have not been used to satisfy any other portfolio or similar requirement, (5) the manner in which credits created by conservation and customer-side distributed resources may best be allocated to maximize the impact of the trading program, and (6) setting such alternative payment amounts at a level that encourages development of conservation and customer-side distributed resources. The department may retain the services of a third party entity with expertise in the development of energy efficiency trading or verification programs to assist in the development and operation of the program. The department shall issue a decision no later than February 1, 2008.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 16; P.A. 07-242, S. 43.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005; P.A. 07-242 changed "Class III resources" to "Class III sources" throughout, amended Subsec. (a) to add water quality standards to standards that electric power obtained from customer-side distributed resources must meet, and amended Subsec. (e) to delete former Subdiv. (3) re feasibility and benefits of expanding eligible Class III resources to include those resulting from residential customer electricity savings, redesignate existing Subdivs. (4) to (7) as Subdivs. (3) to (6) and change date by which department must issue a decision from February 1, 2006, to February 1, 2008.

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      Sec. 16-243r. Customer-side distributed resources and grid-side distributed resources. Qualifications for applicability of certain provisions. The provisions of sections 7-233y, 16-1, 16-19ss, 16-32f, 16-50i, 16-50k, 16-50x, 16-243i to 16-243q, inclusive, 16-244c, 16-244e, 16-245d, 16-245m, 16-245n, 16-245z and 16-262i and section 21 of public act 05-1 of the June special session*, apply to new customer-side distributed resources and grid-side distributed resources developed in this state that add electric capacity on and after January 1, 2006, and shall also apply to customer-side distributed resources and grid-side distributed resources developed in this state before January 1, 2007, that (1) have undergone upgrades that increase the resource's thermal efficiency operating level by no fewer than ten percentage points or, for resources that have a thermal efficiency level of at least seventy per cent, have undergone upgrades that increase the resource's turbine heat rate by no fewer than five percentage points and increase the electrical output of the resource by no fewer than ten percentage points, (2) operate at a thermal efficiency level of at least fifty per cent, and (3) add electric capacity in this state on or after January 1, 2007, provided such measure is in accordance with the provisions of said sections 7-233y, 16-1, 16-19ss, 16-32f, 16-50i, 16-50k, 16-50x, 16-243i to 16-243q, inclusive, 16-244c, 16-244e, 16-245d, 16-245m, 16-245n, 16-245z and 16-262i and section 21 of public act 05-1 of the June special session*. On or before January 1, 2009, the Department of Public Utility Control, in consultation with the Office of Consumer Counsel, shall report to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy regarding the cost-effectiveness of programs pursuant to this section.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 19; P.A. 07-242, S. 18.)

      *Note: Section 21 of public act 05-1 of the June special session is special in nature and therefore has not been codified but remains in full force and effect according to its terms.


      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005; P.A. 07-242 provided that referenced sections apply to new resources, added requirements for resources developed before January 1, 2007, and required department to report to the General Assembly, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-243s. Awards to electric distribution companies for programs for load curtailment, demand reduction and retrofit conservation. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall, not later than January 1, 2006, establish a program to grant awards from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010, of twenty-five dollars per kilowatt-year to electric distribution companies for programs, approved by the department and developed in this state on or after January 1, 2006, of load curtailment, demand reduction and retrofit conservation that reduce federally mandated congested charges for the period from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010, or such later date specified by the department. No such award may be made unless the projected reduction in federally mandated congestion charges attributed to the program is greater than the amount of the award. Such companies' costs associated with establishing a program for which an award is made and the cost of each such award shall be recoverable through the charge for federally mandated congestion charges. Revenues from such awards shall not be included in calculating the electric distribution company's earnings for the purpose of determining whether its rates are just and reasonable under sections 16-19, 16-19a and 16-19e.

      (b) Not later than January 31, 2007, and annually thereafter ending after January 31, 2011, or ending on such later date specified by the department, each electric distribution company shall report to the Energy Conservation Management Board on such company's activities under this section.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 35.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005.

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      Sec. 16-243t. Class III credits. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of this title, a customer who implements energy conservation or customer-side distributed resources, as defined in section 16-1, on or after January 1, 2008, shall be eligible for Class III credits, pursuant to section 16-243q. The Class III credit shall be not less than one cent per kilowatt hour. For nonresidential projects receiving conservation and load management funding, twenty-five per cent of the financial value derived from the credits earned pursuant to this section shall be directed to the customer who implements energy conservation or customer-side distribution resources pursuant to this section with the remainder of the financial value directed to the Conservation and Load Management Funds. For nonresidential projects not receiving conservation and load management funding submitted on or after March 9, 2007, seventy-five per cent of the financial value derived from the credits earned pursuant to this section shall be directed to the customer who implements energy conservation or customer-side distribution resources pursuant to this section with the remainder of the financial value directed to the Conservation and Load Management Funds. Not later than July 1, 2007, the Department of Public Utility Control shall initiate a contested case proceeding in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section.

      (b) In order to be eligible for ongoing Class III credits, the customer shall file an application that contains information necessary for the department to determine that the resource qualifies for Class III status. Such application shall (1) certify that installation and metering requirements have been met where appropriate, (2) provide a detailed energy savings or energy output calculation for such time period as specified by the department, and (3) include any other information that the department deems appropriate.

      (c) For conservation and load management projects that serve residential customers, seventy-five per cent of the financial value derived from the credits shall be directed to the Conservation and Load Management Funds.

      (P.A. 07-242, S. 42.)

      History: P.A. 07-242 effective June 4, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-243u. Plan to build peaking generation. From January 1, 2008, until February 1, 2008, any person may, and an electric distribution company shall, submit a plan to build peaking generation, or the electric distribution companies may submit a joint ownership plan to build peaking generation, to be heard in a contested case proceeding before the Department of Public Utility Control. An electric distribution company's plan shall include its full projected costs and shall demonstrate to the department that it is not supported in any form of cross subsidization by affiliated entities. Any plan approved by the department shall (1) include a requirement that the owner of the peaking generation is compensated at cost of service plus reasonable rate of return as determined by the department, and (2) require that such peaking generation facility is operated at such times and such capacity so as to reduce overall electricity rates for consumers. The department may retain a consultant to help determine if projected costs included in the plan are good faith preliminary estimates and may require modification of the plan as necessary to protect the best interests of ratepayers. Not later than one hundred twenty days after the plan is submitted, the department shall approve the plan unless it demonstrates in detail, pursuant to section 16-19e, that such plan is not in the best interests of ratepayers. The department shall request that any person submitting a plan to submit further information it deems to be in the public interest that the department shall use in evaluating the proposal. Such person shall only recover the just and reasonable costs of construction of the facility and, in an annual retail generation rate contested case, shall be entitled to recover its prudently incurred costs of such project, including, but not limited to, capital costs, operation and maintenance expenses, depreciation, fuel costs, taxes and other governmental charges and a reasonable rate of return on equity. The department shall review such recovery of costs consistent with the principles set forth in sections 16-19, 16-19b and 16-19e, provided the return on equity associated with such project shall be established in the initial annual contested case proceeding under this subsection and updated at least once every four years. A person operating a peaking generation unit pursuant to this section shall bid the unit into all regional independent system operator markets, including the energy market, capacity market or forward reserve market, using cost-of-service principles and pursuant to guidelines established by the department each year in the annual retail generation rate case pursuant to this section.

      (P.A. 07-242, S. 50.)

      History: P.A. 07-242 effective January 1, 2008.

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      Sec. 16-243v. Connecticut electric efficiency partner program. (a) For purposes of this section: (1) "Connecticut electric efficiency partner program" means the coordinated effort among the Department of Public Utility Control, persons and entities providing enhanced demand-side management technologies, and electric consumers to conserve electricity and reduce demand in Connecticut through the purchase and deployment of energy efficient technologies; (2) "enhanced demand-side management technologies" means demand-side management solutions, customer-side emergency dispatchable generation resources, customer-side renewable energy generation, load shifting technologies and conservation and load management technologies that reduce electric distribution company customers' electric demand, and high efficiency natural gas and oil boilers and furnaces; and (3) "Connecticut electric efficiency partner" means an electric distribution company customer who acquires an enhanced demand-side management technology or a person, other than an electric distribution company, that provides enhanced demand-side management technologies to electric distribution company customers.

      (b) The Energy Conservation Management Board, in consultation with the Renewable Energy Investments Advisory Committee, shall evaluate and approve enhanced demand-side management technologies that can be deployed by Connecticut electric efficiency partners to reduce electric distribution company customers' electric demand. Such evaluation shall include an examination of the potential to reduce customers' demand, federally mandated congestion charges and other electric costs. On or before October 15, 2007, the Energy Conservation Management Board shall file such evaluation with the Department of Public Utility Control for the department to review and approve or to review, modify and approve on or before October 15, 2007.

      (c) Not later than October 15, 2007, the Energy Conservation Management Board shall file with the department, for the department to review and approve or to review, modify and approve, an analysis of the state's electric demand, peak electric demand and growth forecasts for electric demand and peak electric demand. Such analysis shall identify the principal drivers of electric demand and peak electric demand, associated electric charges tied to electric demand and peak electric demand growth, including, but not limited to, federally mandated congestion charges and other electric costs, and any other information the department deems appropriate. The analysis shall include, but not be limited to, an evaluation of the costs and benefits of the enhanced demand-side management technologies approved pursuant to subsection (b) of this section and establishing suggested funding levels for said individual technologies.

      (d) Commencing April 1, 2008, any person may apply to the department for certification and funding as a Connecticut electric efficiency partner. Such application shall include the technologies that the applicant shall purchase or provide and that have been approved pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. In evaluating the application, the department shall (1) consider the applicant's potential to reduce customers' electric demand, including peak electric demand, and associated electric charges tied to electric demand and peak electric demand growth, (2) determine the portion of the total cost of each project that shall be paid for by the customer participating in this program and the portion of the total cost of each project that shall be paid for by all electric ratepayers and collected pursuant to subsection (h) of this section. In making such determination, the department shall ensure that all ratepayer investments maintain a minimum two-to-one payback ratio, and (3) specify that participating Connecticut electric efficiency partners shall maintain the technology for a period sufficient to achieve such investment payback ratio. The annual ratepayer contribution for projects approved pursuant to this section shall not exceed sixty million dollars. Not less than seventy-five per cent of such annual ratepayer investment shall be used for the technologies themselves. No person shall receive electric ratepayer funding pursuant to this subsection if such person has received or is receiving funding from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Funds for the projects included in said person's application. No person shall receive electric ratepayer funding without receiving a certificate of public convenience and necessity as a Connecticut electric efficiency partner by the department. The department may grant an applicant a certificate of public convenience if it possesses and demonstrates adequate financial resources, managerial ability and technical competency. The department may conduct additional requests for proposals from time to time as it deems appropriate. The department shall specify the manner in which a Connecticut electric efficiency partner shall address measures of effectiveness and shall include performance milestones.

      (e) Beginning February 1, 2010, a certified Connecticut electric efficiency partner may only receive funding if selected in a request for proposal developed, issued and evaluated by the department. In evaluating a proposal, the department shall take into consideration the potential to reduce customers' electric demand including peak electric demand, and associated electric charges tied to electric demand and peak electric demand growth, including, but not limited to, federally mandated congestion charges and other electric costs, and shall utilize a cost benefit test established pursuant to subsection (c) of this section to rank responses for selection. The department shall determine the portion of the total cost of each project that shall be paid by the customer participating in this program and the portion of the total cost of each project that shall be paid by all electric ratepayers and collected pursuant to the provisions of this subsection. In making such determination, the department shall (1) ensure that all ratepayer investments maintain a minimum two-to-one payback ratio, and (2) specify that participating Connecticut electric efficiency partners shall maintain the technology for a period sufficient to achieve such investment payback ratio. The annual ratepayer contribution shall not exceed sixty million dollars. Not less than seventy-five per cent of such annual ratepayer investment shall be used for the technologies themselves. No Connecticut electric efficiency partner shall receive funding pursuant to this subsection if such partner has received or is receiving funding from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Funds for such technology. The department may conduct additional requests for proposals from time to time as it deems appropriate. The department shall specify the manner in which a Connecticut electric efficiency partner shall address measures of effectiveness and shall include performance milestones.

      (f) The department may retain the services of a third party entity with expertise in areas such as demand-side management solutions, customer-side renewable energy generation, customer-side distributed generation resources, customer-side emergency dispatchable generation resources, load shifting technologies and conservation and load management investments to assist in the development and operation of the Connecticut electric efficiency partner program. The costs for obtaining third party services pursuant to this subsection shall be recoverable through the systems benefits charge.

      (g) The department shall develop a long-term low-interest loan program to assist certified Connecticut electric efficiency partners in financing the customer portion of the capital costs of approved enhanced demand-side management technologies. The department may establish such financing mechanism by the use of one or more of the following strategies: (1) Modifying the existing long-term customer-side distributed generation financing mechanism established pursuant to section 16-243j, (2) negotiating and entering into an agreement with the Connecticut Development Authority to establish a credit facility or to utilize grants, loans or loan guarantees for the purposes of this section upon such terms and conditions as the authority may prescribe including provisions regarding the rights and remedies available to the authority in case of default, or (3) selecting by competitive bid one or more entities that can provide such long-term financing.

      (h) The department shall provide for the payment of electric ratepayers' portion of the costs of deploying enhanced demand-side management technologies by implementing a contractual financing agreement with the Connecticut Development Authority or a private financing entity selected through an appropriate open competitive selection process. No contractual financing agreements entered into with the Connecticut Development Authority shall exceed ten million dollars. Any electric ratepayer costs resulting from such financing agreement shall be recovered from all electric ratepayers through the systems benefits charge.

      (i) On or before February 15, 2009, and annually thereafter, the department shall report to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy regarding the effectiveness of the Connecticut electric efficiency partner program established pursuant to this section. Said report shall include, but not be limited to, an accounting of all benefits and costs to ratepayers, a description of the approved technologies, the payback ratio of all investments, the number of programs deployed and a list of proposed projects compared to approved projects and reasons for not being approved.

      (j) On or before April 1, 2011, the Department of Public Utility Control shall initiate a proceeding to review the effectiveness of the program and perform a ratepayer cost-benefit analysis. Based upon the department's findings in the proceeding, the department may modify or discontinue the partnership program established pursuant to this section.

      (P.A. 07-242, S. 94.)

      History: P.A. 07-242 effective June 4, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-243w. Advanced metering system plan and deployment. (a) On or before July 1, 2007, each electric distribution company shall submit a plan to the Department of Public Utility Control to deploy an advanced metering system. In lieu of submitting a plan pursuant to this section, an electric distribution company may seek a determination by the department that such company's existing metering system meets the requirements of this section. Such metering systems shall support net metering and be capable of tracking hourly consumption to support proactive customer pricing signals through innovative rate design, such as time-of-day or real-time pricing of electric service for all customer classes.

      (b) Each plan to implement an advanced metering system developed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall outline an implementation schedule whereby meters and any network necessary to support such meters are fully deployed on or before January 1, 2009. On or after January 1, 2009, any customer may obtain a meter on demand.

      (c) The cost of the advanced metering system, including, but not limited to, the meters, the network to support the meters, software and vendor costs to obtain the required information from the metering system and administrative, installation, operation maintenance costs, shall be borne by the electric distribution company and shall be recoverable in rates. Any unrecovered cost of the current metering system shall continue to be reflected in rates.

      (d) Not later than six months after June 4, 2007, electric distribution companies, competitive electric suppliers and aggregators shall offer time-of-use pricing options to all customer classes. These pricing options shall include, but not be limited to, hourly and real-time pricing options.

      (P.A. 07-242, S. 98.)

      History: P.A. 07-242 effective June 4, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-244. Electric deregulation; findings and declarations. The General Assembly finds and declares that:

      (1) The provision of affordable, safe and reliable electricity is key to the continuing growth of this state and to the health, safety and general welfare of its residents;

      (2) Rates for electricity in this state and in the region are higher than the national average;

      (3) Changes in generating technology now enable the provision of electric service at much lower rates than are currently being charged in Connecticut and competitive market forces can play a role in the reduction of Connecticut rates;

      (4) It is in the best interest of the state to reduce rates for electricity to all customer classes, to prevent cross subsidization among customer classes and to allow for the competitive generation of electricity while retaining a regulated distribution system to ensure reliability;

      (5) A competitive generation market should allow customers to choose among alternative generation services and allow customers a reasonable and fair opportunity to self-generate and interconnect;

      (6) Those public policy measures under current law, including, but not limited to, those protecting customers under the winter moratorium and hardship provisions as well as conservation measures and incentives for using renewable energy sources, should be preserved;

      (7) State regulations should encourage and allow for a sufficient number of in-state generating facilities to ensure an adequate and reliable power supply within the state and ensure development of a truly competitive generation market;

      (8) The assurance of safe, reliable and available electric service to all customers in a uniform and equitable manner is an essential governmental objective and a restructured electric market must provide adequate safeguards to assure universal service and customer service protections;

      (9) The generation of electricity must be achieved in a manner that does not endanger the public health or safety and that minimizes negative environmental impacts;

      (10) The restructuring of the electric industry may result in a reduction in staffing levels at Connecticut generation facilities and those workers adversely affected by such restructuring should be protected;

      (11) The current method of providing electric service has involved a balancing of costs, risks and rewards for electric utilities and their customers, and therefore the transition to a competitive generation market, including the determination of stranded costs, should be based on the principles of fairness and reasonableness and the result of a balance of the interests of electric customers, electric utilities and the public at large; and

      (12) It is in the best interest of the state for all customers to use electricity as efficiently as possible.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5656; P.A. 98-28, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 replaced existing provisions re authority of corporations to sell, transmit, convey and deliver electricity with declarations concerning deregulation of electric industry, effective July 1, 1998.

      Cited. 145 C. 243.

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      Sec. 16-244a. Rate freeze for electric service. (a) For purposes of this section, "base rates" means the total amount charged by an electric company to each end use customer class, as defined in its rate order in effect on July 1, 1998, for the fully bundled costs of electricity, including any customer service charge and any demand charge.

      (b) Notwithstanding sections 16-19 and 16-19a for the period from July 1, 1998, until December 31, 1999, the base rates paid to an electric company by any customer in the state for electric services, other than a customer receiving electric services under a special contract, shall not exceed the base rates that have been approved by the Department of Public Utility Control for that electric company as of December 31, 1996. Base rates shall be adjusted to the extent of any increase or decrease in state taxes attributable to sections 12-264 and 12-265 and any other increase or decrease in state or federal taxes resulting from a change in state or federal law and shall continue to be adjusted during such period pursuant to section 16-19b. Base rates may be adjusted, by an increase or decrease, to the extent approved by the department, in the event that the revenue requirements of the company are affected as the result of changes in legislative enactments other than public act 98-28*, administrative requirements or accounting standards occurring after July 1, 1998, provided such accounting standards are adopted by entities independent of the company that have authority to issue such standards. Savings attributable to a reduction in taxes shall not be shifted between customer classes. The calculation of base rates for purposes of this section shall not be affected by the change in billing format provided in subsection (b) of section 16-244e.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 3, 117.)

      *Note: Public act 98-28 is entitled "An Act Concerning Electric Restructuring". (See Reference Table captioned "Public Acts of 1998" in Volume 16 which lists the sections amended, created or repealed by the act.)


      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998.

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      Sec. 16-244b. Electric customers to choose electric suppliers. Phase-in of electric deregulation. All customers of electric distribution companies, as defined in section 16-1, shall have the opportunity to purchase electric generation services from their choice of electric suppliers, as defined in said section 16-1, in a competitive generation market in accordance with the schedule provided in this section. On and after January 1, 2000, up to thirty-five per cent of the peak load of each rate class of an electric company or electric distribution company, as the case may be, may choose an electric supplier to provide their electric generation services, provided such customers shall be located in distressed municipalities, as defined in section 32-9p. In the event that the number of customers exceeds thirty-five per cent of such load, preference shall be given to customers located in distressed municipalities with a population greater than one hundred thousand persons. Participation shall be determined on a first-come, first-served basis. As of July 1, 2000, all customers shall have the opportunity to choose an electric supplier. On and after January 1, 2000, electric generation services shall be provided in accordance with section 16-244c to any customer who has not chosen an electric supplier or has declined, failed or been unable to enter into or maintain a contract for electric generation services with an electric supplier. The Department of Public Utility Control may adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 to implement the phase-in schedule provided in this subsection.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 4, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998.

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      Sec. 16-244c. Standard offer. Transitional standard offer. Standard service. Alternative transitional standard offer and standard service. Supplier of last resort. Back-up generation service. Participating electric suppliers. (a)(1) On and after January 1, 2000, each electric distribution company shall make available to all customers in its service area, the provision of electric generation and distribution services through a standard offer. Under the standard offer, a customer shall receive electric services at a rate established by the Department of Public Utility Control pursuant to subdivision (2) of this subsection. Each electric distribution company shall provide electric generation services in accordance with such option to any customer who affirmatively chooses to receive electric generation services pursuant to the standard offer or does not or is unable to arrange for or maintain electric generation services with an electric supplier. The standard offer shall automatically terminate on January 1, 2004. While providing electric generation services under the standard offer, an electric distribution company may provide electric generation services through any of its generation entities or affiliates, provided such entities or affiliates are licensed pursuant to section 16-245.

      (2) Not later than October 1, 1999, the Department of Public Utility Control shall establish the standard offer for each electric distribution company, effective January 1, 2000, which shall allocate the costs of such company among electric transmission and distribution services, electric generation services, the competitive transition assessment and the systems benefits charge. The department shall hold a hearing that shall be conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54 to establish the standard offer. The standard offer shall provide that the total rate charged under the standard offer, including electric transmission and distribution services, the conservation and load management program charge described in section 16-245m, the renewable energy investment charge described in section 16-245n, electric generation services, the competitive transition assessment and the systems benefits charge shall be at least ten per cent less than the base rates, as defined in section 16-244a, in effect on December 31, 1996. The standard offer shall be adjusted to the extent of any increase or decrease in state taxes attributable to sections 12-264 and 12-265 and any other increase or decrease in state or federal taxes resulting from a change in state or federal law and shall continue to be adjusted during such period pursuant to section 16-19b. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 16-19b, the provisions of said section 16-19b shall apply to electric distribution companies. The standard offer may be adjusted, by an increase or decrease, to the extent approved by the department, in the event that (A) the revenue requirements of the company are affected as the result of changes in (i) legislative enactments other than public act 98-28*, (ii) administrative requirements, or (iii) accounting standards occurring after July 1, 1998, provided such accounting standards are adopted by entities independent of the company that have authority to issue such standards, or (B) an electric distribution company incurs extraordinary and unanticipated expenses required for the provision of safe and reliable electric service to the extent necessary to provide such service. Savings attributable to a reduction in taxes shall not be shifted between customer classes.

      (3) The price reduction provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection shall not apply to customers who, on or after July 1, 1998, are purchasing electric services from an electric company or electric distribution company, as the case may be, under a special contract or flexible rate tariff, and the company's filed standard offer tariffs shall reflect that such customers shall not receive the standard offer price reduction.

      (b) (1) (A) On and after January 1, 2004, each electric distribution company shall make available to all customers in its service area, the provision of electric generation and distribution services through a transitional standard offer. Under the transitional standard offer, a customer shall receive electric services at a rate established by the Department of Public Utility Control pursuant to subdivision (2) of this subsection. Each electric distribution company shall provide electric generation services in accordance with such option to any customer who affirmatively chooses to receive electric generation services pursuant to the transitional standard offer or does not or is unable to arrange for or maintain electric generation services with an electric supplier. The transitional standard offer shall terminate on December 31, 2006. While providing electric generation services under the transitional standard offer, an electric distribution company may provide electric generation services through any of its generation entities or affiliates, provided such entities or affiliates are licensed pursuant to section 16-245.

      (B) The department shall conduct a proceeding to determine whether a practical, effective, and cost-effective process exists under which an electric customer, when initiating electric service, may receive information regarding selecting electric generating services from a qualified entity. The department shall complete such proceeding on or before December 1, 2005, and shall implement the resulting decision on or before March 1, 2006, or on such later date that the department considers appropriate. An electric distribution company's costs of participating in the proceeding and implementing the results of the department's decision shall be recoverable by the company as generation services costs through an adjustment mechanism as approved by the department.

      (2) (A) Not later than December 15, 2003, the Department of Public Utility Control shall establish the transitional standard offer for each electric distribution company, effective January 1, 2004.

      (B) The department shall hold a hearing that shall be conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54 to establish the transitional standard offer. The transitional standard offer shall provide that the total rate charged under the transitional standard offer, including electric transmission and distribution services, the conservation and load management program charge described in section 16-245m, the renewable energy investment charge described in section 16-245n, electric generation services, the competitive transition assessment and the systems benefits charge, and excluding federally mandated congestion costs, shall not exceed the base rates, as defined in section 16-244a, in effect on December 31, 1996, excluding any rate reduction ordered by the department on September 26, 2002.

      (C) (i) Each electric distribution company shall, on or before January 1, 2004, file with the department an application for an amendment of rates pursuant to section 16-19, which application shall include a four-year plan for the provision of electric transmission and distribution services. The department shall conduct a contested case proceeding pursuant to sections 16-19 and 16-19e to approve, reject or modify the application and plan. Upon the approval of such plan, as filed or as modified by the department, the department shall order that such plan shall establish the electric transmission and distribution services component of the transitional standard offer.

      (ii) Notwithstanding the provisions of this subparagraph, an electric distribution company that, on or after September 1, 2002, completed a proceeding pursuant to sections 16-19 and 16-19e, shall not be required to file an application for an amendment of rates as required by this subparagraph. The department shall establish the electric transmission and distribution services component of the transitional standard offer for any such company equal to the electric transmission and distribution services component of the standard offer established pursuant to subsection (a) of this section in effect on July 1, 2003, for such company. If such electric distribution company applies to the department, pursuant to section 16-19, for an amendment of its rates on or before December 31, 2006, the application of the electric distribution company shall include a four-year plan.

      (D) The transitional standard offer (i) shall be adjusted to the extent of any increase or decrease in state taxes attributable to sections 12-264 and 12-265 and any other increase or decrease in state or federal taxes resulting from a change in state or federal law, (ii) shall be adjusted to provide for the cost of contracts under subdivision (2) of subsection (j) of this section and the administrative costs for the procurement of such contracts, and (iii) shall continue to be adjusted during such period pursuant to section 16-19b. Savings attributable to a reduction in taxes shall not be shifted between customer classes. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 16-19b, the provisions of section 16-19b shall apply to electric distribution companies.

      (E) The transitional standard offer may be adjusted, by an increase or decrease, to the extent approved by the department, in the event that (i) the revenue requirements of the company are affected as the result of changes in (I) legislative enactments other than public act 03-135* or public act 98-28*, (II) administrative requirements, or (III) accounting standards adopted after July 1, 2003, provided such accounting standards are adopted by entities that are independent of the company and have authority to issue such standards, or (ii) an electric distribution company incurs extraordinary and unanticipated expenses required for the provision of safe and reliable electric service to the extent necessary to provide such service.

      (3) The price provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection shall not apply to customers who, on or after July 1, 2003, purchase electric services from an electric company or electric distribution company, as the case may be, under a special contract or flexible rate tariff, provided the company's filed transitional standard offer tariffs shall reflect that such customers shall not receive the transitional standard offer price during the term of said contract or tariff.

      (4) (A) In addition to its costs received pursuant to subsection (h) of this section, as compensation for providing transitional standard offer service, each electric distribution company shall receive an amount equal to five-tenths of one mill per kilowatt hour. Revenues from such compensation shall not be included in calculating the electric distribution company's earnings for purposes of, or in determining whether its rates are just and reasonable under, sections 16-19, 16-19a and 16-19e, including an earnings sharing mechanism. In addition, each electric distribution company may earn compensation for mitigating the prices of the contracts for the provision of electric generation services, as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection.

      (B) The department shall conduct a contested case proceeding pursuant to the provisions of chapter 54 to establish an incentive plan for the procurement of long-term contracts for transitional standard offer service by an electric distribution company. The incentive plan shall be based upon a comparison of the actual average firm full requirements service contract price for electricity obtained by the electric distribution company compared to the regional average firm full requirements service contract price for electricity, adjusted for such variables as the department deems appropriate, including, but not limited to, differences in locational marginal pricing. If the actual average firm full requirements service contract price obtained by the electric distribution company is less than the actual regional average firm full requirements service contract price for the previous year, the department shall split five-tenths of one mill per kilowatt hour equally between ratepayers and the company. Revenues from such incentive plan shall not be included in calculating the electric distribution company's earnings for purposes of, or in determining whether its rates are just and reasonable under sections 16-19, 16-19a and 16-19e. The department may, as it deems necessary, retain a third party entity with expertise in energy procurement to assist with the development of such incentive plan.

      (c) (1) On and after January 1, 2007, each electric distribution company shall provide electric generation services through standard service to any customer who (A) does not arrange for or is not receiving electric generation services from an electric supplier, and (B) does not use a demand meter or has a maximum demand of less than five hundred kilowatts.

      (2) Not later than October 1, 2006, and periodically as required by subdivision (3) of this subsection, but not more often than every calendar quarter, the Department of Public Utility Control shall establish the standard service price for such customers pursuant to subdivision (3) of this subsection. Each electric distribution company shall recover the actual net costs of procuring and providing electric generation services pursuant to this subsection, provided such company mitigates the costs it incurs for the procurement of electric generation services for customers who are no longer receiving service pursuant to this subsection.

      (3) An electric distribution company providing electric generation services pursuant to this subsection shall mitigate the variation of the price of the service offered to its customers by procuring electric generation services contracts in the manner prescribed in a plan approved by the department. Such plan shall require the procurement of a portfolio of service contracts sufficient to meet the projected load of the electric distribution company. Such plan shall require that the portfolio of service contracts be procured in an overlapping pattern of fixed periods at such times and in such manner and duration as the department determines to be most likely to produce just, reasonable and reasonably stable retail rates while reflecting underlying wholesale market prices over time. The portfolio of contracts shall be assembled in such manner as to invite competition; guard against favoritism, improvidence, extravagance, fraud and corruption; and secure a reliable electricity supply while avoiding unusual, anomalous or excessive pricing. The portfolio of contracts procured under such plan shall be for terms of not less than six months, provided contracts for shorter periods may be procured under such conditions as the department shall prescribe to (A) ensure the lowest rates possible for end-use customers; (B) ensure reliable service under extraordinary circumstances; and (C) ensure the prudent management of the contract portfolio. An electric distribution company may receive a bid for an electric generation services contract from any of its generation entities or affiliates, provided such generation entity or affiliate submits its bid the business day preceding the first day on which an unaffiliated electric supplier may submit its bid and further provided the electric distribution company and the generation entity or affiliate are in compliance with the code of conduct established in section 16-244h.

      (4) The department, in consultation with the Office of Consumer Counsel, shall retain the services of a third-party entity with expertise in the area of energy procurement to oversee the initial development of the request for proposals and the procurement of contracts by an electric distribution company for the provision of electric generation services offered pursuant to this subsection. Costs associated with the retention of such third-party entity shall be included in the cost of electric generation services that is included in such price.

      (5) Each bidder for a standard service contract shall submit its bid to the electric distribution company and the third-party entity who shall jointly review the bids and submit an overview of all bids together with a joint recommendation to the department as to the preferred bidders. The department may, within ten business days of submission of the overview, reject the recommendation regarding preferred bidders. In the event that the department rejects the preferred bids, the electric distribution company and the third-party entity shall rebid the service pursuant to this subdivision.

      (d) (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section regarding the electric generation services component of the transitional standard offer or the procurement of electric generation services under standard service, section 16-244h or 16-245o, the Department of Public Utility Control may, from time to time, direct an electric distribution company to offer, through an electric supplier or electric suppliers, before January 1, 2007, one or more alternative transitional standard offer options or, on or after January 1, 2007, one or more alternative standard service options. Such alternative options shall include, but not be limited to, an option that consists of the provision of electric generation services that exceed the renewable portfolio standards established in section 16-245a and may include an option that utilizes strategies or technologies that reduce the overall consumption of electricity of the customer.

      (2) (A) The department shall develop such alternative option or options in a contested case conducted in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54. The department shall determine the terms and conditions of such alternative option or options, including, but not limited to, (i) the minimum contract terms, including pricing, length and termination of the contract, and (ii) the minimum percentage of electricity derived from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources, if applicable. The electric distribution company shall, under the supervision of the department, subsequently conduct a bidding process in order to solicit electric suppliers to provide such alternative option or options.

      (B) The department may reject some or all of the bids received pursuant to the bidding process.

      (3) The department may require an electric supplier to provide forms of assurance to satisfy the department that the contracts resulting from the bidding process will be fulfilled.

      (4) An electric supplier who fails to fulfill its contractual obligations resulting from this subdivision shall be subject to civil penalties, in accordance with the provisions of section 16-41, or the suspension or revocation of such supplier's license or a prohibition on the acceptance of new customers, following a hearing that is conducted as a contested case, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.

      (e) (1) On and after January 1, 2007, an electric distribution company shall serve customers that are not eligible to receive standard service pursuant to subsection (c) of this section as the supplier of last resort. This subsection shall not apply to customers purchasing power under contracts entered into pursuant to section 16-19hh.

      (2) An electric distribution company shall procure electricity at least every calendar quarter to provide electric generation services to customers pursuant to this subsection. The Department of Public Utility Control shall determine a price for such customers that reflects the full cost of providing the electricity on a monthly basis. Each electric distribution company shall recover the actual net costs of procuring and providing electric generation services pursuant to this subsection, provided such company mitigates the costs it incurs for the procurement of electric generation services for customers that are no longer receiving service pursuant to this subsection.

      (f) On and after January 1, 2000, and until such time the regional independent system operator implements procedures for the provision of back-up power to the satisfaction of the Department of Public Utility Control, each electric distribution company shall provide electric generation services to any customer who has entered into a service contract with an electric supplier that fails to provide electric generation services for reasons other than the customer's failure to pay for such services. Between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2006, an electric distribution company may procure electric generation services through a competitive bidding process or through any of its generation entities or affiliates. On and after January 1, 2007, such company shall procure electric generation services through a competitive bidding process pursuant to a plan submitted by the electric distribution company and approved by the department. Such company may procure electric generation services through any of its generation entities or affiliates, provided such entity or affiliate is the lowest qualified bidder and provided further any such entity or affiliate is licensed pursuant to section 16-245.

      (g) An electric distribution company is not required to be licensed pursuant to section 16-245 to provide standard offer electric generation services in accordance with subsection (a) of this section, transitional standard offer service pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, standard service pursuant to subsection (c) of this section, supplier of last resort service pursuant to subsection (e) of this section or back-up electric generation service pursuant to subsection (f) of this section.

      (h) The electric distribution company shall be entitled to recover reasonable costs incurred as a result of providing standard offer electric generation services pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, transitional standard offer service pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, standard service pursuant to subsection (c) of this section or back-up electric generation service pursuant to subsection (f) of this section. The provisions of this section and section 16-244a shall satisfy the requirements of section 16-19a until January 1, 2007.

      (i) The Department of Public Utility Control shall establish, by regulations adopted pursuant to chapter 54, procedures for when and how a customer is notified that his electric supplier has defaulted and of the need for the customer to choose a new electric supplier within a reasonable period of time.

      (j) (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d) of this section regarding an alternative transitional standard offer option or an alternative standard service option, an electric distribution company providing transitional standard offer service, standard service, supplier of last resort service or back-up electric generation service in accordance with this section shall contract with its wholesale suppliers to comply with the renewable portfolio standards. The Department of Public Utility Control shall annually conduct a contested case, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, in order to determine whether the electric distribution company's wholesale suppliers met the renewable portfolio standards during the preceding year. An electric distribution company shall include a provision in its contract with each wholesale supplier that requires the wholesale supplier to pay the electric distribution company an amount of five and one-half cents per kilowatt hour if the wholesale supplier fails to comply with the renewable portfolio standards during the subject annual period. The electric distribution company shall promptly transfer any payment received from the wholesale supplier for the failure to meet the renewable portfolio standards to the Renewable Energy Investment Fund for the development of Class I renewable energy sources. Any payment made pursuant to this section shall not be considered revenue or income to the electric distribution company.

      (2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d) of this section regarding an alternative transitional standard offer option or an alternative standard service option, an electric distribution company providing transitional standard offer service, standard service, supplier of last resort service or back-up electric generation service in accordance with this section shall, not later than July 1, 2008, file with the Department of Public Utility Control for its approval one or more long-term power purchase contracts from Class I renewable energy source projects that receive funding from the Renewable Energy Investment Fund and that are not less than one megawatt in size, at a price that is either, at the determination of the project owner, (A) not more than the total of the comparable wholesale market price for generation plus five and one-half cents per kilowatt hour, or (B) fifty per cent of the wholesale market electricity cost at the point at which transmission lines intersect with each other or interface with the distribution system, plus the project cost of fuel indexed to natural gas futures contracts on the New York Mercantile Exchange at the natural gas pipeline interchange located in Vermillion Parish, Louisiana that serves as the delivery point for such futures contracts, plus the fuel delivery charge for transporting fuel to the project, plus five and one-half cents per kilowatt hour. In its approval of such contracts, the department shall give preference to purchase contracts from those projects that would provide a financial benefit to ratepayers or would enhance the reliability of the electric transmission system of the state. Such projects shall be located in this state. The owner of a fuel cell project principally manufactured in this state shall be allocated all available air emissions credits and tax credits attributable to the project and no less than fifty per cent of the energy credits in the Class I renewable energy credits program established in section 16-245a attributable to the project. On and after October 1, 2007, and until September 30, 2008, such contracts shall be comprised of not less than a total, apportioned among each electric distribution company, of one hundred twenty-five megawatts; and on and after October 1, 2008, such contracts shall be comprised of not less than a total, apportioned among each electrical distribution company, of one hundred fifty megawatts. The cost of such contracts and the administrative costs for the procurement of such contracts directly incurred shall be eligible for inclusion in the adjustment to the transitional standard offer as provided in this section and any subsequent rates for standard service, provided such contracts are for a period of time sufficient to provide financing for such projects, but not less than ten years, and are for projects which began operation on or after July 1, 2003. Except as provided in this subdivision, the amount from Class I renewable energy sources contracted under such contracts shall be applied to reduce the applicable Class I renewable energy source portfolio standards. For purposes of this subdivision, the department's determination of the comparable wholesale market price for generation shall be based upon a reasonable estimate. On or before September 1, 2007, the department, in consultation with the Office of Consumer Counsel and the Renewable Energy Investments Advisory Council, shall study the operation of such renewable energy contracts and report its findings and recommendations to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy.

      (k) (1) As used in this section:

      (A) "Participating electric supplier" means an electric supplier that is licensed by the department to provide electric service, pursuant to this subsection, to residential or small commercial customers.

      (B) "Residential customer" means a customer who is eligible for standard service and who takes electric distribution-related service from an electric distribution company pursuant to a residential tariff.

      (C) "Small commercial customer" means a customer who is eligible for standard service and who takes electric distribution-related service from an electric distribution company pursuant to a small commercial tariff.

      (D) "Qualifying electric offer" means an offer to provide full requirements commodity electric service and all other generation-related service to a residential or small commercial customer at a fixed price per kilowatt hour for a term of no less than one year.

      (2) In the manner determined by the department, residential or small commercial service customers (A) initiating new utility service, (B) reinitiating service following a change of residence or business location, (C) making an inquiry regarding their utility rates, or (D) seeking information regarding energy efficiency shall be offered the option to learn about their ability to enroll with a participating electric supplier. Customers expressing an interest to learn about their electric supply options shall be informed of the qualifying electric offers then available from participating electric suppliers. The electric distribution companies shall describe then available qualifying electric offers through a method reviewed and approved by the department. The information conveyed to customers expressing an interest to learn about their electric supply options shall include, at a minimum, the price and term of the available electric supply option. Customers expressing an interest in a particular qualifying electric offer shall be immediately transferred to a call center operated by that participating electric supplier.

      (3) Not later than September 1, 2007, the department shall establish terms and conditions under which a participating electric supplier can be included in the referral program described in subdivision (2) of this subsection. Such terms shall include, but not be limited to, requiring participating electrical suppliers to offer time-of-use and real-time use rates to residential customers.

      (4) Each calendar quarter, participating electric suppliers shall be allowed to list qualifying offers to provide electric generation service to residential and small commercial customers with each customer's utility bill. The department shall determine the manner such information is presented in customers' utility bills.

      (5) Any customer that receives electric generation service from a participating electric supplier may return to standard service or may choose another participating electric supplier at any time, including during the qualifying electric offer, without the imposition of any additional charges. Any customer that is receiving electric generation service from an electric distribution company pursuant to standard service can switch to another participating electric supplier at any time without the imposition of additional charges.

      (l) Each electric distribution company shall offer to bill customers on behalf of participating electric suppliers and to pay such suppliers in a timely manner the amounts due such suppliers from customers for generation services, less a percentage of such amounts that reflects uncollectible bills and overdue payments as approved by the Department of Public Utility Control.

      (m) On or before July 1, 2007, the Department of Public Utility Control shall initiate a proceeding to examine whether electric supplier bills rendered pursuant to section 16-245d and any regulations adopted thereunder sufficiently enable customers to compare pricing policies and charges among electric suppliers.

      (n) Nothing in the provisions of this section shall preclude an electric distribution company from entering into standard service supply contracts or standard service supply components with electric generating facilities.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 20, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 4; 03-221, S. 3, 4; P.A. 04-236, S. 9; 04-247, S. 2; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 25, 26, 33; P.A. 06-196, S. 233; P.A. 07-242, S. 49, 92, 124.)

      *Note: Public act 98-28 is entitled "An Act Concerning Electric Restructuring" and public act 03-135 is entitled "An Act Concerning Revisions to the Electric Restructuring Legislation". (See Reference Tables captioned "Public Acts of 1998" and "Public Acts of 2003", respectively, in Volume 16 which list the sections amended, created or repealed by the acts.)


      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 made technical changes, deleted provision in Subsec. (a) re extension of the standard offer by the General Assembly, deleted former Subsec. (b) re service to customers on and after January 1, 2004, who do not or are unable to arrange for services, added new Subsec. (b) re transitional standard offer, added new Subsec. (c) re standard service, added new Subsec. (d) re alternative transitional standard offer and standard service, added new Subsec. (e) re supplier of last resort, redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (f) and amended said Subsec. to change "2003" to "2006" and "2004" to "2007" and to add "pursuant to a plan submitted by the electric distribution company and approved by the department", redesignated existing Subsec. (d) as Subsec. (g) and amended said Subsec. to add reference to transitional standard offer service, standard service, and supplier of last resort service and to delete reference to January 1, 2004, redesignated existing Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (h) and amended said Subsec. to delete reference to default service and back-up electrical generation services, to add reference to transitional standard offer service, standard service and back-up electric generation service and to change "2004" to "2007", redesignated existing Subsec. (f) as Subsec. (i) and amended said Subsec. to delete provision re standards or procedures for procuring power and competitive bidding, and added new Subsec. (j) re compliance with renewable portfolio standards and purchase of long-term power purchase contracts from Class I renewable energy source projects, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 03-221 amended Subsec. (h) to make a technical change and amended Subsec. (j)(1) to revise provisions re contracting with suppliers to comply with the renewable portfolio standards, responsibility for payment for failure to meet such standards, and treatment of such payment, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 04-236 amended Subsec. (b)(2)(E) to make a technical change, effective June 8, 2004; P.A. 04-247 amended Subsec. (j)(2) to add "for its approval", to add requirement for projects to be not less than one megawatt in size, and to add requirement for a preference for projects that provide financial benefit to ratepayers or enhance reliability of the electric transmission system; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to designate existing language as Subpara. (A) and to add new Subpara. (B) to require the department to conduct a proceeding re receipt of information to select electric generating services, and amended Subsec. (b)(2)(D) to allow the transitional standard offer to be adjusted to provide for the cost of long-term power purchase contracts from certain Class I projects, effective July 1, 2005, and amended Subsec. (j)(2) to change filing deadline from July 1, 2007, to July 1, 2008, to add a new pricing option, to require projects to be located in this state, to provide air emission and tax credits for certain fuel cell projects, to replace language re inclusion of costs of the contracts in the generation service charge with language re the transitional standard offer and standard service, and to make technical changes; P.A. 06-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (j)(2), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 07-242 amended Subsec. (e)(1) to delete limitation on any customer receiving electric generation services from electric supplier being eligible to receive supplier of last resort service without a one-year commitment and amended Subsec. (e)(2) to require electric distribution companies to procure electricity "at least every calendar quarter", effective July 1, 2007, amended Subsec. (j)(2) to change total megawatts of contracts to not less than 125 megawatts on and after October 1, 2007, and until September 30, 2008, and to not less than 150 megawatts on and after October 1, 2008, and add provision re study, effective June 4, 2007, and added Subsecs. (k) to (n) re participating electric suppliers, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-244d. Education outreach program for electric deregulation. Consumer Education Advisory Council established. Determination of environmental costs and benefits of energy sources. (a) Not later than December 1, 1998, the Department of Public Utility Control shall develop a comprehensive public education outreach program to educate customers about the implementation of retail competition among electric suppliers, as defined in section 16-1. The goals of the program shall be to maximize public information, minimize customer confusion and equip all customers to participate in a restructured generation market. The program shall include, but not be limited to: (1) The dissemination of information through mass media, interactive approaches and written materials with the goal of reaching every electric customer; (2) the conduct of public forums in different geographical areas of the state to foster public input and provide opportunities for an exchange of questions and answers; (3) involvement of community-based organizations in developing messages and in devising and implementing education strategies; (4) targeted efforts to reach rural, low income, elderly, foreign language, disabled, ethnic minority and other traditionally underserved populations; and (5) periodic evaluations of the effectiveness of educational efforts. The department shall assign one individual within the department to coordinate the outreach program and oversee the education process. The department shall begin to implement the outreach program not later than January 1, 1999.

      (b) There shall be established a Consumer Education Advisory Council which shall advise the outreach program coordinator on the development and implementation of the outreach program until the termination of the standard offer under section 16-244c. Membership of the advisory council shall be established by the Consumer Counsel not later than December 1, 1998, and shall include, but not be limited to, representatives of the Department of Public Utility Control, the Office of Consumer Counsel, the Office of the Attorney General, the Office of Policy and Management, the Department of Environmental Protection, community and business organizations, consumer groups, including, but not limited to, a group that represents hardship customers, as defined in section 16-262c, electric distribution companies and electric suppliers. The advisory council shall determine the information to be distributed to customers as part of the education effort such as customers' rights and obligations in a restructured environment, how customers can exercise their right to participate in retail access, the types of electric suppliers expected to be licensed including the possibility of load aggregation, electric generation services options that will be available, the environmental characteristics of different types of generation facilities and other information determined by the advisory council to be necessary for customers. The advisory council shall advise the outreach program coordinator on the methods of distributing information in accordance with subsection (a) of this section and the timing of such distribution. The advisory council shall meet on a regular basis and report to the outreach program coordinator as it deems appropriate until termination of the advisory council's role upon the termination of the standard offer under section 16-244c.

      (c) Not later than December 1, 1998, the Department of Public Utility Control shall submit a report to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy, outlining the scope of the education outreach program developed by the department and identifying the individual acting as outreach program coordinator and the membership of the advisory council.

      (d) The department may retain a consultant in accordance with section 16-18a to assist in developing and implementing the public education outreach program, provided the authorization to retain such consultant shall expire December 31, 2005. The reasonable and proper expenses for retaining the consultant and implementing the outreach program shall be reimbursed through the systems benefits charge as provided in subsection (b) of said section 16-18a.

      (e) The advisory council shall, in consultation with the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering and the New England Conference of Public Utility Commissioners, analyze the environmental costs and benefits of the following categories of energy sources: (1) Class I renewable energy sources by type; (2) Class II renewable energy sources by type; (3) facilities using coal, natural gas, oil or other petroleum products as fuel which facilities are subject to the New Source Performance Standards in the federal Clean Air Act for such facilities; (4) facilities using coal, natural gas, oil or other petroleum products as fuel which facilities are not subject to the New Source Performance Standards; (5) nuclear power generating facilities; and (6) hydropower that does not meet the criteria for a Class II renewable energy source. The advisory council shall establish uniform standards for the disclosure of information to allow customers to easily compare rates of air pollutant emissions and the resource mix of various energy sources of electric suppliers.

      (f) The Department of Public Utility Control, in consultation with the Office of Consumer Counsel, shall establish a program for the dissemination of information regarding electric suppliers. Such program shall require electric distribution companies to distribute an informational summary on electric suppliers to any new customer and to existing customers beginning on January 1, 2004, and semiannually thereafter. Such informational summary shall be developed by the department and shall include, but not be limited to, the name of each licensed electric supplier, the state where the supplier is based, information on whether the supplier has active offerings for either residential or commercial and industrial consumers, the telephone number and Internet address of the supplier, and information as to whether the supplier offers electric generation services from renewable energy sources in excess of the portfolio standards established pursuant to section 16-245a. The department shall include pricing information in the informational summary to the extent the department determines feasible. The department shall post the informational summary in a conspicuous place on its web site and provide electronic links to the web site of each supplier. The department shall update the informational summary on its web site on at least a quarterly basis.

      (g) The Department of Public Utility Control, in consultation with the Office of Consumer Counsel and the Consumer Education Advisory Council, shall, not later than October 1, 2003, develop a plan for the restart of the education outreach program on or before October 1, 2004, and submit, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, such plan to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and technology.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 17, 117; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9, S. 18, 131; P.A. 03-135, S. 5; P.A. 10-32, S. 55.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 01-9 extended the authority of the Department of Public Utility Control to retain consultants for implementing the public education outreach program from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2005, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 03-135 added new Subsec. (f) re program for the dissemination of information re electric suppliers and added new Subsec. (e) re the restart of the education outreach program, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 10-32 made technical changes in Subsec. (f), effective May 10, 2010.

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      Sec. 16-244e. Unbundling by electric companies of generation functions from transmission and distribution functions. Plan. (a)(1) Not later than October 1, 1998, each electric company shall submit an unbundling plan to the department to unbundle and separate, by October 1, 1999, all the company's generation assets that (A) prior to the date when the department approves a divestiture plan pursuant to section 16-244f or 16-244g, are not sold in accordance with section 16-43, and (B) on and after the date when the department approves such plan, will not be divested as of January 1, 2000, in accordance with sections 16-244f and 16-244g.

      (2) For any nonnuclear generation asset that will not be divested by January 1, 2000, unbundling and separation shall occur by transfer on a functional basis to one or more corporate affiliates that are legally separate from the company's transmission and distribution assets and all related operations and functions, in which case, no stranded costs shall be recovered.

      (3) For any nuclear generation asset that will not be sold by January 1, 2000, unbundling and separation shall occur by (A) divestiture pursuant to section 16-244g, (B) transfer on a functional basis to one or more corporate affiliates that are legally separate from the company's transmission and distribution assets and all related operations and functions, or (C) if required to comply with rules, regulations or licensing requirements of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, transfer on a functional basis to one or more divisions that are structurally separate from the electric distribution company.

      (4) The unbundling plan and order shall provide for the allocation of the rights and responsibilities pursuant to sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, between the electric distribution company and any generation entities or affiliates and shall provide for the allocation of revenue under a special contract among those components of a customer's bill specified in subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 16-245d. Such plan shall include a proposed modification or elimination to the adjustment pursuant to section 16-19b. Such plan shall not allow the transfer of assets or liabilities allocable or belonging to transmission or distribution functions or facilities to the generation entity or affiliate of an electric company, nor allow the transfer of assets or liabilities, other than financial assets or liabilities to be funded by the competitive transition assessment pursuant to section 16-245g or the systems benefits charge pursuant to section 16-245l, allocable or belonging to generation functions or facilities to the electric distribution company, as defined in section 16-1, unless federal law or regulation requires such a transfer with regard to nuclear generation assets. All entitlements and obligations from any purchased power contract or independent power producer contract entered into before July 1, 1998, by the predecessor electric company which are not bought out shall succeed to the electric distribution company. Such plan shall include a discussion of the impacts of the proposed plan on the company's employees and plans for mitigating such impact.

      (5) The department shall hold a hearing and issue a final order approving or modifying the plan in a time frame that will allow unbundling to be accomplished by October 1, 1999. Any hearing shall be conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54. Such plan shall be submitted and such order issued consistent with the determination and implementation of the competitive transition assessment, as provided in section 16-245g.

      (6) Once unbundling is completed to the satisfaction of the department and consistent with the provisions of section 16-244, (A) any corporate affiliate or separate division that provides electric generation services as a result of unbundling pursuant to this subsection shall be considered a generation entity or affiliate of the electric company, and the division or corporate affiliate of the electric company that provides transmission and distribution services shall be considered an electric distribution company, and (B) an electric distribution company shall not own or operate generation assets, except as provided in this section and sections 16-43d, 16-243m, 16-243u, 16a-3b and 16a-3c.

      (b) Not later than August 1, 1998, the Department of Public Utility Control shall hold a hearing and issue a final order that unbundles prices or rates for electric generation services for each electric company from all other charges. Any hearing shall be conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54. On and after July 1, 1999, each electric company or electric distribution company, as the case may be, shall provide all customers with a bill that separates the electric generation services component of those charges. Any unbundling of charges for electric generation services under this subsection shall not affect the calculation of base rates under section 16-244a.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 5, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 18; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 4; P.A. 06-196, S. 234; P.A. 07-242, S. 63.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 amended Subsec. (a)(6) to designate existing provisions as Subpara. (A) and to add Subpara. (B) re ownership or operation of generation assets by an electric distribution company, effective July 1, 2003; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 amended Subsec. (a)(6) to add an exception re generation of electricity by an electric distribution company, effective July 21, 2005; P.A. 06-196 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(6), effective June 7, 2006; P.A. 07-242 amended Subsec. (a)(6) to add exceptions re generation of electricity by electric distribution company, effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-244f. Divestiture of nonnuclear electric generation facilities. Plan. Approval of sale by department. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Generation assets" means electric generation facilities and generation-related operations and functions owned by an electric company and includes associated contractual obligations for energy or capacity from such generation assets; and

      (2) "Net proceeds" means the book income from the sale or divestiture of assets, consisting of sales price less reasonable expenses of sale, related income and other taxes.

      (b) (1) No electric company shall be eligible to claim any stranded costs as provided in sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, unless the electric company (A) prior to the date when the department approves a divestiture plan, has sold its nonnuclear generation assets in accordance with section 16-43, and (B) on and after the date when the department approves such plan, has submitted all of its nonnuclear generation assets owned or held as of April 29, 1998, to a public auction held in a commercially reasonable manner in accordance with this subsection.

      (2) Each electric company that elects to divest itself of nonnuclear generation assets shall, not later than October 1, 1998, submit a divestiture plan to the Department of Public Utility Control. The divestiture plan shall include (A) any documentation the department determines is reasonably necessary to approve the auction procedure, including a copy of the request for proposal and a description of the solicitation process, (B) a detailed description of the process for the sale and transfer of nonnuclear generation assets, and (C) the book value of all assets the electric company intends to make available for sale. In structuring the divestiture plan, the electric company shall take into account the findings set forth in section 16-244. The department shall issue a final order approving or modifying the plan in a time frame that will allow divestiture to be accomplished by January 1, 2000. The department shall, after consultation with the Office of Consumer Counsel, appoint a consultant who shall be an entity unrelated to said company that meets qualifications set by the department, to conduct the auction process.

      (3) The department shall not approve a sale unless (A) the sale price of an asset or assets equals or exceeds book value for the asset or assets, except for any dual-fueled nonnuclear generation unit that began operation between 1974 and 1976 and has a capacity of not less than four hundred twenty megawatts, in which case the sale price for that specific unit equals or exceeds the minimum bid established by the department for the unit, (B) the department determines the bidder meets all applicable qualifications established by federal law and regulation, (C) the sale is conducted in accordance with the divestiture plan as approved by the department, (D) the bidder proves to the satisfaction of the department that the bidder will preserve labor agreements in effect at the time of the sale, and (E) the sale will result in a net benefit to ratepayers, as determined by the department. Transfer in ownership of any asset shall not occur until the department determines the purchaser is fully qualified to provide electric generation services pursuant to section 16-245 or pursuant to applicable federal law and regulation. If the department approves a sale in accordance with the provisions of this section, no further proceedings under section 16-43 shall be required.

      (4) The department shall determine the minimum bid price for a dual-fueled nonnuclear generation unit that began operation between 1974 and 1976 and has a capacity of not less than four hundred twenty megawatts, by determining the future net cash flow that a nonnuclear generation unit of comparable size, age and technical characteristics that is prudently and efficiently managed would be expected to produce over its expected remaining useful life, discounted to a present value.

      (5) A generation entity or affiliate of an electric company may bid on any nonnuclear generation asset, provided such entity or affiliate is qualified to bid, as provided in this subsection.

      (6) All net proceeds realized by an electric company from the sale of assets pursuant to this subsection that exceed the total book value of all the assets sold pursuant to this section shall be netted against the amount of stranded costs as provided in subdivision (4) of subsection (h) and subsection (i) of section 16-245e.

      (7) If an electric company complies with the provisions of this subsection but does not receive any bids for an asset by a qualified bidder that equal or exceed the minimum bid as provided in this subsection, the department shall calculate the value of stranded costs for each such asset in accordance with the provisions of subsection (g) of section 16-245e.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 6, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective April 29, 1998.

      Subsec. (a):

      Because first use of "sale" in Subdiv. (2) clearly refers to actual sale, and not to previous unsuccessful sale attempts, second use is presumed to have same meaning. 266 C. 108. Only reasonable expenses incurred in connection with transaction that resulted in the actual sale may be deducted from sales price. Id.


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      Sec. 16-244g. Divestiture of nuclear electric generation facilities. Plan. Approval of sale by department. (a) As used in this section, "generation assets" means "generation assets", as defined in section 16-244f, and "net proceeds" means "net proceeds", as defined in section 16-244f.

      (b) Not later than January 1, 2004, each electric distribution company shall either (1) submit its nuclear generation assets to a public auction held in a commercially reasonable manner, in accordance with subsection (c) of this section in order to divest itself of remaining nuclear generation assets, or (2) transfer remaining nuclear generation assets to one or more legally separate corporate affiliates at their book value, in which case no stranded costs shall be recovered.

      (c) (1) Each electric distribution company that elects to divest itself of its nuclear generation assets shall, in a time frame that will allow divestiture to occur by January 1, 2004, submit a divestiture plan to the Department of Public Utility Control. The divestiture plan shall include (A) any documentation the department determines is reasonably necessary to approve the auction procedure, including a copy of the request for proposal and a description of the solicitation process, (B) a detailed description of the process for the sale and transfer of nuclear generation assets, and (C) information the department determines is necessary for the department to determine the value of the minimum bid for each nuclear generation asset, as provided in subdivision (3) of this subsection. The department shall hold a hearing and issue a final order approving or modifying the plan in a time frame that will allow divestiture to be accomplished by January 1, 2004. Any hearing shall be conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54. The department shall, after consultation with the Office of Consumer Counsel, appoint a consultant who shall be an entity unrelated to the said company that meets qualifications set by the department, to conduct the auction process.

      (2) The department shall not approve a sale unless (A) the sale price equals or exceeds the minimum bid established by the department for the asset, (B) the department determines the bidder meets all applicable qualifications established by federal law and regulation, (C) the sale is conducted in accordance with the divestiture plan as approved by the department, (D) the bidder proves to the satisfaction of the department that the bidder will preserve labor agreements in effect at the time of the sale, and (E) the sale will result in a net benefit to ratepayers, as determined by the department. Transfer in ownership of any asset shall not occur until the department determines the purchaser is fully qualified to provide electric generation services pursuant to section 16-245 or pursuant to applicable federal law and regulation. If the department approves a sale in accordance with the provisions of this section, no further proceedings under section 16-43 shall be required.

      (3) The department shall determine the minimum bid price for each nuclear generation asset by determining the future net cash flow that a nuclear generation asset of comparable size, age and technical characteristics that is prudently and efficiently managed would be expected to produce over its expected remaining useful life, discounted to a present value.

      (4) A generation entity or affiliate of an electric distribution company may bid on any nuclear generation asset, provided such entity or affiliate is qualified to bid, as provided in this subsection.

      (5) If a final bid is less than book value for an asset, the electric distribution company shall be entitled to recover the difference between the bid price and the book value as stranded costs pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (h) of section 16-245e. If a final bid exceeds book value for an asset, the net proceeds realized by the electric distribution company that are above book value shall be netted against the amount of stranded costs as provided in subdivision (4) of subsection (h) of section 16-245e.

      (d) (1) If an electric distribution company elects to sell all its remaining nuclear generation assets by public auction and complies with the provisions of subsection (c) of this section but does not receive any bids for an asset by a qualified bidder that equal or exceed the minimum bid price, as determined by the department in accordance with the provisions of subsection (c) of this section, the department shall calculate the value of stranded costs for each such asset in accordance with subdivision (3) of subsection (h) of section 16-245e.

      (2) Not later than January 1, 2004, the electric distribution company shall transfer the nuclear generation assets described in subdivision (1) of this subsection to one or more legally separate corporate affiliates. If in order to comply with rules, regulations or licensing requirements of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission an electric distribution company is unable to legally separate its nuclear assets to one or more corporate affiliates, the generation assets may remain in separate divisions of the electric distribution company.

      (e) (1) On and after January 1, 2000, and prior to the date when a nuclear generation asset is sold at public auction or transferred to a corporate affiliate, the difference between the return of and on capital costs allowed in rates for the nuclear generation asset and the income capitalization value established for such asset for such interim period pursuant to the methodology described in subdivision (3) of subsection (c) of this section shall be collected through the competitive transition assessment in accordance with section 16-245g.

      (2) On or after the date when a nuclear generation asset is sold at public auction or transferred to a corporate affiliate, the department shall calculate the stranded costs for nuclear generation assets in accordance with subsection (h) of section 16-245e.

      (3) In no event shall any costs described in this subsection be funded at any time with the proceeds of rate reduction bonds pursuant to sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 7, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998.

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      Sec. 16-244h. Code of conduct for electric distribution companies, generation entities or affiliates and electric suppliers. Contents of code. Penalties, damages. (a) Not later than January 1, 1999, the Department of Public Utility Control shall, by regulations adopted pursuant to chapter 54, establish a code of conduct which shall apply to electric distribution companies, as defined in section 16-1, their generation entities or affiliates and electric suppliers. The code of conduct shall become effective upon the completion of unbundling but not later than July 1, 1999.

      (b) The code of conduct shall include: (1) Measures to ensure information, revenues, expenses, costs, assets, liabilities or other resources derived from or associated with providing electric transmission or distribution services by an electric distribution company are not used to subsidize any generation entity or affiliate; (2) safeguards to assure fair dealing between electric distribution companies and all other electric suppliers, as defined in section 16-1, including any generation entities or affiliates of the electric company; (3) procedures for ensuring electric suppliers nondiscriminatory access to the transmission and distribution facilities of the electric distribution company; and (4) measures to ensure that an electric distribution company provides transmission and distribution service, applies tariffs to generation entities or affiliates and to unaffiliated electric suppliers in a nondiscriminatory manner and enforces such tariff provisions. The code of conduct shall, at a minimum, (A) prohibit any employee of a generation entity or affiliate from conducting distribution system operations or having access to system control centers or similar facilities used by distribution operations in any way that differs from the access available to employees of unaffiliated electric suppliers, (B) prohibit an employee of a generation entity or affiliate from having preferential access to any information concerning the electric distribution company's customers or distribution system that is not available on an equivalent basis to unaffiliated electric suppliers, (C) prohibit an employee of an electric distribution company from disclosing to an employee of a generation entity or affiliate information concerning its customers, the distribution system or other market information through nonpublic communications that is not available on an equivalent basis to all unaffiliated electric suppliers, (D) require employees of electric distribution companies to apply all tariff provisions relating to the sale or purchase of any retail access distribution service in a fair, impartial and nondiscriminatory manner, and (E) prohibit joint marketing activities between an electric distribution company and its generation entity or affiliate. The code of conduct shall not prohibit communications necessary for standard offer service pursuant to section 16-244c or when necessary to restore service or to prevent or respond to emergency conditions. Each electric distribution company shall annually submit to the department such information as the department may require in order to evaluate the actual effectiveness of the code of conduct in fulfilling the purposes of this section. The department shall consult with the independent system operator on a regular basis regarding issues raised under this section. The department may, upon its own motion or upon receipt of a complaint from any person alleging a violation of the code of conduct, investigate an electric distribution company's compliance with the code of conduct, and any such investigation shall be considered a contested case as defined in section 4-166. The department may enter into appropriate orders to enforce the code, including cease and desist orders, and it may levy civil penalties against these entities subject to the code after notice and hearing pursuant to section 16-41. Any person aggrieved by a violation of the code of conduct shall also have a private right of action for damages against the electric distribution company or generation entity or affiliate, as the case may be.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 15, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998 (Revisor's note: In codifying this section an incorrect reference in Subsec. (b) to "section 19 of this act" was deemed by the Revisors to be a reference to "section 20" and therefore codified as section "16-244c").

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      Sec. 16-244i. Duties of electric distribution companies. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall continue to regulate electric distribution companies, as defined in section 16-1, in accordance with the provisions of section 16-19 and subsection (a) of section 16-19e and in accordance with existing rate orders except for assets for which funds have been received by the company pursuant to sections 16-245g to 16-245k, inclusive. Each electric distribution company shall maintain the integrity of the distribution system in conformity with the National Electric Safety Code and such other standards found applicable by the department that are practiced by the electric distribution industry, in a manner sufficient to provide safe and reliable service, regardless of whether or not its generation entity or affiliate is the electric supplier, to all customers connected to the system consistent with this title and regulations adopted thereunder. Each electric distribution company shall provide nondiscriminatory access of its distribution facilities to every electric supplier, as defined in said section 16-1, provided no electric distribution company shall provide access of its distribution facilities to an entity that is not licensed as an electric supplier pursuant to section 16-245 except as provided under federal law.

      (b) Each electric distribution company shall have the obligation to connect all customers to the company's distribution system, subject to rates, terms and conditions as may be approved by the Department of Public Utility Control in accordance with section 16-19 and the principles in subsection (a) of section 16-19e.

      (c) Each electric distribution company shall continue to provide metering, billing and collection services, except that, on and after the effective date of the regulations adopted pursuant to section 16-245d, which allow an electric supplier to provide direct billing and collection services for electric generation services and related federally mandated congestion costs that such supplier provides to its customers that use a demand meter or have a maximum demand of not less than five hundred kilowatts and that choose to receive a bill directly from their electric supplier, an electric distribution company shall not provide such billing and collection services for such customers. The department shall determine billing and metering protocols and any appropriate cost-sharing allocations among electric distribution companies and electric suppliers. Notwithstanding an electric supplier's right, in accordance with the general statutes, to terminate its contract with a customer for the provision of generation service by reason of the customer's nonpayment of the charges directly billed by the supplier to the customer, an electric supplier shall not disconnect electric service to the customer or otherwise terminate the physical delivery of electricity to customers directly billed by the electric supplier.

      (d) The department shall oversee quality and reliability of service for each electric distribution company and ensure that quality and reliability are the same as or better than levels that existed on July 1, 1998.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 16, 117; P.A. 04-86, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 04-86 amended Subsec. (c) to add provisions re direct billing and metering by an electric supplier and prohibition against the disconnection of electric service by an electric supplier.

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      Sec. 16-244j. Electric transmission lines from Bethel to Norwalk. Moratorium. Working group and comprehensive assessment. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of the general statutes, no state agency, including, but not limited to, the Department of Environmental Protection and the Connecticut Siting Council, shall render a final decision for any applications relating to electric transmission lines from Bethel to Norwalk including, but not limited to, applications that are pending or received on and after June 3, 2002, until February 1, 2003. During such interim period, the Institute for Sustainable Energy shall chair and convene a working group comprised of: (1) Two representatives chosen by the chief elected officials of Bethel, Redding, Weston, Wilton and Norwalk, one of whom shall have environmental expertise and one of whom shall have energy expertise; (2) one representative of the Connecticut Fund for the Environment; (3) two representatives of the applicant company; and (4) one representative of the New England Independent System Operator, Inc. and develop a comprehensive assessment and report on: (A) The economic considerations and environmental preferences and appropriateness of installing such transmission lines underground or overhead; (B) the feasibility of meeting all or part of the electric power needs of the region through distributive generation; and (C) the electric reliability, operational and safety concerns of the region's transmission system and the technical and economic feasibility of addressing those concerns with currently available electric transmission system equipment. The Institute for Sustainable Energy shall publish its report on or before January 1, 2003, and shall also include recommendations for any legislative changes deemed necessary as a result of such assessment. Any decision or opinion rendered on any application for an electric transmission line from Bethel to Norwalk by either the Department of Environmental Protection or the Connecticut Siting Council after the publication of such comprehensive assessment and report, shall be evaluated to determine such application's consistency with such assessment. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent routine maintenance and repair of such electric transmission lines.

      (b) Any applicant that elects to proceed with its application for an electric transmission line from Bethel to Norwalk before any state agency, including, but not limited to, the Department of Environmental Protection and the Connecticut Siting Council, during the interim period described in subsection (a) of this section, shall accrue no legal rights or financial entitlements by proceeding with its application.

      (P.A. 02-95, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 02-95 effective June 3, 2002.

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      Sec. 16-244k. Allocation of the proceeds of the retail adder. Department of Public Utility Control shall allocate the proceeds of the retail adder established by the department in its decision in docket number 99-03-36, dated October 1, 1999, or any similar subsequent retail adder established by the department pursuant to subsection (b) of section 16-244c, for the mitigation of the costs associated with the compensation provided in subdivision (4) of subsection (b) of section 16-244c. The department may use any remaining proceeds of a retail adder for the mitigation of the costs associated with the difference between the total rate charged under the standard offer pursuant to subsection (a) of section 16-244c and the total rate charged under the transitional standard offer pursuant to subsection (b) of section 16-244c, and then for the accelerated payment of stranded costs established pursuant to section 16-245e.

      (P.A. 03-135, S. 21.)

      History: P.A. 03-135 effective June 26, 2003.

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      Sec. 16-244l. Modification of fuel cell electricity purchase agreements. The administrator of any project utilizing fuel cells with an electricity purchase agreement entered into and approved by the Department of Public Utility Control pursuant to subsection (j) of section 16-244c with a generating capacity of not greater than five megawatts, to be sited within fifty feet of a natural gas transmission facility that operates at pressures in excess of one hundred fifty pounds, may submit a request to said department for a modification to such purchase agreement that would permit the project to move to an alternative location and allow for an equitable adjustment in contract pricing to account for any change in the project attributable to the change in location. Said department shall open a docket to review such modification request not later than thirty days after receipt of such request. Said department may approve such modification request not later than one hundred twenty days after receipt of such request. Factors affecting such modification shall be limited to location, contract pricing and schedule attributable to the change in location. No existing electricity purchase agreement shall be cancelled or deemed in noncompliance by an electric distribution company until such modification is approved.

      (P.A. 10-152, S. 9.)

      History: P.A. 10-152 effective June 8, 2010.

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      Sec. 16-245. Licensing of electric suppliers. Procedures. Penalties. Registration of electric aggregators. Procedures. Penalties. (a) No person shall execute any contract relating to the sale of electric generation services to be rendered after January 1, 2000, to end use customers located in the state unless such person has been issued a license by the department in accordance with the provisions of this section. No license shall be valid before July 1, 1999.

      (b) On and after January 1, 2000, no person, no municipality and no regional water authority shall sell or attempt to sell electric generation services to end use customers located in the state using the transmission or distribution facilities of an electric distribution company unless the person has been issued a license by the Department of Public Utility Control in accordance with the provisions of this section, provided an electric distribution company is not required to be licensed pursuant to this section to provide electric generation services pursuant to section 16-244c. On and after April 30, 2002, the Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority shall not sell or attempt to sell electric generation services to end use customers located in the state using the transmission or distribution facilities of an electric distribution company unless the authority has been issued a license by the Department of Public Utility Control in accordance with the provisions of this section. Not later than January 1, 1999, the department shall, by regulations adopted pursuant to chapter 54, develop licensing procedures. The licensing process shall begin not later than April 1, 1999.

      (c) To ensure the safety and reliability of the supply of electricity in this state, the Department of Public Utility Control shall not issue a license unless the applicant can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the department that the applicant has the technical, managerial and financial capability to provide electric generation services and provides and maintains a bond or other security in amount and form approved by the department, to ensure its financial responsibility and its supply of electricity to end use customers in accordance with contracts, agreements or arrangements. A license shall be subject to periodic review on a schedule to be established by the department.

      (d) An application for a license shall be filed with the Department of Public Utility Control, accompanied by a fee pursuant to subsection (e) of this section. The application shall contain such information as the department may deem relevant, including, but not limited to, the following: (1) The address of the applicant's headquarters and the articles of incorporation, as filed with the state in which the applicant is incorporated; (2) the address of the applicant's principal office in the state, if any, or the address of the applicant's agent for service in the state; (3) the toll-free telephone number for customer service; (4) information about the applicant's corporate structure, including names and financial statements, as appropriate, concerning corporate affiliates; (5) a disclosure of whether the applicant or any of the applicant's corporate affiliates or officers have been or are currently under investigation for violation of any consumer protection law or regulation to which it is subject, either in this state or in another state; (6) a copy of its standard service contract; and (7) a scope of service plan which sets forth, among other things, a description of the geographic area the applicant plans to serve.

      (e) The application fee shall include the costs to investigate and administer the licensing procedure and shall be commensurate with the level of investigation necessary, as determined by regulations adopted by the Department of Public Utility Control.

      (f) Not more than thirty days after receiving an application, the Department of Public Utility Control shall notify the applicant whether the application is complete or whether the applicant must submit additional information. The department shall grant or deny a license application not more than ninety days after receiving all information required of an applicant. The department shall hold a public hearing on an application upon the request of any interested party.

      (g) As conditions of continued licensure, in addition to the requirements of subsection (c) of this section: (1) The licensee shall comply with the National Labor Relations Act and regulations, if applicable; (2) the licensee shall comply with the Connecticut Unfair Trade Practices Act and applicable regulations; (3) each generating facility operated by or under long-term contract to the licensee shall comply with regulations adopted by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection, pursuant to section 22a-174j; (4) the licensee shall comply with the portfolio standards, pursuant to section 16-245a; (5) the licensee shall be a member of the New England Power Pool or its successor or have a contractual relationship with one or more entities who are members of the New England Power Pool or its successor and the licensee shall comply with the rules of the regional independent system operator and standards and any other reliability guidelines of the regional independent systems operator; (6) the licensee shall agree to cooperate with the department and other electric suppliers in the event of an emergency condition that may jeopardize the safety and reliability of electric service; (7) the licensee shall comply with the code of conduct established pursuant to section 16-244h; (8) for a license to a participating municipal electric utility, the licensee shall provide open and nondiscriminatory access to its distribution facilities to other licensed electric suppliers; (9) the licensee or the entity or entities with whom the licensee has a contractual relationship to purchase power shall be in compliance with all applicable licensing requirements of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; (10) each generating facility operated by or under long-term contract to the licensee shall be in compliance with chapter 277a and state environmental laws and regulations; (11) the licensee shall comply with the renewable portfolio standards established in section 16-245a; and (12) the licensee shall acknowledge that it is subject to chapters 208, 212, 212a and 219, as applicable, and the licensee shall pay all taxes it is subject to in this state. Also as a condition of licensure, the department shall prohibit each licensee from declining to provide service to customers for the reason that the customers are located in economically distressed areas. The department may establish additional reasonable conditions to assure that all retail customers will continue to have access to electric generation services.

      (h) The department shall maintain regular communications with the regional independent system operator to effectuate the provisions of this section and to ensure that an adequate, safe and reliable supply of electricity is available.

      (i) Each licensee shall, at such times as the department requires but not less than annually, submit to the Department of Public Utility Control, on a form prescribed by the department, an update of information the department deems relevant. Each licensee shall notify the department at least ten days before: (1) A change in corporate structure that affects the licensee; (2) a change in the scope of service, as provided in the licensee's scope of service plan submitted to the department as part of the application process; and (3) any other change the department deems relevant.

      (j) No license may be transferred without the prior approval of the department. The department may assess additional licensing fees to pay the administrative costs of reviewing a request for such transfer.

      (k) Any licensee who fails to comply with a license condition or who violates any provision of this section, except for the renewable portfolio standards contained in subsection (g) of this section, shall be subject to civil penalties by the Department of Public Utility Control in accordance with section 16-41, or the suspension or revocation of such license or a prohibition on accepting new customers following a hearing that is conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (d) of section 16-244c regarding an alternative transitional standard offer option or an alternative standard service option, the department shall require a payment by a licensee that fails to comply with the renewable portfolio standards in accordance with subdivision (4) of subsection (g) of this section in the amount of five and one-half cents per kilowatt hour. The department shall allocate such payment to the Renewable Energy Investment Fund for the development of Class I renewable energy sources.

      (l) (1) An electric aggregator shall not be subject to the provisions of subsections (a) to (k), inclusive, of this section.

      (2) No electric aggregator shall negotiate a contract for the purchase of electric generation services from an electric supplier unless such aggregator has (A) obtained a certificate of registration from the Department of Public Utility Control in accordance with this subsection, or (B) in the case of a municipality, regional water authority and the Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority, registered in accordance with section 16-245b. An electric aggregator that was licensed pursuant to this section prior to July 1, 2003, shall receive a certificate of registration on July 1, 2003.

      (3) An application for a certificate of registration shall be filed with the department, accompanied by a fee as determined by the department. The application shall contain such information as the department may deem relevant, including, but not limited to, the following: (A) The address of the applicant's headquarters and the articles of incorporation, if applicable, as filed with the state in which the applicant is incorporated; (B) the address of the applicant's principal office in the state, if any, or the address of the applicant's agent for service in the state; (C) the toll-free or in-state telephone number of the applicant; (D) information about the applicant's corporate structure, if applicable, including financial names and financial statements, as relevant, concerning corporate affiliates; (E) disclosure of whether the applicant or any of the applicant's corporate affiliates or officers, if applicable, have been or are currently under investigation for violation of any consumer protection law or regulation to which it is subject, either in this state or in another state. Each registered electric aggregator shall update the information contained in this subdivision as necessary.

      (4) Not more than thirty days after receiving an application for a certificate of registration, the department shall notify the applicant whether the application is complete or whether the applicant must submit additional information. The department shall grant or deny the application for a certificate of registration not more than ninety days after receiving all information required of an applicant. The department shall hold a public hearing on an application upon the request of any interested party.

      (5) As a condition for maintaining a certificate of registration, the registered electric aggregator shall ensure that, where applicable, it complies with the National Labor Relations Act and regulations, if applicable, and it complies with the Connecticut Unfair Trade Practices Act and applicable regulations.

      (6) Any registered electric aggregator that fails to comply with a registration condition or violates any provision of this section shall be subject to civil penalties by the Department of Public Utility Control in accordance with the procedures contained in section 16-41, or the suspension or revocation of such registration, or a prohibition on accepting new customers following a hearing that is conducted as a contested case in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5657; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 106, 348; P.A. 98-28, S. 22, 117; P.A. 00-53, S. 13; P.A. 02-46, S. 6; P.A. 03-135, S. 6; 03-221, S. 5; P.A. 04-236, S. 10, 11.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and abolished the department of business regulation; P.A. 98-28 deleted former provisions re notice of intent to sell and distribute electricity and added new Subsecs. (a) to (l) re licensing of electric suppliers, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 00-53 amended Subsec. (b) by adding references to regional water authorities; P.A. 02-46 amended Subsec. (b) by making a technical change, deleting "and the Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority" and inserting provisions re licensing requirements for, and restrictions on, said authority, effective April 30, 2002; P.A. 03-135 made technical changes, amended Subsec. (b) to delete provision re municipalities and regional water authorities and to delete provision re aggregation, bordering or marketing the sale of electric generation services, amended Subsec. (c) to delete Subdivs. (2) to (6), inclusive, re factors an applicant must demonstrate to the department to obtain a license, amended Subsec. (d) to add provision in Subdiv. (5) re corporate affiliates or officers of an applicant, to delete former Subdiv. (7) re attestation re certain chapters of the general statutes to which the applicant is subject and to redesignate existing Subdiv. (8) as new Subdiv. (7), amended Subsec. (f) to delete reference to notice and hearing and provision re contested case and to add provision re public hearing upon request of interested party, amended Subsec. (g) to reword provisions re license conditions, to add provisions re membership of the New England Power Pool and the rules of the regional independent system operator and to add new Subdivs. (9) to (12), deleted former Subsec. (k) re provisions to which an electric aggregator are subject, redesignated existing Subsec. (l) as new Subsec. (k) and amended said Subsec. to clarify provisions re penalties and to add provisions re penalties for failure to comply with renewable portfolio standards, and added new Subsec. (l) re certificates of registration for electric aggregators, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 03-221 amended Subsec. (k) to make a technical change, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 04-236 amended Subsecs. (g) and (l)(6) to make technical changes, effective June 8, 2004.

      Cited. 145 C. 243.

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      Sec. 16-245a. Renewable energy portfolio standards. (a) An electric supplier and an electric distribution company providing standard service or supplier of last resort service, pursuant to section 16-244c, shall demonstrate:

      (1) On and after January 1, 2006, that not less than two per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (2) On and after January 1, 2007, not less than three and one-half per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (3) On and after January 1, 2008, not less than five per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (4) On and after January 1, 2009, not less than six per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (5) On and after January 1, 2010, not less than seven per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (6) On and after January 1, 2011, not less than eight per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (7) On and after January 1, 2012, not less than nine per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (8) On and after January 1, 2013, not less than ten per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (9) On and after January 1, 2014, not less than eleven per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (10) On and after January 1, 2015, not less than twelve and one-half per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (11) On and after January 1, 2016, not less than fourteen per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (12) On and after January 1, 2017, not less than fifteen and one-half per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (13) On and after January 1, 2018, not less than seventeen per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (14) On and after January 1, 2019, not less than nineteen and one-half per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources;

      (15) On and after January 1, 2020, not less than twenty per cent of the total output or services of any such supplier or distribution company shall be generated from Class I renewable energy sources and an additional three per cent of the total output or services shall be from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources.

      (b) An electric supplier or electric distribution company may satisfy the requirements of this section (1) by purchasing certificates issued by the New England Power Pool Generation Information System, provided the certificates are for (A) energy produced by a generating unit using Class I or Class II renewable energy sources and the generating unit is located in the jurisdiction of the regional independent system operator, or (B) energy imported into the control area of the regional independent system operator pursuant to New England Power Pool Generation Information System Rule 2.7(c), as in effect on January 1, 2006; (2) for those renewable energy certificates under contract to serve end-use customers in the state on or before October 1, 2006, by participating in a renewable energy trading program within said jurisdictions as approved by the Department of Public Utility Control; or (3) by purchasing eligible renewable electricity and associated attributes from residential customers who are net producers.

      (c) Any supplier who provides electric generation services solely from a Class II renewable energy source shall not be required to comply with the provisions of this section.

      (d) An electric supplier or an electric distribution company shall base its demonstration of generation sources, as required under subsection (a) of this section on historical data, which may consist of data filed with the regional independent system operator.

      (e) (1) A supplier or an electric distribution company may make up any deficiency within its renewable energy portfolio within the first three months of the succeeding calendar year or as otherwise provided by generation information system operating rules approved by New England Power Pool or its successor to meet the generation source requirements of subsection (a) of this section for the previous year.

      (2) No such supplier or electric distribution company shall receive credit for the current calendar year for generation from Class I or Class II renewable energy sources pursuant to this section where such supplier or distribution company receives credit for the preceding calendar year pursuant to subdivision (1) of this subsection.

      (f) The department shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section.

      (g) (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section and section 16-244c, for periods beginning on and after January 1, 2008, each electric distribution company may procure renewable energy certificates from Class I, Class II and Class III renewable energy sources through long-term contracting mechanisms. The electric distribution companies may enter into long-term contracts for not more than fifteen years to procure such renewable energy certificates. The electric distribution companies shall use any renewable energy certificates obtained pursuant to this section to meet their standard service and supplier of last resort renewable portfolio standard requirements.

      (2) On or before July 1, 2007, the department shall initiate a contested case proceeding to examine whether long-term contracts should be used to procure Class I, Class II and Class III certificates. In such examination, the department shall determine (A) the impact of such contracts on price stability, fuel diversity and cost; (B) the method and timing of crediting of the procurement of renewable energy certificates against the renewable portfolio standard purchase obligations of electric suppliers and the electric distribution companies pursuant to subsection (a) of this section; (C) the terms and conditions, including reasonable performance assurance commitments, that may be imposed on entities seeking to supply renewable energy certificates; (D) the level of one-time compensation, not to exceed one mill per kilowatt hour of output and services associated with the renewable energy certificates purchased pursuant to this subsection, which may be payable to the electric distribution companies for administering the procurement provided for under this subsection and recovered as part of the generation services charge or through an appropriate nonbypassable rate component on customers' bills; (E) the manner in which costs for such program may be recovered from electric distribution company customers; and (F) any other issues the department deems appropriate. Revenues from such compensation shall not be included in calculating the electric distribution companies' earnings to determine if rates are just and reasonable, for earnings sharing mechanisms or for purposes of sections 16-19, 16-19a and 16-19e.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 25, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 7; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 34; P.A. 06-74, S. 3; P.A. 07-242, S. 40, 71.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 amended Subsec. (a) to delete provisions applicable before July 1, 2003, designate remaining provisions as Subdiv. (1), add provisions re applicability of section to electric suppliers and electric distribution companies providing transitional standard offer, standard service, and supplier of last resort service, adjust the percentage of Class I and Class II renewable energy source requirements and the dates for meeting such requirements, delete provision re participation in a renewable energy trading program approved by the state, reposition provision re generation solely from Class II renewable energy source as new Subdiv. (3) and add new Subdiv. (2) re qualifying jurisdictions, amended Subsec. (b) to add a reference to an electric supplier and an electric distribution company and to make conforming changes, added new Subsec. (c) re make up of any deficiency and credit for the current year where credit was received in a preceding year, redesignated former Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d) and amended said Subsec. to change "may" to "shall" and to make technical changes, effective January 1, 2004; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to add "on and after January 1, 2010", effective July 1, 2006; P.A. 06-74 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes, redesignated existing Subsec. (a)(2) as new Subsec. (b), amended Subsec. (b) to replace language re certain qualifying jurisdictions with language in Subdiv. (1) re certificates issued by the New England Power Pool Generation Information System and in Subdiv. (2) re renewable energy certificates under contract on or before October 1, 2006, and to make technical changes, redesignated existing Subsec. (a)(3) as new Subsec. (c), and redesignated existing Subsecs. (b) to (d), inclusive, as new Subsecs. (d) to (f), inclusive; P.A. 07-242 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. designators (1) to (5) for existing renewable energy portfolio standard requirements through on and after January 1, 2010, and add Subdivs. (6) to (15) re standards through on and after January 1, 2020, and added Subsec. (b)(3) re purchasing renewable energy from residential net producers, and, effective June 4, 2007, added Subsec. (g) re long-term contracts.

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      Sec. 16-245b. Municipalities and regional water authorities acting as electric aggregators; registration with department. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of section 16-245, the provisions of said section shall not apply to (1) any municipality or regional water authority that aggregates the sale of electric generation services, or to the Connecticut Resources Recovery Authority if such authority aggregates the sale of electric generation services, for end use customers located within the boundaries of such municipality or regional water authority, (2) any municipality that joins together with other municipalities to aggregate the sale of electric generation services for end use customers located within the boundaries of such municipalities, or (3) any municipality or regional water authority that aggregates the purchase of electric generation services for municipal facilities, street lighting, boards of education and other publicly-owned facilities within (A) the municipality for which the municipality is financially responsible, or (B) the municipalities that are within the authorized service area of the regional water authority. Any municipality or regional water authority that aggregates in accordance with this section shall register not less than annually with the Department of Public Utility Control on a form prescribed by the department.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 23, 117; P.A. 00-53, S. 14.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 00-53 added references to regional water authorities, added reference to municipalities within the authorized service area of the regional water authority and made conforming changes.

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      Sec. 16-245c. Municipal electric utilities participating in deregulated environment. Authority to provide generation services outside service area. (a) As used in this section, "service area" means the geographic area in which a municipal electric utility is authorized to provide electric generation or distribution services to an end use customer pursuant to section 7-214 or special act.

      (b) No municipal electric utility established under chapter 101 shall use the transmission or distribution system or facilities of an electric distribution company, as defined in section 16-1, for the purpose of providing electric generation services to an end use customer outside its service area, unless the municipal electric utility is authorized to do so by the Department of Public Utility Control, in which case it shall be considered a participating municipal electric utility.

      (c) As of the date that a municipal electric utility is authorized to be a participating municipal electric utility, the participating municipal electric utility may provide electric generation services to customers outside of its service area. Each participating municipal electric utility shall provide open and nondiscriminatory access of all distribution facilities it owns or operates to all electric suppliers, as defined in section 16-1, and shall allow customers within its service area to choose among electric suppliers for electric generation services in a manner comparable to all other end use customers of an electric distribution company.

      (d) Each participating municipal electric utility that provides electric generation services shall be licensed by the department as an electric supplier in accordance with section 16-245. Notwithstanding the provisions of any municipal charter or special act to the contrary, no such license shall be granted unless, in addition to the requirements set forth in section 16-245, the participating municipal electric utility has (1) unbundled and separated all of its generation assets and all generation-related operations and functions by (A) sale or transfer to an unrelated entity, (B) transfer on a functional basis to one or more separate divisions of the participating municipal electric utility that are structurally separate from the participating municipal electric utility's transmission and distribution assets and all related operations and functions, or (C) such other substantially equivalent measure deemed appropriate by the department, after taking into account the size of the participating municipal electric utility and its existing structure and operations; and (2) the buyer or transferee of each such asset proves to the satisfaction of the department that the buyer or transferee will preserve labor agreements in effect at the time of the sale or transfer.

      (e) Any municipal electric utility created on or after July 1, 1998, pursuant to section 7-214 or a special act and any municipal electric utility that expands its service area on or after July 1, 1998, shall collect from its new customers the competitive transition assessment imposed pursuant to section 16-245g, the systems benefits charge imposed pursuant to section 16-245l and the assessments charged under sections 16-245m and 16-245n in such manner and at such rate as the department prescribes, provided the department shall order the collection of said assessment and said charge in a manner and rate equal to that to which the customers would have been subject had the municipal electric utility not been created or expanded.

      (f) The department shall, within a period of time to ensure that any municipal electric utility that intends to become a participating municipal electric utility can do so in a timely manner, establish procedures by regulations adopted in accordance with chapter 54 to authorize a municipal electric utility to become a participating municipal electric utility. Such procedures shall include those measures the department determines are necessary for the participating municipal electric utilities to function in a competitive environment.

      (g) No municipal electric energy cooperative shall be allowed to be an electric supplier or to request authorization to provide electric generation services to any end use customers.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 19, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998.

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      Sec. 16-245d. Billing of electric service; standard format; contents. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall, by regulations adopted pursuant to chapter 54, develop a standard billing format that enables customers to compare pricing policies and charges among electric suppliers. Not later than January 1, 2006, the department shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to provide that an electric supplier may provide direct billing and collection services for electric generation services and related federally mandated congestion charges that such supplier provides to its customers that have a maximum demand of not less than one hundred kilowatts and that choose to receive a bill directly from such supplier. An electric company, electric distribution company or electric supplier that provides direct billing of the electric generation service component and related federally mandated congestion charges, as the case may be, shall, in accordance with the billing format developed by the department, include the following information in each customer's bill, as appropriate: (1) The total amount owed by the customer, which shall be itemized to show, (A) the electric generation services component and any additional charges imposed by the electric supplier, if applicable, (B) the distribution charge, including all applicable taxes and the systems benefits charge, as provided in section 16-245l, (C) the transmission rate as adjusted pursuant to subsection (d) of section 16-19b, (D) the competitive transition assessment, as provided in section 16-245g, (E) federally mandated congestion charges, and (F) the conservation and renewable energy charge, consisting of the conservation and load management program charge, as provided in section 16-245m, and the renewable energy investment charge, as provided in section 16-245n; (2) any unpaid amounts from previous bills which shall be listed separately from current charges; (3) except for customers subject to a demand charge, the rate and usage for the current month and each of the previous twelve months in the form of a bar graph or other visual form; (4) the payment due date; (5) the interest rate applicable to any unpaid amount; (6) the toll-free telephone number of the electric distribution company to report power losses; (7) the toll-free telephone number of the Department of Public Utility Control for questions or complaints; (8) the toll-free telephone number and address of the electric supplier; and (9) a statement about the availability of information concerning electric suppliers pursuant to section 16-245p.

      (b) The regulations shall provide guidelines for determining the billing relationship between the electric distribution company and electric suppliers, including but not limited to, the allocation of partial bill payments and late payments between the electric distribution company and the electric supplier. An electric distribution company that provides billing services for an electric supplier shall be entitled to recover from the electric supplier all reasonable transaction costs to provide such billing services as well as a reasonable rate of return, in accordance with the principles in subsection (a) of section 16-19e.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 21, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 22; P.A. 04-86, S. 2; 04-257, S. 30; P.A. 05-210, S. 31; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 7; P.A. 06-196, S. 235.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes and, in Subdiv. (1), to add new Subpara. (D) re federally mandated congestion costs and to redesignate existing Subpara. (D) as new Subpara. (E), effective June 26, 2003; P.A. 04-86 amended Subsec. (a) to require department to adopt regulations re direct billing and collection services by electric supplier and to make conforming changes, and amended Subsec. (b) to add "that provides billing services for an electric supplier" and to make a technical change; P.A. 04-257 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(1)(D), effective June 14, 2004; P.A. 05-210 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to make a technical change in Subpara. (B), add new Subpara. (C) re the transmission rate, and redesignate existing Subparas. (C) to (E), inclusive, as Subparas. (D) to (F), inclusive, effective July 6, 2005; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 amended Subsec. (a) to change deadline for adoption of regulations from January 1, 2005, to January 1, 2006, to change threshold by deleting customers that "use a demand meter" and by changing maximum demand from not less than five hundred kilowatts to not less than one hundred kilowatts, and to make technical changes, effective July 21, 2005; P.A. 06-196 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(1)(B), effective June 7, 2006.

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      Sec. 16-245e. Stranded costs of electric companies. Definitions. Calculation by department, procedures, adjustments. Mitigation. Defeasance or purchase of rate reduction bonds. (a) As used in this section, sections 16-245f to 16-245k, inclusive, and section 16-245m:

      (1) "Rate reduction bonds" means bonds, notes, certificates of participation or beneficial interest, or other evidences of indebtedness or ownership, issued pursuant to an executed indenture or other agreement of a financing entity, in accordance with this section and sections 16-245f to 16-245k, inclusive, the proceeds of which are used, directly or indirectly, to provide, recover, finance, or refinance stranded costs or economic recovery transfer, or to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs by substituting for disbursements to the General Fund from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund established by section 16-245m and from the Renewable Energy Investment Fund established by section 16-245n, and which, directly or indirectly, are secured by, evidence ownership interests in, or are payable from, transition property;

      (2) "Competitive transition assessment" means those non-bypassable rates and other charges, that are authorized by the department (A) in a financing order in respect to the economic recovery transfer, or in a financing order, to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs by substituting disbursements to the General Fund from proceeds of rate reduction bonds for such disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund established by section 16-245m and from the Renewable Energy Investment Fund established by section 16-245n, or to recover those stranded costs that are eligible to be funded with the proceeds of rate reduction bonds pursuant to section 16-245f and the costs of providing, recovering, financing, or refinancing the economic recovery transfer or such substitution of disbursements to the General Fund or such stranded costs through a plan approved by the department in the financing order, including the costs of issuing, servicing, and retiring rate reduction bonds, (B) to recover those stranded costs determined under this section but not eligible to be funded with the proceeds of rate reduction bonds pursuant to section 16-245f, or (C) to recover costs determined under subdivision (1) of subsection (e) of section 16-244g. If requested by the electric company or electric distribution company, the department shall include in the competitive transition assessment non-bypassable rates and other charges to recover federal and state taxes whose recovery period is modified by the transactions contemplated in this section and sections 16-245f to 16-245k, inclusive;

      (3) "Customer" means any individual, business, firm, corporation, association, tax-exempt organization, joint stock association, trust, partnership, limited liability company, the United States or its agencies, this state, any political subdivision thereof or state agency that purchases electric generation or distribution services as a retail end user in the state from any electric supplier, electric company or electric distribution company;

      (4) "Finance authority" means the state, acting through the office of the State Treasurer;

      (5) "Net proceeds" means "net proceeds" as defined in section 16-244f;

      (6) "Stranded costs" means that portion of generation assets, generation-related regulatory assets or long-term contract costs determined by the department in accordance with the provisions of subsections (e), (f), (g) and (h) of this section;

      (7) "Generation assets" means the total construction and other capital asset costs of generation facilities approved for inclusion in rates before July 1, 1997, but does not include any costs relating to the decommissioning of any such facility or any costs which the department found during a proceeding initiated before July 1, 1998, were incurred because of imprudent management;

      (8) "Generation-related regulatory assets" means generation-related costs authorized or mandated before July 1, 1998, by the Department of Public Utility Control, approved for inclusion in the rates, and include, but are not limited to, costs incurred for deferred taxes, conservation programs, environmental protection programs, public policy costs and research and development costs, net of any applicable credits payable to customers, but does not include any costs which the department found during a proceeding initiated before July 1, 1998, were incurred because of imprudent management;

      (9) "Long-term contract costs" mean the above-market portion of the costs of contractual obligations approved for inclusion in the rates that were entered into before January 1, 2000, arising from independent power producer contracts required by law or purchased power contracts approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission;

      (10) "Department" means the Department of Public Utility Control;

      (11) "Financing entity" means the finance authority or any special purpose trust or other entity that is authorized by the finance authority to issue rate reduction bonds or acquire transition property pursuant to such terms and conditions as the finance authority may specify, or both;

      (12) "Financing order" means an order of the department adopted in accordance with this section and sections 16-245f to 16-245k, inclusive;

      (13) "Transition property" means the property right created pursuant to this section and sections 16-245f to 16-245k, inclusive, in respect to the economic recovery transfer or in respect of disbursements to the General Fund to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs or those stranded costs that are eligible to be funded with the proceeds of rate reduction bonds pursuant to section 16-245f, including, without limitation, the right, title, and interest of an electric company or electric distribution company or its transferee or the financing entity (A) in and to the rates and charges established pursuant to a financing order, as adjusted from time to time in accordance with subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of section 16-245i and the financing order, (B) to be paid the amount that is determined in a financing order to be the amount that the electric company or electric distribution company or its transferee or the financing entity is lawfully entitled to receive pursuant to the provisions of this section and sections 16-245f to 16-245k, inclusive, and the proceeds thereof, and in and to all revenues, collections, claims, payments, money, or proceeds of or arising from the rates and charges or constituting the competitive transition assessment that is the subject of a financing order including those non-bypassable rates and other charges referred to in subdivision (2) of this subsection, and (C) in and to all rights to obtain adjustments to the rates and charges pursuant to the terms of subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of section 16-245i and the financing order. "Transition property" shall constitute a current property right notwithstanding the fact that the value of the property right will depend on consumers using electricity or, in those instances where consumers are customers of a particular electric company or electric distribution company, the electric company or electric distribution company performing certain services;

      (14) "State rate reduction bonds" means the rate reduction bonds issued on June 23, 2004, by the state to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs by substituting for disbursements to the General Fund from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund, established by section 16-245m, and from the Renewable Energy Investment Fund, established by section 16-245n. The state rate reduction bonds for the purposes of section 4-30a shall be deemed to be outstanding indebtedness of the state;

      (15) "Operating expenses" means, with respect to state rate reduction bonds or economic recovery revenue bonds, (A) all expenses, costs and liabilities of the state or the trustee incurred in connection with the administration or payment of the state rate reduction bonds or economic recovery revenue bonds, or in discharge of its obligations and duties under the state rate reduction bonds or economic recovery revenue bonds, or bond documents, expenses and other costs and expenses arising in connection with the state rate reduction bonds or economic recovery revenue bonds, or pursuant to the financing order providing for the issuance of such bonds including any arbitrage rebate and penalties payable under the code in connection with such bonds, and (B) all fees and expenses payable or disbursable to the servicers or others under the bond documents;

      (16) "Bond documents" means, with respect to state rate reduction bonds or economic recovery revenue bonds, the following documents: The servicing agreements, the tax compliance agreement and certificate, and the continuing disclosure agreement and indenture entered into in connection with the state rate reduction bonds or the economic recovery revenue bonds;

      (17) "Indenture" means the indenture executed in connection with the state rate reduction bonds or the economic recovery revenue bonds, or, with respect to state rate reduction bonds, the RRB Indenture, dated as of June 23, 2004, by and between the state and the trustee, as amended from time to time;

      (18) "Trustee" means, with respect to state rate reduction bonds, the trustee appointed under the indenture;

      (19) "Economic recovery transfer" means the disbursement to the General Fund of nine hundred fifty-six million dollars from proceeds of the issuance of the economic recovery revenue bonds; and

      (20) "Economic recovery revenue bonds" means rate reduction bonds issued to fund the economic recovery transfer, the costs of issuance, credit enhancements, operating expenses and such other costs as the finance authority deems necessary or advisable, and which shall be payable from competitive transition assessment charges that replace the competitive transition assessment charges funding stranded costs and that are offset in part by decreases to the charges funding the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund, as provided in subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of section 16-245m.

      (b) The department shall, in accordance with the provisions of this section, identify and calculate, upon application by an electric company, those stranded costs that may be collected through the competitive transition assessment which shall be calculated and collected in accordance with the provisions of section 16-245g. No electric distribution company shall be eligible to claim stranded costs unless a public auction has been held to divest itself of all nonnuclear generation assets in accordance with subsection (b) of section 16-244f or the electric company has sold its nonnuclear generation assets in accordance with section 16-43.

      (c) (1) Notwithstanding subdivision (1) of subsection (e) of section 16-244g, any electric company seeking to claim stranded costs shall, in accordance with this subsection, mitigate such costs to the fullest extent possible. Prior to the approval by the department of any stranded costs, the electric company shall show to the satisfaction of the department that the electric company has taken all reasonable steps to mitigate to the maximum extent possible the total amount of stranded costs that it seeks to claim and to minimize the cost to be recovered from customers. Mitigation shall include: (A) Except to the extent provided in collective bargaining agreements or agreements to purchase generation assets entered into prior to July 1, 1998, the obtaining of written commitments from purchasers of generation facilities divested pursuant to sections 16-244f and 16-244g, that the purchasers will offer employment to persons who were employed in nonmanagerial positions by a divested generation facility at any time during the three-month period prior to the divestiture, at levels of wages and overall compensation not lower than the employees' lowest level during the six-month period prior to the date the contract to divest the asset was entered into; (B) good faith efforts to negotiate the buyout, buydown or renegotiation of independent power producer contracts and purchased power contracts approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission provided the fixed present value of any contract to which a political subdivision of the state is a party shall be calculated using the political subdivision's tax-exempt borrowing rate as the discount rate; and (C) the reasonable costs of the consultants appointed to conduct the auctions of generation assets pursuant to sections 16-244f and 16-244g. Mitigation may include, but is not limited to, reallocation of depreciation reserves to existing generation assets to the extent consistent with generally accepted accounting principles; reduction of book assets by application of net proceeds of any sale of existing assets; maximization of market revenues from existing generation assets; efforts to maximize current and future operating efficiency, including appropriate and timely maintenance, trouble shooting, aggressive identification and correction of potential problem areas; voluntary write-offs of above-market generation assets; the decision to retire uneconomical generation assets and efforts to divest generating sites at market prices reflective of best use of sites. Mitigation shall not include any expenditures to restart a nuclear generation asset that was not operating for reasons other than scheduled maintenance or refueling at the time such expenditure was made. Any mitigation efforts and associated costs shall be subject to approval by the department.

      (2) The department shall allow the cost of such mitigation efforts to be included in the calculation of stranded costs to the extent that such mitigation costs are reasonable relative to the amount of the reduction in stranded costs resulting from the mitigation.

      (d) An electric company shall submit to the department an application for recovery of that portion of generation-related regulatory assets, long-term contract costs, generation assets and mitigation costs which are determined by the department in accordance with subsections (c), (e), (f) and (g) of this section and subdivision (1) of subsection (e) of section 16-244g. The application shall include a description of mitigation efforts and a request for recovery through the competitive transition assessment and may include a request for a financing order. The department shall hold a hearing for each electric company and issue a finding of the calculation of stranded costs in a time frame that allows for collection of the competitive transition assessment to begin on January 1, 2000. Any hearing shall be conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54.

      (e) The department shall calculate the stranded costs for generation-related regulatory assets to be their book value as of January 1, 2000. In calculating the value of generation-related regulatory assets that are being provided in a lump sum as the result of a funding with the proceeds of rate reduction bonds, the department shall adjust the value of each such asset to reflect the time value of such lump sum, if any.

      (f) (1) The department shall calculate the stranded costs for long-term contract costs that have been reduced to a fixed present value through the buyout, buydown, or renegotiation of independent power producer contracts and purchased power contracts approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission as such present value. In making such calculation, the department shall net purchased power contracts approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission that are below market value against any such contracts that are above-market value.

      (2) The department shall calculate the stranded costs for any portion of a long-term contract cost that has not been reduced to a fixed present value by comparing the contract price to the market price at least annually. In making such calculation, the department shall net purchased power contracts approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission that are below market value against any such contracts that are above-market value. The costs described in this subdivision shall be included in the competitive transition assessment pursuant to section 16-245g but shall not be included in any funding with the proceeds of rate reduction bonds.

      (g) The department shall calculate the stranded cost for each generation asset described in subdivision (7) of subsection (b) of section 16-244f to be the difference between its book value and the market value of a prudently and efficiently managed nonnuclear generating facility of comparable size, age and technical characteristics in a competitive market. In determining the market value of any such asset, the department may consider (A) the dollars per kilowatt received from the sale of similar generation facilities, if any, (B) income capitalization based on the operating history and capacity of the facility, the market rates for power, and any existing long-term contracts for the sale of power or capacity, (C) independent market appraisals, or (D) other relevant factors. The department shall calculate the stranded costs for generation assets described in subdivision (7) of subsection (b) of section 16-244f at least every three years. The costs described in this subsection shall be included in the competitive transition assessment pursuant to section 16-245g but shall not be included in any funding with the proceeds of rate reduction bonds.

      (h) (1) On or before January 1, 2004, an electric company may submit to the department an application for recovery of that portion of nuclear generation assets which is determined by the department in accordance with this subsection, which application shall include a request for recovery through the competitive transition assessment. The department shall hold a hearing for each electric company and issue a finding of the calculation of such nuclear generation assets in accordance with the provisions of this subsection. Any hearing shall be conducted as a contested case proceeding in accordance with chapter 54. The costs described in this subsection shall be included in the competitive transition assessment pursuant to section 16-245g but shall not be included in any funding with proceeds of rate reduction bonds.

      (2) The department shall calculate the stranded costs for each nuclear generation asset that was divested at a price less than book value as described in subdivision (5) of subsection (c) of section 16-244g as the difference between the book value of this asset and the final bid price of the asset. The department's calculation of stranded costs pursuant to this subdivision shall be final and shall not be subject to further adjustment by the department.

      (3) The department shall calculate the stranded costs for each nondivested nuclear generation asset described in subdivision (1) of subsection (d) of section 16-244g to be the difference between its book value and the market value of a prudently and efficiently managed nuclear generating facility of comparable size, age and technical characteristics in a competitive market. In determining the market value of any such asset, the department may consider (A) the dollars per kilowatt received from the sale of similar generation facilities, if any, (B) income capitalization based on the operating history and capacity of the facility, the market rates for power, and any existing long-term contracts for the sale of power or capacity, (C) the provision for decommissioning and related costs to be paid from the systems benefits charge provided in section 16-245l, (D) independent market appraisals, or (E) other relevant factors. At least every four years after the date when the department issues an initial finding of the calculation of the stranded costs for such nondivested nuclear generation assets as provided in this subdivision until the earlier of (i) the expiration of the collection of the competitive transition assessment, or (ii) the date when such an asset is divested, the department shall hold a hearing and issue a finding to adjust the stranded cost calculation of each such asset and to adjust the competitive transition assessment accordingly to true up the stranded cost recovery for the difference between the market value projected in such initial finding and the actual market value of a prudently and efficiently managed nuclear generating facility of comparable size, age and technical characteristics during the time period between the initial finding and the adjustment date, provided the second and subsequent adjustments shall reflect the difference during the time period since the most recent true-up. The department shall calculate the value of each such asset in accordance with the methodology provided in this subdivision. Any hearing shall be conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54.

      (4) After the department has calculated the total value of stranded costs for all nuclear generation assets, the department shall (A) reduce such amount by the net proceeds that are above book value realized by an electric company from the sale of nonnuclear generation assets pursuant to subdivision (6) of subsection (b) of section 16-244f, (B) reduce such valuation to reflect the total net proceeds that are above book value realized by an electric distribution company from the sale of any nuclear generation assets pursuant to subsection (c) of section 16-244g, and (C) reduce such amount by the net proceeds that are above book value received by an electric company for the sale or lease of any real property after July 1, 1998.

      (i) If any net proceeds described in subdivision (4) of subsection (h) of this section remain after the reduction in the calculation of nuclear generation assets pursuant to said subdivision (4) or are realized after said reduction is calculated, the additional amount of such net proceeds shall be netted against long-term contract costs described in subdivision (2) of subsection (f) of this section, and the competitive transition assessment shall be adjusted accordingly.

      (j) (1) No electric company shall be eligible to claim any stranded costs for a nuclear generation asset or for any generation-related regulatory asset related to such generation asset, if the generation asset is not operating as a result of an order issued by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission that applies specifically to such asset. Any such asset that is not eligible to be claimed as a stranded cost shall be eligible after it is permitted to and has resumed operation and is selling power.

      (2) Any asset with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission capacity rating of 641 megawatts that does not resume operation after such order is no longer in effect shall not be eligible to be claimed as a stranded cost. An electric company or electric distribution company may apply to the department for retirement of such unit for economic reasons pursuant to section 16-19. The department shall include any recovery ordered in such proceeding in the competitive transition assessment but shall not include any costs relating to the decommissioning of any such facility or any costs which the department found during a proceeding initiated before July 1, 1998, were incurred because of imprudent management. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subdivision, nothing herein shall modify or supersede any statute or regulation in effect on July 1, 1998, pertaining to applications for retirement of nuclear generating facilities.

      (k) If an electric company elected to transfer any of its nuclear generation assets and related operations and functions to a separate corporate affiliate or to a division that is functionally separate from the electric distribution company pursuant to section 16-244g and subsequently sold any such assets in an arm's length transaction to an unrelated entity prior to January 1, 2012, the net proceeds realized from such sale that exceed book value for such assets shall be netted against the total amount of stranded costs, and the competitive transition assessment shall be adjusted accordingly and, if appropriate, other reimbursement shall be ordered by the department.

      (l) Funds appropriated to the Treasurer in section 21 of public act 07-1 of the June special session* shall be used by the Treasurer for the purpose of (1) defeasing some or all of the state rate reduction bonds maturing after December 30, 2007, by irrevocably depositing with the bond trustee in trust such appropriation to be used for the scheduled payments of principal and interest on the said state rate reduction bonds and paying operating expenses, (2) purchasing state rate reduction bonds maturing after December 30, 2007, in the open market on such terms and conditions as the Treasurer determines to be in the best interest of the state for purposes of satisfying such bonds, or (3) defeasing or satisfying some or all of the state rate reduction bonds maturing after December 30, 2007, by a combination of the methods described in subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection. Such appropriation is for the purpose of paying debt service on bonds or other evidences of indebtedness and related costs and expenses provided for in the indenture. After the defeasance or satisfaction of all outstanding state rate reduction bonds, the trustee shall deliver to the Treasurer or apply in accordance with the instructions of the Treasurer all moneys held by it not necessary to defease or satisfy such bonds or allocated to pay operating expenses. Such funds shall be first applied to satisfy any unpaid operating expenses. After payment of the operating expenses, seventy-five per cent of any remaining amounts shall be paid to the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund, established pursuant to section 16-245m, and twenty-five per cent of such remaining amount shall be paid to the Renewable Energy Investment Fund, established pursuant to section 16-245n. The Treasurer and the finance authority have the authority to take any necessary and appropriate actions to implement the defeasance or satisfaction of the state rate reduction bonds and the payment of all operating expenses so that the amount of state rate reduction charges which before defeasance secured the state rate reduction bonds can be applied to the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund and the Renewable Energy Investment Fund.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 8, 117; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 44, 45; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 2; P.A. 07-242, S. 79; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-1, S. 134; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-5, S. 56; P.A. 10-179, S. 125.)

      *Note: Section 21 of public act 07-1 of the June special session is special in nature and therefore has not been codified but remains in full force and effect according to its terms.


      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (a)(1), (2) and (13) re the definitions of "rate reduction bonds", "competitive transition assessment" and "transition property" for consistency with a plan to avoid disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management and Renewable Energy Investment funds to the General Fund in the implementation of the budget for the biennium ending June 30, 2005, effective August 20, 2003; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 amended Subsec. (a)(13) re the definition of "transition property" to add references to the financing entity, effective September 10, 2003; P.A. 07-242 added Subsec. (a)(14) to (18) to define "state rate reduction bonds", "operating expenses", "bond documents", "indenture", and "trustee", respectively, effective June 4, 2007; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-1 added Subsec. (l) re defeasance or purchase of state rate reduction bonds, effective June 26, 2007; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 07-5 reiterated addition of Subsec. (a)(14) to (18) defining "state rate reduction bonds", "operating expenses", "bond documents", "indenture", and "trustee", respectively, effective October 6, 2007; P.A. 10-179 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdivs. (19) and (20) defining "economic recovery transfer" and "economic recovery revenue bonds" and to add references to these terms in Subdivs. (1), (2), (13), (15), (16) and (17), effective May 7, 2010.

      Subsec. (h):

      Phrase "any real property" in Subdiv. (4)(C) refers to all real properties, not just to utility properties. 266 C. 108.


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      Sec. 16-245f. Funding of certain disbursements to the General Fund. Funding of stranded costs through rate reduction bonds. Funding of economic recovery transfer through economic recovery revenue bonds. Assessment. (a) An electric company or electric distribution company shall submit to the department an application for a financing order with respect to any proposal to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs by substituting disbursements to the General Fund from proceeds of rate reduction bonds for such disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund established by section 16-245m and from the Renewable Energy Investment Fund established by section 16-245n, and may submit to the department an application for a financing order with respect to the following stranded costs: (1) The cost of mitigation efforts, as calculated pursuant to subsection (c) of section 16-245e; (2) generation-related regulatory assets, as calculated pursuant to subsection (e) of section 16-245e; and (3) those long-term contract costs that have been reduced to a fixed present value through the buyout, buydown, or renegotiation of such contracts, as calculated pursuant to subsection (f) of section 16-245e. No stranded costs shall be funded with the proceeds of rate reduction bonds unless (A) the electric company or electric distribution company proves to the satisfaction of the department that the savings attributable to such funding will be directly passed on to customers through lower rates, and (B) the department determines such funding will not result in giving the electric distribution company or any generation entities or affiliates an unfair competitive advantage. The department shall hold a hearing for each such electric distribution company to determine the amount of disbursements to the General Fund from proceeds of rate reduction bonds that may be substituted for such disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund established by section 16-245m and from the Renewable Energy Investment Fund established by section 16-245n, and thereby constitute transition property and the portion of stranded costs that may be included in such funding and thereby constitute transition property. Any hearing shall be conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54, except that any hearing with respect to a financing order or other order to sustain funding for conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs by substituting the disbursement to the General Fund from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund established by section 16-245m and from the Renewable Energy Investment Fund established by section 16-245n shall not be a contested case, as defined in section 4-166. The department shall not include any rate reduction bonds as debt of an electric distribution company in determining the capital structure of the company in a rate-making proceeding, for calculating the company's return on equity or in any manner that would impact the electric distribution company for rate-making purposes, and shall not approve such rate reduction bonds that include covenants that have provisions prohibiting any change to their appointment of an administrator of the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund. Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to affect the terms of subsection (b) of section 16-245m.

      (b) Prior to September 1, 2010, each electric distribution company shall submit to the department an application for a financing order with respect to funding the economic recovery transfer through the issuance of economic recovery revenue bonds. The department shall hold a hearing for each such electric distribution company to determine the amount necessary to fund the economic recovery transfer, the payment of economic recovery revenue bonds, costs of issuance, credit enhancements and operating expenses for the economic recovery revenue bonds. Such amount as determined by the department shall constitute transition property. The department shall allocate the responsibility for the funding of the economic recovery transfer and the expenses of the economic recovery revenue bonds equitably between the electric distribution companies. Such allocation may provide that the respective charges payable by the customers of each electric distribution company may commence on different dates and that such rates may vary over the period the economic recovery revenue bonds and the related operating expenses are being paid, provided (1) such charges are equitably allocated to the customers of each electric distribution company, and (2) the department determines that, over such period, and taking into account the timing of charges, the charges on a kilowatt hour basis assessed to the customers of the respective electric distribution companies have substantially the same present value after consultation with the finance authority as to the discount rate to be used in determining such present value. Any hearing with respect to a financing order in respect to the economic recovery transfer and the issuance of economic recovery revenue bonds shall not be a contested case, as defined in section 4-166. The department shall issue a financing order in respect to the economic recovery revenue bonds for each electric distribution company on or before October 1, 2010. In such financing order, the department shall determine the competitive transition assessment in respect of the economic recovery revenue bonds, which shall not be assessed prior to June 30, 2011, unless the department sets an earlier date in the financing order. A component of the competitive transition assessment in respect of the economic recovery revenue bonds shall be equal to the decreases to the charges provided in subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of section 16-245m funding the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund. The portion of the competitive transition assessment in respect to the economic recovery revenue bonds equal to such decreases shall be assessed and collected from the date such charges are reduced pursuant to the financing order. The department may provide in such financing order that money from other sources, including proceeds of charges assessed customers of municipal electric companies, transferred to the trustee under the indenture and intended to be used to pay debt service on the bonds shall be taken into account in making adjustments to the competitive transition assessment pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of section 16-245i if such payment is not made from General Fund revenues and would not adversely affect the tax status or credit rating of economic recovery revenue bonds.

      (c) The department, during the period commencing on January 1, 2011, and ending June 30, 2011, shall assess or cause to be assessed a charge per kilowatt hour of electricity sold to each end use customer of an electric distribution company and shall cause such assessments to be remitted to the General Fund. The department shall set such charge at a level which the department estimates will generate forty million dollars during the period it is assessed. Such charge shall not be assessed after June 30, 2011.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 9, 117; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 46; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 3; P.A. 04-180, S. 1; P.A. 10-179, S. 126.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 added provisions for a proposal to avoid disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management and Renewable Energy Investment funds to the General Fund in the implementation of the budget for the biennium ending June 30, 2005, effective August 20, 2003; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 required the submission of an application for a financing order in the case of proposals to sustain certain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs, effective September 10, 2003; P.A. 04-180 made technical changes and deleted reference to Sec. 20 of P.A. 03-2, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 10-179 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (b) re economic recovery revenue bonds and Subsec. (c) re assessment, effective May 7, 2010.

      See Sec. 16-19uu re adjustments to competitive transition assessment with respect to economic recovery revenue bonds.

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      Sec. 16-245g. Competitive transition assessment. Determination by department of amount and how applied to electric customers. Duration. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall assess and beginning January 1, 2000, impose the competitive transition assessment which shall be imposed on all customers of each electric distribution company to provide funds for the purposes described in subsection (d) of this section. The department shall hold a hearing that shall be conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54, except as otherwise provided in section 16-245f, to determine the amount of the competitive transition assessment.

      (b) The department shall consider the effect on all customer rates and other factors relevant to reducing rates in determining the amount of the competitive transition assessment and the manner in which and the period over which it shall be imposed in any decision of the department to set or adjust the competitive transition assessment.

      (c) The competitive transition assessment shall be determined by the department in a general and equitable manner and, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of section 16-245f, shall be imposed on all customers at a rate that is applied equally to all customers of the same class in accordance with methods of allocation in effect on July 1, 1998, provided the competitive transition assessment shall not be imposed on customers receiving services under a special contract which is in effect on July 1, 1998, until such special contract expires. The competitive transition assessment shall be imposed beginning on January 1, 2000, on all customers receiving services under a special contract which is entered into or renewed after July 1, 1998. The competitive transition assessment shall have a generally applicable manner of determination that may be measured on the basis of percentages of total costs of retail sales of electric generation services. Subject to the provisions of subsection (b) of section 16-245f, the competitive transition assessment shall be payable by customers on an equal basis on the same payment terms and shall be eligible or subject to prepayment on an equal basis. Any exemption of the competitive transition assessment by customers under a special contract shall not result in an increase in rates to any customer.

      (d) The department shall establish, fix and revise the competitive transition assessment in an amount sufficient at all times to: (1) Pay the principal of and the interest on rate reduction bonds as the same shall become due and payable; (2) to pay all reasonable and necessary expenses relating to the financing; and (3) to pay an electric company stranded costs that are not funded with the proceeds of rate reduction bonds and interim capital costs determined under subdivision (1) of subsection (e) of section 16-244g.

      (e) The competitive transition assessment shall be charged to customers until the rate reduction bonds are paid in full by the financing entity and stranded costs not funded with the proceeds of rate reduction bonds are fully recovered by the electric company or electric distribution company. Amounts collected from a customer shall be allocated on a pro rata basis among (1) rates and charges described in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 16-245e, (2) rates and charges described in subparagraph (B) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 16-245e, and (3) other charges. To the extent that the department, when issuing a financing order, determines that special treatment on customers' bills is necessary or desirable to distinguish rates and charges described in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 16-245e from rates and charges described in subparagraph (B) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 16-245e in order to facilitate the successful issuance and sale of rate reduction bonds, it may so provide as part of such financing order.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 10, 117; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 4; P.A. 10-179, S. 127.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 amended Subsec. (a) to add exception from contested case hearing requirement as provided in Sec. 16-245f, effective September 10, 2003; P.A. 10-179 amended Subsec. (c) by adding references to Sec. 16-245f(b), effective May 7, 2010.

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      Sec. 16-245h. Transition property. Surplus competitive transition assessment. Restrictions on use of transition property by electric or electric distribution companies. (a) The competitive transition assessment described in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 16-245e shall constitute transition property when, and to the extent that, a financing order authorizing such portion of the competitive transition assessment has become effective in accordance with sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, and the transition property shall thereafter continuously exist as property for all purposes with all of the rights and privileges of sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, for the period and to the extent provided in the financing order, but in any event until the rate reduction bonds are paid in full, including all principal, interest, premium, costs, and arrearages on such bonds. Prior to its sale or other transfer by the electric company or electric distribution company pursuant to sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, transition property, other than transition property in respect of the economic recovery transfer or in respect to disbursements to the General Fund to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs, shall be a vested contract right of the electric company or electric distribution company, notwithstanding any contrary treatment thereof for accounting, tax, or other purpose. Transition property in respect of disbursements to the General Fund to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs shall immediately upon its creation vest solely in the financing entity. Transition property in respect to the economic recovery transfer shall immediately upon its creation vest solely in the financing entity. The electric company or electric distribution company shall have no right, title or interest in transition property in respect to the economic recovery transfer or in respect of disbursements to the General Fund to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs, and in respect of such transition property shall be only a collection agent on behalf of the financing entity.

      (b) Any surplus competitive transition assessment described in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 16-245e in excess of the amounts necessary to pay principal, premium, if any, interest and expenses of the issuance of the rate reduction bonds issued prior to January 1, 2002, after such bonds have been defeased or paid in full, shall be remitted to the finance authority who shall apply such charges to the payment of economic recovery revenue bonds and cause such charges to be credited against the payment obligation in respect to the economic recovery revenue bonds of the customers making such excess payments. If the economic recovery revenue bonds are not issued, the finance authority shall transfer such excess charges to the General Fund. Any surplus competitive transition assessment described in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 16-245e in excess of the amounts necessary to pay principal, premium, if any, interest and expenses of the issuance of the rate reduction bonds issued on or after May 1, 2010, shall be remitted to the financing entity and may be used to benefit customers. No funds shall be remitted, applied or used in accordance with the terms of this subsection if such remittance, application or use would result in a recharacterization of the tax, accounting, and other intended characteristics of the financing, including, but not limited to, the following:

      (1) Avoiding the recognition of debt on the electric company's or the electric distribution company's balance sheet for financial accounting and regulatory purposes;

      (2) Treating the rate reduction bonds as debt of the electric company or electric distribution company or its affiliates for federal income tax purposes;

      (3) Treating the transfer of the transition property by the electric company or electric distribution company as a true sale for bankruptcy purposes; or

      (4) Avoiding any adverse impact of the financing on the credit rating of the rate reduction bonds or the electric company or electric distribution company.

      (c) Electric companies and electric distribution companies may sell and assign all or portions of their interest in transition property to an affiliate. Electric companies and electric distribution companies or their affiliates may sell or assign their interests to one or more financing entities that make that property the basis for issuance of rate reduction bonds to the extent approved in the pertinent financing orders. Electric companies, electric distribution companies, their affiliates, or financing entities may pledge transition property as collateral, directly or indirectly, for rate reduction bonds to the extent approved in the pertinent financing orders providing for a security interest in the transition property, in the manner as set forth in section 16-245k. In addition, transition property may be sold or assigned by (1) the financing entity or a trustee for the holders of rate reduction bonds in connection with the exercise of remedies upon a default, or (2) any person acquiring the transition property after a sale or assignment pursuant to this subsection.

      (d) To the extent that any interest in transition property is so sold or assigned, or is so pledged as collateral, the department shall authorize the electric company or electric distribution company to contract with the financing entity that it will continue to operate its system to provide service to its customers, will collect amounts in respect of the competitive transition assessment for the benefit and account of the financing entity, and will account for and remit these amounts to or for the account of the financing entity. Contracting with the financing entity in accordance with that authorization shall not impair or negate the characterization of the sale, assignment, or pledge as an absolute transfer, a true sale, or security interest, as applicable.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 11, 117; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 5; P.A. 04-180, S. 2; P.A. 10-179, S. 128.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 amended Subsec. (a) to add provisions re transition property in respect of disbursements to the General Fund, effective September 10, 2003; P.A. 04-180 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes and to replace "described in this subsection" with "in respect of disbursements to the General Fund to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs", effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 10-179 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provisions re economic recovery transfer, and amended Subsec. (b) to provide for treatment of surplus competitive transition assessment re economic recovery revenue bonds, effective May 7, 2010.

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      Sec. 16-245i. Financing orders re the economic recovery transfer, the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund, the Renewable Energy Investment Fund and stranded costs. (a) The department may issue financing orders in accordance with sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, to fund the economic recovery transfer, to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs by substituting disbursements to the General Fund from proceeds of rate reduction bonds for such disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund established by section 16-245m and from the Renewable Energy Investment Fund established by section 16-245n, and to facilitate the provision, recovery, financing, or refinancing of stranded costs. Except for a financing order in respect to the economic recovery revenue bonds, a financing order may be adopted only upon the application of an electric company or electric distribution company, pursuant to section 16-245f, and shall become effective in accordance with its terms only after the electric company or electric distribution company files with the department the electric company's or the electric distribution company's written consent to all terms and conditions of the financing order. Any financing order in respect to the economic recovery revenue bonds shall be effective on issuance.

      (b) (1) Notwithstanding any general or special law, rule, or regulation to the contrary, except as otherwise provided in this subsection with respect to transition property that has been made the basis for the issuance of rate reduction bonds, the financing orders and the competitive transition assessment shall be irrevocable and the department shall not have authority either by rescinding, altering, or amending the financing order or otherwise, to revalue or revise for rate-making purposes the stranded costs, or the costs of providing, recovering, financing, or refinancing the stranded costs, the amount of the economic recovery transfer or the amount of disbursements to the General Fund from proceeds of rate reduction bonds substituted for such disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund established by section 16-245m and from the Renewable Energy Investment Fund established by section 16-245n, determine that the competitive transition assessment is unjust or unreasonable, or in any way reduce or impair the value of transition property either directly or indirectly by taking the competitive transition assessment into account when setting other rates for the electric company or electric distribution company; nor shall the amount of revenues arising with respect thereto be subject to reduction, impairment, postponement, or termination.

      (2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the department shall approve the adjustments to the competitive transition assessment as may be necessary to ensure timely recovery of all stranded costs that are the subject of the pertinent financing order, and the costs of capital associated with the provision, recovery, financing, or refinancing thereof, including the costs of issuing, servicing, and retiring the rate reduction bonds issued to recover stranded costs contemplated by the financing order and to ensure timely recovery of the costs of issuing, servicing, and retiring the rate reduction bonds issued to sustain funding of conservation and load management and renewable energy investment programs contemplated by the financing order, and to ensure timely recovery of the costs of issuing, servicing and retiring the economic recovery revenue bonds issued to fund the economic recovery transfer contemplated by the financing order.

      (3) Notwithstanding any general or special law, rule, or regulation to the contrary, any requirement under sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, or a financing order that the department take action with respect to the subject matter of a financing order shall be binding upon the department, as it may be constituted from time to time, and any successor agency exercising functions similar to the department and the department shall have no authority to rescind, alter, or amend that requirement in a financing order. Section 16-43 shall not apply to any sale, assignment, or other transfer of or grant of a security interest in any transition property or the issuance of rate reduction bonds under sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive.

      (c) The department shall provide in any financing order for a procedure for the timely approval by the department of periodic adjustments to the competitive transition assessment that is the subject of the pertinent financing order, as required by subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of this section. The procedure shall require the department to determine whether the adjustments are required on each anniversary of the issuance of the financing order, and at the additional intervals as may be provided for in the financing order, and for the adjustments, if required, to be approved within ninety days of each anniversary of the issuance of the financing order, or of each additional interval provided for in the financing order.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 12, 117; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 47; P.A. 10-179, S. 129.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to provide for a plan to avoid disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management and Renewable Energy Investment funds to the General Fund in the implementation of the budget for the biennium ending June 30, 2005, effective August 20, 2003; P.A. 10-179 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to add provisions re financing orders to fund the economic recovery transfer and for economic recovery revenue bonds, effective May 7, 2010.

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      Sec. 16-245j. Rate reduction bonds and economic recovery revenue bonds; terms. (a) A financing entity may issue rate reduction bonds upon approval by the department in the pertinent financing order. Rate reduction bonds shall be nonrecourse to the credit or any assets of the electric company, electric distribution company or the finance authority, other than the transition property as specified in the pertinent financing order.

      (b) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the state of Connecticut does hereby pledge and agree with the owners of transition property and holders of rate reduction bonds that the state shall neither limit nor alter the competitive transition assessment, transition property, financing orders, and all rights thereunder until the obligations, together with the interest thereon, are fully met and discharged, provided nothing contained in this subsection shall preclude the limitation or alteration if and when adequate provision shall be made by law for the protection of the owners and holders. The finance authority as agent for the state is authorized to include this pledge and undertaking for the state in these obligations.

      (c) (1) Financing orders and rate reduction bonds shall not be deemed to constitute a debt or liability of the state or of any political subdivision thereof, other than the financing entity, shall not constitute a pledge of the full faith and credit of the state or any of its political subdivisions, other than the financing entity, but shall be payable solely from the funds provided under sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, and shall not constitute an indebtedness of the state within the meaning of any constitutional or statutory debt limitation or restriction and, accordingly, shall not be subject to any statutory limitation on the indebtedness of the state and shall not be included in computing the aggregate indebtedness of the state in respect to and to the extent of any such limitation. This subsection shall in no way preclude bond guarantees or enhancements pursuant to sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive. All rate reduction bonds shall contain on the face thereof a statement to the following effect: "Neither the full faith and credit nor the taxing power of the State of Connecticut is pledged to the payment of the principal of, or interest on, this bond."

      (2) The issuance of rate reduction bonds under sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, shall not directly, indirectly, or contingently obligate the state or any political subdivision thereof to levy or to pledge any form of taxation therefor or to make any appropriation for their payment.

      (3) The exercise of the powers granted by sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, shall be in all respects for the benefit of the people of this state, for the increase of their commerce, welfare, and prosperity, and as the exercise of such powers shall constitute the performance of an essential public function, neither the finance authority, any electric company or electric distribution company, any affiliate of any electric company or electric distribution company, any financing entity, or any collection or other agent of any of the foregoing shall be required to pay any taxes or assessments upon or in respect of any revenues or property received, acquired, transferred, or used by the finance authority, any electric company or electric distribution company, any affiliate of any electric company or electric distribution company, any financing entity, or any collection or other agent of any of the foregoing under the provisions of sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, or upon or in respect of the income therefrom, and any rate reduction bonds shall be treated as issued by or on behalf of a public instrumentality created under the laws of the state for purposes of chapter 229.

      (4) (A) The proceeds of any rate reduction bonds, other than economic recovery revenue bonds, shall be used for the purposes approved by the department in the financing order, including, but not limited to, disbursements to the General Fund in substitution for such disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund established by section 16-245m and from the Renewable Energy Investment Fund established by section 16-245n, the costs of refinancing or retiring of debt of the electric company or electric distribution company, and associated federal and state tax liabilities; provided such proceeds shall not be applied to purchase generation assets or to purchase or redeem stock or to pay dividends to shareholders or operating expenses other than taxes resulting from the receipt of such proceeds.

      (B) The proceeds of any economic recovery revenue bonds shall be used for the purposes approved by the department in the financing order, including, but not limited to, funding the economic recovery transfer, provided such proceeds shall not be applied to purchase generation assets or to purchase or redeem stock or to pay dividends to shareholders or operating expenses other than taxes resulting from the receipt of such proceeds.

      (5) Rate reduction bonds are made and declared (A) securities in which all public officers and public bodies of the state and its political subdivisions, all insurance companies, state banks and trust companies, national banking associations, savings banks, savings and loan associations, investment companies, executors, administrators, trustees and other fiduciaries may properly and legally invest funds, including capital in their control or belonging to them, and (B) securities which may properly and legally be deposited with and received by any state or municipal officer or any agency or political subdivision of the state for any purpose for which the deposit of bonds or obligations of the state is now or may be authorized.

      (6) Rate reduction bonds, other than economic recovery revenue bonds, shall mature at such time or times approved by the department in the financing order; provided that such maturity shall not be later than December 31, 2011. Economic recovery revenue bonds shall mature at such time or times approved by the department in the financing order, provided such maturity shall not be later than eight years after the date of issuance, provided such maturity may be extended for economic reasons, upon the advice of the financing entity.

      (7) Rate reduction bonds issued and at any time outstanding may, if and to the extent permitted under the indenture or other agreement pursuant to which they are issued, be refunded by other rate reduction bonds.

      (d) Any rate reduction bonds issued or sold pursuant to or in reliance on and in accordance with any financing order issued by the department pursuant to sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, shall be valid and binding in accordance with their terms notwithstanding such financing order is later vacated, modified, or otherwise held to be wholly or partly invalid, unless operation of such financing order has been enjoined, stayed, or suspended by the department or a court of competent jurisdiction prior to such issuance.

      (e) In conjunction with the issuance of economic recovery revenue bonds or state rate reduction bonds: (1) The Treasurer may enter into a trust indenture for the benefit of holders of the rate reduction bonds with a corporate trustee, which may be any trust company or commercial bank qualified to do business within or without the state; such trust indenture shall be consistent with the financing order and may contain such other provisions as may be appropriate including those regulating the investment of funds and the remedies of bondholders; (2) the Treasurer may make representations and agreements for the benefit of the holders of rate reduction bonds to make secondary market disclosures; (3) the Treasurer may enter into interest rate swap agreements and other agreements for the purpose of moderating interest rate risk on rate reduction bonds as permitted elsewhere within sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, provided the obligations under such agreements are payable from the transition property; (4) the Treasurer may enter into such other agreements and instruments to secure the rate reduction bonds as provided in sections 16-245f to 16-245k, inclusive; and (5) the Treasurer may take such other actions as necessary or appropriate for the issuance and distribution of the rate reduction bonds pursuant to the financing order and the Treasurer and the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management may make representations and agreements for the benefit of the holders of the rate reduction bonds which are necessary or appropriate to ensure exclusion of the interest payable on the rate reduction bonds from gross income under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 13, 117; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 48; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 6; P.A. 04-180, S. 3; P.A. 10-179, S. 130-132.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (c) to provide consistency with a plan to avoid disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management and Renewable Energy Investment funds to the General Fund in the implementation of the budget for the biennium ending June 30, 2005, effective August 20, 2003; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 added Subsec. (e) re powers of Treasurer and Secretary of Office of Policy and Management when the state is the authorized financing entity, effective September 10, 2003; P.A. 04-180 amended Subsec. (e) to make technical changes, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 10-179 amended Subsec. (a) by adding "or the finance authority", amended Subsec. (c) by designating existing Subdiv. (4) as Subdiv. (4)(A), inserting reference to economic recovery revenue bonds therein, adding Subdiv. (4)(B) re use of proceeds of economic recovery revenue bonds and adding provisions re economic recovery revenue bonds in Subdiv. (6), and amended Subsec. (e) by replacing provision re authorized financing entity with provision re issuance of economic recovery revenue bonds or state rate reduction bonds, effective May 7, 2010.

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      Sec. 16-245k. Security interest in transition property described; creation; perfection. Transferring transition property. Duration of department's authority to issue financing orders. (a) A security interest in transition property is valid, is enforceable against the pledgor and third parties, subject to the rights of any third parties holding security interests in the transition property perfected in the manner described in this section, and attaches when all of the following have taken place:

      (1) The department has issued the financing order authorizing the competitive transition assessment included in the transition property.

      (2) Value has been given by the pledgees of the transition property.

      (3) The pledgor has signed a security agreement covering the transition property.

      (b) A valid and enforceable security interest in transition property is perfected when it has attached and when a financing statement has been filed in accordance with part 5 of article 9 of title 42a naming the pledgor of the transition property as "debtor" and identifying the transition property. In such case, the financing statement shall be filed as if the debtor were located in this state. Any description of the transition property shall be sufficient if it refers to the financing order creating the transition property. A copy of the financing statement shall be filed with the department by the electric company or electric distribution company or the financing entity that is the pledgor or transferor of the transition property, and the department may require the electric company or electric distribution company or the financing entity to make other filings with respect to the security interest in accordance with procedures it may establish, provided that the filings shall not affect the perfection of the security interest.

      (c) A perfected security interest in transition property is a continuously perfected security interest in all revenues and proceeds arising with respect thereto, whether or not the revenues or proceeds have accrued. Conflicting security interests shall rank according to priority in time of perfection. Transition property shall constitute property for all purposes, including for contracts securing rate reduction bonds, whether or not the revenues and proceeds arising with respect thereto have accrued.

      (d) Subject to the terms of the security agreement covering the transition property and the rights of any third parties holding security interests in the transition property perfected in the manner described in this section, the validity and relative priority of a security interest created under this section are not defeated or adversely affected by the commingling of revenues arising with respect to the transition property with other funds of the electric company or electric distribution company that is the pledgor or transferor of, or the collection agent with respect to, the transition property, or by any security interest in a deposit account of that electric company or electric distribution company into which the revenues are deposited or in such revenues themselves perfected under article 9 of title 42a or otherwise. Subject to the terms of the security agreement, the pledgees of the transition property shall have a perfected security interest in all cash and deposit accounts of the electric company or electric distribution company in which revenues arising with respect to the transition property have been commingled with other funds, but the perfected security interest shall be limited to an amount not greater than the amount of the revenues with respect to the transition property received by the electric company or electric distribution company within twelve months before (1) any default under the security agreement, or (2) the institution of insolvency proceedings by or against the electric company or electric distribution company, less payments from the revenues to the pledgees during that twelve-month period.

      (e) If an event of default occurs under the security agreement covering the transition property, the pledgees of the transition property, subject to the terms of the security agreement, shall have all rights and remedies of a secured party upon default under article 9 of title 42a, and shall be entitled to foreclose or otherwise enforce their security interest in the transition property, subject to the rights of any third parties holding prior security interests in the transition property perfected in the manner provided in this section. In addition, the department may require, in the financing order creating the transition property, that, in the event of default by the electric company or electric distribution company in payment of revenues arising with respect to the transition property, the department and any successor thereto, upon the application by the pledgees or transferees, including transferees under this section, of the transition property, and without limiting any other remedies available to the pledgees or transferees by reason of the default, shall order the sequestration and payment to the pledgees or transferees of revenues arising with respect to the transition property. Any order shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding any bankruptcy, reorganization, or other insolvency proceedings with respect to the debtor, pledgor, or transferor of the transition property. Any surplus in excess of amounts necessary to pay principal, premium, if any, interest, costs, and arrearages on the rate reduction bonds, and other costs arising under the security agreement, shall be remitted to the debtor or to the pledgor or transferor.

      (f) Sections 42a-9-204 and 42a-9-205 shall apply to a pledge of transition property by an electric company or electric distribution company, an affiliate of an electric company or electric distribution company, or a financing entity.

      (g) This section sets forth the terms by which a consensual security interest can be created and perfected in the transition property. Unless otherwise ordered by the department with respect to any series of rate reduction bonds on or prior to the issuance of the series, there shall exist a statutory lien as provided in this subsection. Upon the effective date of the financing order, there shall exist a first priority lien on all transition property then existing or thereafter arising pursuant to the terms of the financing order. This lien shall arise by operation of this section automatically without any action on the part of the electric company or electric distribution company, any affiliate thereof, the financing entity, or any other person. This lien shall secure all obligations, then existing or subsequently arising, to the holders of the rate reduction bonds issued pursuant to the financing order, the trustee or representative for the holders, and any other entity specified in the financing order. The persons for whose benefit this lien is established shall, upon the occurrence of any defaults specified in the financing order, have all rights and remedies of a secured party upon default under article 9 of title 42a, and shall be entitled to foreclose or otherwise enforce this statutory lien in the transition property. This lien shall attach to the transition property regardless of who shall own, or shall subsequently be determined to own, the transition property including any electric company or electric distribution company, any affiliate thereof, the financing entity, or any other person. This lien shall be valid, perfected, and enforceable against the owner of the transition property and all third parties upon the effectiveness of the financing order without any further public notice; provided, however, that any person may, but shall not be required to, file a financing statement in accordance with subsection (b) of this section. Financing statements so filed may be "protective filings" and shall not be evidence of the ownership of the transition property. A perfected statutory lien in transition property is a continuously perfected lien in all revenues and proceeds arising with respect thereto, whether or not the revenues or proceeds have accrued. Conflicting liens shall rank according to priority in time of perfection. Transition property shall constitute property for all purposes, including for contracts securing rate reduction bonds, whether or not the revenues and proceeds arising with respect thereto have accrued. In addition, the department may require, in the financing order creating the transition property, that, in the event of default by the electric company or electric distribution company in payment of revenues arising with respect to transition property, the department and any successor thereto, upon the application by the beneficiaries of the statutory lien, and without limiting any other remedies available to the beneficiaries by reason of the default, shall order the sequestration and payment to the beneficiaries of revenues arising with respect to the transition property. Any order shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding any bankruptcy, reorganization, or other insolvency proceedings with respect to the debtor, pledgor, or transferor of the transition property. Any surplus in excess of amounts necessary to pay principal, premium, if any, interest, costs, and arrearages on the rate reduction bonds, and other costs arising in connection with the documents governing the rate reduction bonds, shall be remitted to the debtor or to the pledgor or transferor.

      (h) A transfer of transition property by an electric company or electric distribution company to an affiliate or to a financing entity, or by an affiliate of an electric company or electric distribution company or a financing entity to another financing entity, which the parties have in the governing documentation expressly stated to be a sale or other absolute transfer, in a transaction approved in a financing order, shall be treated as an absolute transfer of all of the transferor's right, title, and interest, as in a true sale, and not as a pledge or other financing, of the transition property, in each case notwithstanding any contrary treatment of such transfer for accounting, tax, or other purposes. Granting to holders of rate reduction bonds a preferred right to revenues of the electric company or electric distribution company or the financing entity, or the provision by the company of other credit enhancement with respect to rate reduction bonds, shall not impair or negate the characterization of any transfer as a true sale, in each case notwithstanding any contrary treatment of such transfer for accounting, tax or other purposes.

      (i) A transfer of transition property shall be deemed perfected as against third persons when both of the following have taken place:

      (1) The department has issued the financing order authorizing the competitive transition assessment included in the transition property.

      (2) An assignment of the transition property in writing has been executed and delivered to the transferee.

      (j) As between bona fide assignees of the same right for value without notice, the assignee first filing a financing statement in accordance with part 5 of article 9 of title 42a naming the assignor of the transition property as debtor and identifying the transition property has priority. In such case, the financing statement shall be filed as if the debtor were located in this state. Any description of the transition property shall be sufficient if it refers to the financing order creating the transition property. A copy of the financing statement shall be filed by the assignee or the financing entity with the department, and the department may require the assignor or the assignee or the financing entity to make other filings with respect to the transfer in accordance with procedures it may establish, but these filings shall not affect the perfection of the transfer.

      (k) Any successor to the electric company or electric distribution company, whether pursuant to any bankruptcy, reorganization, or other insolvency proceeding, or pursuant to any merger, sale, or transfer, by operation of law, or otherwise, shall perform and satisfy all obligations of the electric company or electric distribution company pursuant to sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, in the same manner and to the same extent as the electric company or electric distribution company, including, but not limited to, collecting and paying to the holders of rate reduction bonds or their representatives or the applicable financing entity revenues arising with respect to the transition property sold to the applicable financing entity or pledged to secure rate reduction bonds.

      (l) The authority of the department to issue financing orders pursuant to sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, shall expire on December 31, 2008, with respect to bonds other than economic recovery revenue bonds. The authority of the department to issue financing orders pursuant to sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, with respect to economic recovery revenue bonds shall expire on December 31, 2012. The expiration of the authority shall have no effect upon financing orders adopted by the department pursuant to sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, or any transition property arising therefrom, or upon the charges authorized to be levied thereunder, or the rights, interests, and obligations of the electric company or electric distribution company or a financing entity or holders of rate reduction bonds pursuant to the financing order, or the authority of the department to monitor, supervise, or take further action with respect to the financing order in accordance with the terms of sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, and of the financing order.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 14, 117; P.A. 01-132, S. 166, 167; P.A. 03-62, S. 19, 20; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 7; P.A. 04-180, S. 4; P.A. 10-179, S. 133.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 01-132 amended Subsecs. (b) and (j) to replace "part 4" with "part 5" of article 9 of title 42a and add provision that in each case the financing statement shall be filed as if the debtor were located in this state; P.A. 03-62 amended Subsec. (b) to rephrase and reposition provision requiring the financing statement to be filed as if the debtor were located in this state and amended Subsec. (j) to make a technical change; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 amended Subsecs. (b), (h) and (j) to add references to the financing entity and amended Subsec. (d) to add reference to the collection agent with respect to the transition property and make a technical change, effective September 10, 2003; P.A. 04-180 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that the department may require the financing entity to make other filings with respect to the security interest, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 10-179 amended Subsec. (1) to apply authority termination date of December 31, 2008, to bonds other than economic recovery revenue bonds and to add provision re termination of authority to issue financing orders with respect to economic recovery revenue bonds, effective May 7, 2010.

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      Sec. 16-245l. Systems benefits charge. Determination by department of amount and how applied to customers. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall establish and each electric distribution company shall collect a systems benefits charge to be imposed against all end use customers of each electric distribution company beginning January 1, 2000. The department shall hold a hearing that shall be conducted as a contested case in accordance with chapter 54 to establish the amount of the systems benefits charge. The department may revise the systems benefits charge or any element of said charge as the need arises. The systems benefits charge shall be used to fund (1) the expenses of the public education outreach program developed under subsections (a), (f) and (g) of section 16-244d other than expenses for department staff, (2) the reasonable and proper expenses of the education outreach consultant pursuant to subsection (d) of section 16-244d, (3) the cost of hardship protection measures under sections 16-262c and 16-262d and other hardship protections, including, but not limited to, electric service bill payment programs, funding and technical support for energy assistance, fuel bank and weatherization programs and weatherization services, (4) the payment program to offset tax losses described in section 12-94d, (5) any sums paid to a resource recovery authority pursuant to subsection (b) of section 16-243e, (6) low income conservation programs approved by the Department of Public Utility Control, (7) displaced worker protection costs, (8) unfunded storage and disposal costs for spent nuclear fuel generated before January 1, 2000, approved by the appropriate regulatory agencies, (9) postretirement safe shutdown and site protection costs that are incurred in preparation for decommissioning, (10) decommissioning fund contributions, (11) the costs of temporary electric generation facilities incurred pursuant to section 16-19ss, (12) operating expenses for the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board, (13) costs associated with the Connecticut electric efficiency partner program established pursuant to section 16-243v, (14) reinvestments and investments in energy efficiency programs and technologies pursuant to section 16a-38l, costs associated with the electricity conservation incentive program established pursuant to section 119 of public act 07-242*, and (15) legal, appraisal and purchase costs of a conservation or land use restriction and other related costs as the department in its discretion deems appropriate, incurred by a municipality on or before January 1, 2000, to ensure the environmental, recreational and scenic preservation of any reservoir located within this state created by a pump storage hydroelectric generating facility. As used in this subsection, "displaced worker protection costs" means the reasonable costs incurred, prior to January 1, 2008, (A) by an electric supplier, exempt wholesale generator, electric company, an operator of a nuclear power generating facility in this state or a generation entity or affiliate arising from the dislocation of any employee other than an officer, provided such dislocation is a result of (i) restructuring of the electric generation market and such dislocation occurs on or after July 1, 1998, or (ii) the closing of a Title IV source or an exempt wholesale generator, as defined in 15 USC 79z-5a, on or after January 1, 2004, as a result of such source's failure to meet requirements imposed as a result of sections 22a-197 and 22a-198 and this section or those Regulations of Connecticut State Agencies adopted by the Department of Environmental Protection, as amended from time to time, in accordance with Executive Order Number 19, issued on May 17, 2000, and provided further such costs result from either the execution of agreements reached through collective bargaining for union employees or from the company's or entity's or affiliate's programs and policies for nonunion employees, and (B) by an electric distribution company or an exempt wholesale generator arising from the retraining of a former employee of an unaffiliated exempt wholesale generator, which employee was involuntarily dislocated on or after January 1, 2004, from such wholesale generator, except for cause. "Displaced worker protection costs" includes costs incurred or projected for severance, retraining, early retirement, outplacement, coverage for surviving spouse insurance benefits and related expenses. "Displaced worker protection costs" does not include those costs included in determining a tax credit pursuant to section 12-217bb.

      (b) The amount of the systems benefits charge shall be determined by the department in a general and equitable manner and shall be imposed on all end use customers of each electric distribution company at a rate that is applied equally to all customers of the same class in accordance with methods of allocation in effect on July 1, 1998, provided the system benefits charge shall not be imposed on customers receiving services under a special contract which is in effect on July 1, 1998, until such special contracts expire. The system benefits charge shall be imposed beginning on January 1, 2000, on all customers receiving services under a special contract which are entered into or renewed after July 1, 1998. The systems benefits charge shall have a generally applicable manner of determination that may be measured on the basis of percentages of total costs of retail sales of generation services. The systems benefits charge shall be payable on an equal basis on the same payment terms and shall be eligible or subject to prepayment on an equal basis. Any exemption of the systems benefits charge by customers under a special contract shall not result in an increase in rates to any customer.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 18, 117; P.A. 99-17, S. 1, 2; P.A. 02-64, S. 3; P.A. 03-135, S. 8; 03-140, S. 14; P.A. 04-236, S. 17, 18; 04-247, S. 1; P.A. 05-288, S. 220; P.A. 07-242, S. 13.)

      *Note: Section 119 of public act 07-242 is special in nature and therefore has not been codified but remains in full force and effect according to its terms.


      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-17 amended Subsec. (a) by adding new Subdiv. (11) re costs of conservation or land use restriction, effective May 12, 1999 (Revisor's note: In Subdiv. (11) of Subsec. (a), "... department it its discretion ..." was changed editorially by the Revisors to "... department in its discretion ..." for accuracy); P.A. 02-64 amended Subsec. (a) by redefining "displaced worker protection costs" to change "costs incurred prior to January 1, 2006," to "costs incurred prior to January 1, 2008," to add electric suppliers and exempt wholesale generators, to include reasonable costs associated with the dislocation of an employee that is the result of the closing of a Title IV source or exempt wholesale generator due to the source's failure to meet sulfur dioxide emission requirements and to make technical changes, effective January 1, 2004; P.A. 03-135 amended Subsec. (a) to add reference to Subsecs. (f) and (g) of Sec. 16-244d in Subdiv. (1), to add new Subdiv. (11) re the costs of temporary electric generation facilities, to redesignate existing Subdiv. (11) as Subdiv. (12), and to add "an operator of a nuclear power generating facility in this state or" and "coverage for surviving spouse insurance benefits" to the definition of "displaced worker protection costs", effective January 1, 2004; P.A. 03-140 amended Subsec. (a) to add "operating expenses for the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board", effective July 1, 2003, until January 1, 2004; P.A. 04-236 amended Subsec. (a) to make a technical change, effective June 8, 2004; P.A. 04-247 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes and add certain costs of retraining certain former employees of an unaffiliated exempt wholesale generator in definition of "displaced worker protection costs", effective June 3, 2004; P.A. 05-288 made technical changes in Subsec. (a), effective July 13, 2005; P.A. 07-242 added new Subsec. (a)(13) re partner program and Subsec. (a)(14) re energy efficiency and electricity conservation and redesignated existing Subsec. (a)(13) as Subsec. (a)(15), effective June 4, 2007.

      See Sec. 16a-3 re the Connecticut Energy Advisory Board.

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      Sec. 16-245m. Assessment for conservation and load management programs. Disbursement of funds raised pursuant to financing orders. Establishment of Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund. Energy Conservation Management Board. (a)(1) On and after January 1, 2000, the Department of Public Utility Control shall assess or cause to be assessed a charge of three mills per kilowatt hour of electricity sold to each end use customer of an electric distribution company to be used to implement the program as provided in this section for conservation and load management programs but not for the amortization of costs incurred prior to July 1, 1997, for such conservation and load management programs.

      (2) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, receipts from such charge shall be disbursed to the resources of the General Fund during the period from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2005, unless the department shall, on or before October 30, 2003, issue a financing order for each affected electric distribution company in accordance with sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, to sustain funding of conservation and load management programs by substituting an equivalent amount, as determined by the department in such financing order, of proceeds of rate reduction bonds for disbursement to the resources of the General Fund during the period from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2005. The department may authorize in such financing order the issuance of rate reduction bonds that substitute for disbursement to the General Fund for receipts of both the charge under this subsection and under subsection (b) of section 16-245n and also may, in its discretion, authorize the issuance of rate reduction bonds under this subsection and subsection (b) of section 16-245n that relate to more than one electric distribution company. The department shall, in such financing order or other appropriate order, offset any increase in the competitive transition assessment necessary to pay principal, premium, if any, interest and expenses of the issuance of such rate reduction bonds by making an equivalent reduction to the charge imposed under this subsection, provided any failure to offset all or any portion of such increase in the competitive transition assessment shall not affect the need to implement the full amount of such increase as required by this subsection and by sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive. Such financing order shall also provide if the rate reduction bonds are not issued, any unrecovered funds expended and committed by the electric distribution companies for conservation and load management programs, provided such expenditures were approved by the department after August 20, 2003, and prior to the date of determination that the rate reduction bonds cannot be issued, shall be recovered by the companies from their respective competitive transition assessment or systems benefits charge but such expenditures shall not exceed four million dollars per month. All receipts from the remaining charge imposed under this subsection, after reduction of such charge to offset the increase in the competitive transition assessment as provided in this subsection, shall be disbursed to the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund commencing as of July 1, 2003. Any increase in the competitive transition assessment or decrease in the conservation and load management component of an electric distribution company's rates resulting from the issuance of or obligations under rate reduction bonds shall be included as rate adjustments on customer bills.

      (3) In the financing order authorizing the economic recovery revenue bonds, or other appropriate order, the department shall reduce the charge assessed by subdivision (1) of this subsection by thirty-five per cent. Such reduction shall become effective on April 4, 2012, or such earlier date set by the department in the financing order. An amount equivalent to such reduction shall constitute a portion of the competitive transition assessment in respect of the economic recovery revenue bonds, provided any failure to offset all or any portion of such competitive transition assessment shall not affect the requirement to implement the full amount of such competitive transition assessment, as required by sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive. All receipts from the remaining charge, after reduction of such charge as provided in this subsection, shall be disbursed to the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund. The competitive transition assessment in respect to the economic recovery revenue bonds or the decrease in the conservation and load management component of an electric distribution company's rates resulting from the issuance of or obligations under the economic recovery revenue bonds shall be included as rate adjustments on customer bills.

      (b) The electric distribution company shall establish an Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund which shall be held separate and apart from all other funds or accounts. Receipts from the charge imposed under subsection (a) of this section shall be deposited into the fund. Any balance remaining in the fund at the end of any fiscal year shall be carried forward in the fiscal year next succeeding. Disbursements from the fund by electric distribution companies to carry out the plan developed under subsection (d) of this section shall be authorized by the Department of Public Utility Control upon its approval of such plan.

      (c) The Department of Public Utility Control shall appoint and convene an Energy Conservation Management Board which shall include representatives of: (1) An environmental group knowledgeable in energy conservation program collaboratives; (2) the Office of Consumer Counsel; (3) the Attorney General; (4) the Department of Environmental Protection; (5) the electric distribution companies in whose territories the activities take place for such programs; (6) a state-wide manufacturing association; (7) a chamber of commerce; (8) a state-wide business association; (9) a state-wide retail organization; (10) a representative of a municipal electric energy cooperative created pursuant to chapter 101a; (11) two representatives selected by the gas companies in this state; and (12) residential customers. Such members shall serve for a period of five years and may be reappointed. Representatives of the gas companies shall not vote on matters unrelated to gas conservation. Representatives of the electric distribution companies and the municipal electric energy cooperative shall not vote on matters unrelated to electricity conservation.

      (d) (1) The Energy Conservation Management Board shall advise and assist the electric distribution companies in the development and implementation of a comprehensive plan, which plan shall be approved by the Department of Public Utility Control, to implement cost-effective energy conservation programs and market transformation initiatives. Each program contained in the plan shall be reviewed by the electric distribution company and either accepted or rejected by the Energy Conservation Management Board prior to submission to the department for approval. The Energy Conservation Management Board shall, as part of its review, examine opportunities to offer joint programs providing similar efficiency measures that save more than one fuel resource or otherwise to coordinate programs targeted at saving more than one fuel resource. Any costs for joint programs shall be allocated equitably among the conservation programs. The Energy Conservation Management Board shall give preference to projects that maximize the reduction of federally mandated congestion charges. The Department of Public Utility Control shall, in an uncontested proceeding during which the department may hold a public hearing, approve, modify or reject the comprehensive plan prepared pursuant to this subsection.

      (2) There shall be a joint committee of the Energy Conservation Management Board and the Renewable Energy Investments Board. The board and the advisory committee shall each appoint members to such joint committee. The joint committee shall examine opportunities to coordinate the programs and activities funded by the Renewable Energy Investment Fund pursuant to section 16-245n with the programs and activities contained in the plan developed under this subsection to reduce the long-term cost, environmental impacts and security risks of energy in the state. Such joint committee shall hold its first meeting on or before August 1, 2005.

      (3) Programs included in the plan developed under subdivision (1) of this subsection shall be screened through cost-effectiveness testing which compares the value and payback period of program benefits to program costs to ensure that programs are designed to obtain energy savings and system benefits, including mitigation of federally mandated congestion charges, whose value is greater than the costs of the programs. Cost-effectiveness testing shall utilize available information obtained from real-time monitoring systems to ensure accurate validation and verification of energy use. Such testing shall include an analysis of the effects of investments on increasing the state's load factor. Program cost-effectiveness shall be reviewed annually, or otherwise as is practicable. If a program is determined to fail the cost-effectiveness test as part of the review process, it shall either be modified to meet the test or shall be terminated. On or before March 1, 2005, and on or before March first annually thereafter, the board shall provide a report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and the environment (A) that documents expenditures and fund balances and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of such programs conducted in the preceding year, and (B) that documents the extent to and manner in which the programs of such board collaborated and cooperated with programs, established under section 7-233y, of municipal electric energy cooperatives. To maximize the reduction of federally mandated congestion charges, programs in the plan may allow for disproportionate allocations between the amount of contributions to the Energy Conservation and Load Management Funds by a certain rate class and the programs that benefit such a rate class. Before conducting such evaluation, the board shall consult with the Renewable Energy Investments Board. The report shall include a description of the activities undertaken during the reporting period jointly or in collaboration with the Renewable Energy Investment Fund established pursuant to subsection (c) of section 16-245n.

      (4) Programs included in the plan developed under subdivision (1) of this subsection may include, but not be limited to: (A) Conservation and load management programs, including programs that benefit low-income individuals; (B) research, development and commercialization of products or processes which are more energy-efficient than those generally available; (C) development of markets for such products and processes; (D) support for energy use assessment, real-time monitoring systems, engineering studies and services related to new construction or major building renovation; (E) the design, manufacture, commercialization and purchase of energy-efficient appliances and heating, air conditioning and lighting devices; (F) program planning and evaluation; (G) indoor air quality programs relating to energy conservation; (H) joint fuel conservation initiatives programs targeted at reducing consumption of more than one fuel resource; (I) public education regarding conservation; and (J) the demand-side technology programs recommended by the procurement plan approved by the Department of Public Utility Control pursuant to section 16a-3a. Such support may be by direct funding, manufacturers' rebates, sale price and loan subsidies, leases and promotional and educational activities. The plan shall also provide for expenditures by the Energy Conservation Management Board for the retention of expert consultants and reasonable administrative costs provided such consultants shall not be employed by, or have any contractual relationship with, an electric distribution company. Such costs shall not exceed five per cent of the total revenue collected from the assessment.

      (e) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) to (d), inclusive, of this section, the Department of Public Utility Control shall authorize the disbursement of a total of one million dollars in each month, commencing with July, 2003, and ending with July, 2005, from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Funds established pursuant to said subsections. The amount disbursed from each Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund shall be proportionately based on the receipts received by each fund. Such disbursements shall be deposited in the General Fund.

      (f) No later than December 31, 2006, and no later than December thirty-first every five years thereafter, the Energy Conservation Management Board shall, after consulting with the Renewable Energy Investments Board, conduct an evaluation of the performance of the programs and activities of the fund and submit a report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, of the evaluation to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy.

      (g) Repealed by P.A. 06-186, S. 91, effective July 1, 2006.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 33, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 9; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 49; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 9; P.A. 04-129, S. 1; 04-236, S. 12, 13; 04-247, S. 3; P.A. 05-251, S. 89; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 5; P.A. 06-186, S. 91; P.A. 07-152, S. 3; 07-242, S. 105; P.A. 10-179, S. 134.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 amended Subsec. (d) to divide existing provisions into Subdivs. (1) to (3) and make conforming changes, to add provision re review of each program and acceptance or rejection by the Energy Conservation Management Board in Subdiv. (1), to add provision re cost-effectiveness testing in Subdiv. (2), and to add "real-time monitoring systems" in Subdiv. (3), effective July 1, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for a plan to avoid disbursements from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Fund to the General Fund in the implementation of the budget for the biennium ending June 30, 2005, effective August 20, 2003; Sept. 8 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 9 re disbursements to the General Fund for the biennium ending June 30, 2005, was added editorially by the Revisors as Subsec. (e), effective September 10, 2003; P.A. 04-129 amended Subsec. (d)(3) to redesignate existing Subpara. (G) as Subpara. (H) and to add new Subpara. (G) re indoor air quality programs; P.A. 04-236 amended Subsecs. (a) and (d)(2) to make technical changes, effective June 8, 2004; P.A. 04-247 amended Subsec. (d)(2) to change reporting date from January 31, 2001, and annually thereafter until January 31, 2006, to March 1, 2005, and March 1, 2006, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 05-251, S. 89 added provisions, designated by the Revisors as Subsec. (g), re monthly disbursements to General Fund from August 1, 2006, to July 31, 2007, effective June 30, 2005; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a), (c) and (d), amended Subsec. (c) to add new Subdivs. (10) and (11) re a representative of a municipal electric energy cooperative and two representatives selected by gas companies and to add provisions re voting on unrelated matters, amended Subsec. (d)(1) to require plan to be consistent with the comprehensive energy plan, to require examination of opportunities for joint programs, and to require preference for projects that maximize reduction of federally mandated congestion charges, added new Subsec. (d)(2) establishing a joint committee of the Energy Conservation Management Board and the Renewable Energy Investments Advisory Committee, renumbering former Subsec. (d)(2) as new Subsec. (d)(3), amended Subsec. (d)(3) to add language re system benefits, to change the deadline for providing report, to require report to contain information on cooperation with municipal electric energy cooperatives, to allow disproportionate allocations from the funds, to require consultation with the Renewable Energy Investments Advisory Committee, and to require the report to describe collaboration with the Renewable Energy Investment Fund, renumbering former Subsec. (d)(3) as new Subsec. (d)(4), amended Subsec. (d)(4) to add language re programs to benefit low-income individuals and joint fuel conservation initiatives, and to revise language re expenditures for consultants and administrative costs, and added Subsec. (f) re evaluation of the performance of programs, effective July 21, 2005; P.A. 06-186 repealed P.A. 05-251, S. 89, previously designated by the Revisors as Subsec. (g), re monthly disbursements to General Fund from August 1, 2006, to July 31, 2007, effective July 1, 2006; P.A. 07-152 amended Subsec. (d)(1) to require Department of Public Utility Control to review comprehensive plan and amended Subsecs. (d) and (f) to change Renewable Energy Investments Advisory Committee to Renewable Energy Investments Board; P.A. 07-242 amended Subsec. (d)(1) to delete provision re comprehensive energy plan approved pursuant to Sec. 16a-7a, amended Subsec. (d)(3) to add "Such testing shall include an analysis of the effects of investments on increasing the state's load factor" and added Subsec. (d)(4)(J) re demand-side technology programs, effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 10-179 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdiv. (3) re financing order for economic recovery revenue bonds and use of funds raised thereby, effective May 7, 2010.

      See Sec. 3-114l re recording of payments from the Energy Conservation and Load Management Funds to the General Fund as revenue for the fiscal year.

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      Sec. 16-245n. Renewable Energy Investment Fund created; charge assessed against electric customers to fund Investment Fund; purpose. (a) For purposes of this section, "renewable energy" means solar photovoltaic energy, solar thermal, geothermal energy, wind, ocean thermal energy, wave or tidal energy, fuel cells, landfill gas, hydropower that meets the low-impact standards of the Low-Impact Hydropower Institute, hydrogen production and hydrogen conversion technologies, low emission advanced biomass conversion technologies, alternative fuels, used for electricity generation including ethanol, biodiesel or other fuel produced in Connecticut and derived from agricultural produce, food waste or waste vegetable oil, provided the Commissioner of Environmental Protection determines that such fuels provide net reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption, usable electricity from combined heat and power systems with waste heat recovery systems, thermal storage systems and other energy resources and emerging technologies which have significant potential for commercialization and which do not involve the combustion of coal, petroleum or petroleum products, municipal solid waste or nuclear fission.

      (b) On and after July 1, 2004, the Department of Public Utility Control shall assess or cause to be assessed a charge of not less than one mill per kilowatt hour charged to each end use customer of electric services in this state which shall be deposited into the Renewable Energy Investment Fund established under subsection (c) of this section. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, receipts from such charges shall be disbursed to the resources of the General Fund during the period from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2005, unless the department shall, on or before October 30, 2003, issue a financing order for each affected distribution company in accordance with sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive, to sustain funding of renewable energy investment programs by substituting an equivalent amount, as determined by the department in such financing order, of proceeds of rate reduction bonds for disbursement to the resources of the General Fund during the period from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2005. The department may authorize in such financing order the issuance of rate reduction bonds that substitute for disbursement to the General Fund for receipts of both charges under this subsection and subsection (a) of section 16-245m and also may in its discretion authorize the issuance of rate reduction bonds under this subsection and subsection (a) of section 16-245m that relate to more than one electric distribution company. The department shall, in such financing order or other appropriate order, offset any increase in the competitive transition assessment necessary to pay principal, premium, if any, interest and expenses of the issuance of such rate reduction bonds by making an equivalent reduction to the charges imposed under this subsection, provided any failure to offset all or any portion of such increase in the competitive transition assessment shall not affect the need to implement the full amount of such increase as required by this subsection and sections 16-245e to 16-245k, inclusive. Such financing order shall also provide if the rate reduction bonds are not issued, any unrecovered funds expended and committed by the electric distribution companies for renewable resource investment through deposits into the Renewable Energy Investment Fund, provided such expenditures were approved by the department following August 20, 2003, and prior to the date of determination that the rate reduction bonds cannot be issued, shall be recovered by the companies from their respective competitive transition assessment or systems benefits charge except that such expenditures shall not exceed one million dollars per month. All receipts from the remaining charges imposed under this subsection, after reduction of such charges to offset the increase in the competitive transition assessment as provided in this subsection, shall be disbursed to the Renewable Energy Investment Fund commencing as of July 1, 2003. Any increase in the competitive transition assessment or decrease in the renewable energy investment component of an electric distribution company's rates resulting from the issuance of or obligations under rate reduction bonds shall be included as rate adjustments on customer bills.

      (c) There is hereby created a Renewable Energy Investment Fund which shall be within Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated for administrative purposes only. The fund may receive any amount required by law to be deposited into the fund and may receive any federal funds as may become available to the state for renewable energy investments. Upon authorization of the Renewable Energy Investments Board established pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, may use any amount in said fund for expenditures that promote investment in renewable energy sources in accordance with a comprehensive plan developed by it to foster the growth, development and commercialization of renewable energy sources, related enterprises and stimulate demand for renewable energy and deployment of renewable energy sources that serve end use customers in this state and for the further purpose of supporting operational demonstration projects for advanced technologies that reduce energy use from traditional sources. Such expenditures may include, but not be limited to, reimbursement for services provided by the administrator of the fund including a management fee, disbursements from the fund to develop and carry out the plan developed pursuant to subsection (d) of this section, grants, direct or equity investments, contracts or other actions which support research, development, manufacture, commercialization, deployment and installation of renewable energy technologies, and actions which expand the expertise of individuals, businesses and lending institutions with regard to renewable energy technologies.

      (d) There is hereby created a Renewable Energy Investments Board to act on matters related to the Renewable Energy Investment Fund, including, but not limited to, development of a comprehensive plan and expenditure of funds. The Renewable Energy Investments Board shall, in such plan, give preference to projects that maximize the reduction of federally mandated congestion charges. The Renewable Energy Investments Board shall make a draft of the comprehensive plan available for public comment for not less than thirty days. The board shall conduct three public hearings in three different regions of the state on the draft comprehensive plan and shall include a summarization of all public comments received at said public hearings in the final comprehensive plan approved by the board. The board shall provide a copy of the comprehensive plan, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and commerce. The Department of Public Utility Control shall, in an uncontested proceeding, during which the department may hold a public hearing, approve, modify or reject the comprehensive plan prepared pursuant to this subsection.

      (e) The Renewable Energy Investments Board shall include not more than fifteen individuals with knowledge and experience in matters related to the purpose and activities of the Renewable Energy Investment Fund. The board shall consist of the following members: (1) One person with expertise regarding renewable energy resources appointed by the speaker of the House of Representatives; (2) one person representing a state or regional organization primarily concerned with environmental protection appointed by the president pro tempore of the Senate; (3) one person with experience in business or commercial investments appointed by the majority leader of the House of Representatives; (4) one person representing a state or regional organization primarily concerned with environmental protection appointed by the majority leader of the Senate; (5) one person with experience in business or commercial investments appointed by the minority leader of the House of Representatives; (6) the Commissioner of Emergency Management and Homeland Security or the commissioner's designee; (7) one person with expertise regarding renewable energy resources appointed by the Governor; (8) two persons with experience in business or commercial investments appointed by the board of directors of Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated; (9) a representative of a state-wide business association, manufacturing association or chamber of commerce appointed by the minority leader of the Senate; (10) the Consumer Counsel; (11) the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management or the secretary's designee; (12) the Commissioner of Environmental Protection or the commissioner's designee; (13) a representative of organized labor appointed by the Governor; and (14) a representative of residential customers or low-income customers appointed by Governor. On a biennial basis, the board shall elect a chairperson and vice-chairperson from among its members and shall adopt such bylaws and procedures it deems necessary to carry out its functions. The board may establish committees and subcommittees as necessary to conduct its business.

      (f) The board shall issue annually a report to the Department of Public Utility Control reviewing the activities of the Renewable Energy Investment Fund in detail and shall provide a copy of such report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and commerce and the Office of Consumer Counsel. The report shall include a description of the programs and activities undertaken during the reporting period jointly or in collaboration with the Energy Conservation and Load Management Funds established pursuant to section 16-245m.

      (g) There shall be a joint committee of the Energy Conservation Management Board and the Renewable Energy Investments Board, as provided in subdivision (2) of subsection (d) of section 16-245m.

      (h) No later than December 31, 2006, and no later than December thirty-first every five years thereafter, the board shall, after consulting with the Energy Conservation Management Board, conduct an evaluation of the performance of the programs and activities of the fund and submit a report, in accordance with the provisions of section 11-4a, of the evaluation to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and commerce.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 44, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 10, 11; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 50; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 6; P.A. 07-152, S. 1; 07-242, S. 15, 120.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 added "hydrogen production and hydrogen conversion technologies" in Subsec. (a) and added "the Department of Public Utility Control and the Office of Consumer Counsel" in Subsec. (d), effective July 1, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (b) to provide for a plan to avoid disbursements from the Renewable Energy Investment Fund to the General Fund in the implementation of the budget for the biennium ending June 30, 2005, effective August 20, 2003; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision re certain usable energy and thermal storage systems, amended Subsec. (b) to make technical changes and to change assessment on and after July 1, 2004, from one mill to not less than one mill, amended Subsec. (d) to require preference for projects that maximize reduction of federally mandated congestion charges, to require consistency with the comprehensive energy plan, to require report to describe collaboration with the Energy Conservation and Load Management Funds, and to make technical changes, and added Subsec. (e) establishing a joint committee of the Energy Conservation Management Board and the Renewable Energy Investments Advisory Committee and Subsec. (f) re evaluation of the programs, effective July 21, 2005; P.A. 07-152 amended Subsec. (c) to put fund within Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, for administrative purposes only and to make reimbursement for services provided by administrator a permissible expenditure, amended Subsec. (d) to change advisory committee to board, to move board appointees to new Subsec. (e) and to list requirements for the comprehensive plan, added Subsecs. (e) and (f) re appointments and reporting, redesignated existing Subsecs. (e) and (f) as Subsecs. (g) and (h) and made conforming changes therein; P.A. 07-242 added photovoltaic energy, solar thermal, geothermal energy, hydropower that meets low-impact standards of Low-Impact Hydropower Institute, and certain alternative fuels in Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (c) to add certain operational demonstration projects to list of permissible fund expenditures, and deleted provision re comprehensive energy plan approved pursuant to Sec. 16a-7a in Subsec. (d), effective June 4, 2007.

      See Sec. 4-38f for definition of "administrative purposes only".

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      Sec. 16-245o. Restrictions on use of customer information for marketing. Promotional inserts in electric bills prohibited. Procedures for entering and terminating service contracts. Penalties. (a) To protect a customer's right to privacy from unwanted solicitation, each electric company or electric distribution company, as the case may be, shall distribute to each customer a form approved by the Department of Public Utility Control which the customer shall submit to the customer's electric or electric distribution company in a timely manner if the customer does not want the customer's name, address, telephone number and rate class to be released to electric suppliers. On and after July 1, 1999, each electric or electric distribution company, as the case may be, shall make available to all electric suppliers customer names, addresses, telephone numbers, if known, and rate class, unless the electric company or electric distribution company has received a form from a customer requesting that such information not be released. Additional information about a customer for marketing purposes shall not be released to any electric supplier unless a customer consents to a release by one of the following: (1) An independent third-party telephone verification; (2) receipt of a written confirmation received in the mail from the customer after the customer has received an information package confirming any telephone agreement; (3) the customer signs a document fully explaining the nature and effect of the release; or (4) the customer's consent is obtained through electronic means, including, but not limited to, a computer transaction.

      (b) All electric suppliers shall have equal access to customer information required to be disclosed under subsection (a) of this section. No electric supplier shall have preferential access to historical distribution company customer usage data.

      (c) No electric or electric distribution company shall include in any bill or bill insert anything that directly or indirectly promotes a generation entity or affiliate of the electric distribution company. No electric supplier shall include a bill insert in an electric bill of an electric distribution company.

      (d) All marketing information provided pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be formatted electronically by the electric company or electric distribution company, as the case may be, in a form that is readily usable by standard commercial software packages. Updated lists shall be made available within a reasonable time, as determined by the department, following a request by an electric supplier. Each electric supplier seeking the information shall pay a fee to the electric company or electric distribution company, as the case may be, which reflects the incremental costs of formatting, sorting and distributing this information, together with related software changes. Customers shall be entitled to any available individual information about their loads or usage at no cost.

      (e) Each electric supplier shall, prior to the initiation of electric generation services, provide the potential customer with a written notice describing the rates, information on air emissions and resource mix of generation facilities operated by and under long-term contract to the supplier, terms and conditions of the service, and a notice describing the customer's right to cancel the service, as provided in this section. No electric supplier shall provide electric generation services unless the customer has signed a service contract or consents to such services by one of the following: (1) An independent third-party telephone verification; (2) receipt of a written confirmation received in the mail from the customer after the customer has received an information package confirming any telephone agreement; (3) the customer signs a document fully explaining the nature and effect of the initiation of the service; or (4) the customer's consent is obtained through electronic means, including, but not limited to, a computer transaction. A customer who has a maximum demand of five hundred kilowatts or less shall, until midnight of the third business day after the day on which the customer enters into a service agreement, have the right to cancel a contract for electric generation services entered into with an electric supplier.

      (f) An electric supplier shall not advertise or disclose the price of electricity in such a manner as to mislead a reasonable person into believing that the electric generation services portion of the bill will be the total bill amount for the delivery of electricity to the customer's location. When advertising or disclosing the price for electricity, the electric supplier shall also disclose the electric distribution company's average current charges, including the competitive transition assessment and the systems benefits charge, for that customer class.

      (g) Each electric supplier shall comply with the provisions of the telemarketing regulations adopted pursuant to 15 USC 6102.

      (h) Any violation of this section shall be deemed an unfair or deceptive trade practice under subsection (a) of section 42-110b.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 26, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 12, 13.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes, including technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, and to replace provisions re signed release made available to department with Subdivs. (1) to (4), inclusive, re means of consenting to a release and amended Subsec. (e) to replace provision re consent to services pursuant to Sec. 16-245s with Subdivs. (1) to (4), inclusive, re means of consenting to services and to add "who has a maximum demand of five hundred kilowatts or less", effective July 1, 2003.

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      Sec. 16-245p. Information re electric supplier and electric distribution company to be provided to customers. (a) An electric supplier and an electric distribution company providing standard service or back-up electric generation service, pursuant to section 16-244c, shall submit information to the Department of Public Utility Control that the department, after consultation with the Consumer Education Advisory Council, established under section 16-244d, determines will assist customers in making informed decisions when choosing an electric supplier, including, but not limited to, the information provided in subsection (b) of this section. Each supplier or electric distribution company providing standard service or back-up electric generation service, pursuant to section 16-244c, shall, at such times as the department requires, but not less than annually, submit in a form prescribed by the department, information that the department must make available pursuant to subsection (b) of this section and any other information the department considers relevant. After the department has received the information required pursuant to this subsection, the supplier shall be eligible to receive customer marketing information from electric or electric distribution companies, as provided in section 16-245o.

      (b) The Department of Public Utility Control shall maintain and make available to customers upon request, a list of electric aggregators and the following information about each electric supplier and each electric distribution company providing standard service or back-up electric generation service, pursuant to section 16-244c: (1) Rates and charges; (2) applicable terms and conditions of a contract for electric generation services; (3) the percentage of the total electric output derived from each of the categories of energy sources provided in subsection (e) of section 16-244d, the total emission rates of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates, heavy metals and other wastes the disposal of which is regulated under state or federal law at the facilities operated by or under long-term contract to the electric supplier or providing electric generation services to an electric distribution company providing standard service or back-up electric generation service, pursuant to section 16-244c, and the analysis of the environmental characteristics of each such category of energy source prepared pursuant to subsection (e) of said section 16-244d and to the extent such information is unknown, the estimated percentage of the total electric output for which such information is unknown, along with the word "unknown" for that percentage; (4) a record of customer complaints and the disposition of each complaint; and (5) any other information the department determines will assist customers in making informed decisions when choosing an electric supplier. The department shall make available to customers the information filed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section not later than thirty days after its receipt. The department shall put such information in a standard format so that a customer can readily understand and compare the services provided by each electric supplier.

      (c) Each electric supplier and electric distribution company shall disclose to customers, in a manner prescribed by the department and not less than annually, such information as the department considers relevant. The department may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this subsection.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 27, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 14; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 28.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 added language re applicability of section to electric distribution companies providing standard service or back-up electric generation services and made conforming and technical changes throughout and, in Subsec. (b), added "total emission", effective July 1, 2003; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 amended Subsec. (a) to change submission deadline from quarterly to "at such times as the department requires, but not less than annually" and rephrase language re required information, amended Subsec. (b) to replace language re quarterly updates with language re making information available not later than 30 days after receipt, and added Subsec. (c) re disclosure of relevant information and adoption of regulations.

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      Sec. 16-245q. Changing electric suppliers. A customer may change his electric supplier, as defined in section 16-1, at any time. The electric distribution company, as defined in said section 16-1, and electric supplier may each charge a reasonable fee, as approved by the Department of Public Utility Control, to make a change in the customer's supplier to reflect the actual cost to read the customer's meter and make changes in its billing records, except that every customer may seek a change in his electric supplier without charge once in any twelve-month period if the change occurs at the end of the customer's regularly scheduled meter reading and billing cycle.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 28, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998.

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      Sec. 16-245r. Discrimination by electric suppliers prohibited. No electric supplier, as defined in section 16-1, shall refuse to provide electric generation services to, or refuse to negotiate to provide such services to any customer because of age, race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, sexual orientation, lawful source of income, disability or familial status. No electric supplier shall decline to provide electric generation services to a customer for the sole reason that the customer is located in an economically distressed geographic area or the customer qualifies for hardship status under section 16-262c. No electric supplier shall terminate or refuse to reinstate electric generation services except in accordance with the provisions of this title.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 29, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998.

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      Sec. 16-245s. Switching electric suppliers; procedures; penalties; regulations. (a) No electric distribution company shall submit or execute a change in a customer's selection of an electric supplier unless the change has been confirmed by one of the following: (1) An independent third-party telephone verification; (2) receipt of a written confirmation received in the mail from the customer after the customer has received an information package confirming any telephone agreement; (3) the customer signs a document fully explaining the nature and effect of the change in service; or (4) the customer's consent is obtained through electronic means, including, but not limited to, a computer transaction.

      (b) Third-party telephone verification shall be in accordance with the following procedures: (1) The electric supplier seeking to verify the change shall do so by connecting the customer by telephone to the third-party verification company or by arranging for the third-party verification company to call the resident to confirm the sale; and (2) the third-party verification company shall obtain the customer's oral confirmation regarding the change, and shall record that confirmation by obtaining appropriate verification data. The record shall be available to the customer upon request. Information obtained from the customer through confirmation shall not be used for marketing purposes. The verification procedure in this subsection shall not apply when a residential customer directly calls an electric distribution company to make changes in electric supplier service, provided an electric supplier shall not avoid the verification procedure by asking a residential customer to contact an electric distribution company directly to make changes in electric supplier service. For purposes of this section, "third-party verification company" means a company that: (A) Is independent from the electric supplier that seeks to provide the new service; (B) is not directly or indirectly managed, controlled or directed or owned wholly or in part by (i) an electric supplier that seeks to provide the new service, or (ii) any corporation, firm or person who directly or indirectly manages, controls or directs or owns more than five per cent of such supplier; (C) operates from facilities physically separate from those of the electric supplier that seeks to provide the new service; and (D) does not derive commissions or compensation based upon the number of sales confirmed.

      (c) Any violation of this section shall be deemed an unfair or deceptive trade practice under subsection (a) of section 42-110b.

      (d) The Department of Public Utility Control shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to address abusive switching practices by suppliers.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 30, 117; P.A. 03-135, S. 15.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 03-135 added new Subsec. (d) re adoption of regulations to address abusive switching practices, effective July 1, 2003.

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      Sec. 16-245t. Complaints to department re electric suppliers; procedures; remedies. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall be responsible for receiving and acting upon customer inquiries and complaints regarding electric suppliers, as defined in section 16-1. The department shall establish a toll-free telephone number for such purposes. Customers of any electric supplier having complaints regarding disputed bills, terminations of service or adequacy of service may bring their complaints to the department pursuant to any provision in section 16-20, sections 16-262c to 16-262j, inclusive, or the regulations adopted to implement those sections.

      (b) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed so as to restrict the right of any person to pursue any other remedy available to the person under law.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 31, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998.

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      Sec. 16-245u. Unfair and discriminatory conduct and unfair trade practices in electric market prohibited. Investigations. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall monitor the market for electric generation services and electric distribution services to end use customers and take actions to prevent unfair or deceptive trade practices, anticompetitive or discriminatory conduct, and the unlawful exercise of market power.

      (b) (1) Upon complaint or upon its own motion, for cause shown, the department shall conduct an investigation of any possible anticompetitive or discriminatory conduct affecting the retail sale of electricity or any unfair or deceptive trade practices. Such investigations may include, but are not limited to, the effect of mergers, consolidations, acquisition and disposition of assets or securities of electric suppliers, as defined in section 16-1, or transmission congestion on the proper functioning of a fully competitive market.

      (2) The department may require an electric supplier to provide information, including documents and testimony, in accordance with the procedures contained in subsection (a) of section 16-8 and section 16-8c.

      (3) Confidential, proprietary or trade secret information provided under this section may be submitted under a duly granted protective order. Any hearings that may be held during the course of the investigation may also be conducted in camera to prevent the inadvertent revelation of such confidential information.

      (4) The Office of the Attorney General and the Office of Consumer Counsel shall have the right to participate in such investigations under appropriate nondisclosure agreements.

      (5) At the conclusion of the investigation, and notwithstanding any previously granted protective orders, if the department finds that facts exist that indicate any violation of state or federal law, it shall transmit such written findings along with supporting information gathered in its investigation to appropriate enforcement officials. Such referrals may recommend that further investigation be made or that immediate enforcement procedures be initiated. Such referrals may be made to the Office of the Attorney General, the Department of Consumer Protection, the United States Department of Justice, the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, or any other appropriate enforcement agency. The department may intervene as permitted by law in any proceeding initiated under this subsection. The results of such investigations may also serve as a basis for department sanctions, after notice and hearing, under subsection (l) of section 16-245.

      (c) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed so as to restrict the right of any person to pursue any other remedy available to the person under law.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 32, 117; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(d); P.A. 04-169, S. 17; 04-189, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 and P.A. 04-169 replaced Department of Consumer Protection with Department of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 16-245v. List of displaced electric utility employees to be provided to distribution companies and electric suppliers. (a) Each electric company, as defined in section 16-1, electric distribution company, as defined in said section 16-1, and generation entity or affiliate shall maintain and update regularly a roster of employees terminated as a direct result of restructuring of the electric industry. Such roster shall include each such employee's name, address, job title and job description at the time of termination. At the time of termination, the employer shall ask the employee if the employee wants to be included in the roster. After obtaining the permission of each such employee, the company shall provide the Department of Public Utility Control with a copy of the roster. In no event shall the information concerning any employee be added to the roster without the permission of the employee.

      (b) The Department of Public Utility Control shall forward the roster to each electric company, electric distribution company, generation entity or affiliate and electric supplier, as defined in section 16-1. Such roster may be used by each such company or supplier in mitigating costs.

      (c) The Department of Public Utility Control shall forward to each employee whose name appears on a roster submitted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section a list containing the name and business address of each electric supplier.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 46, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective April 29, 1998 until January 1, 2005.

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      Sec. 16-245w. Fee to be paid by self-generation facilities in lieu of certain assessments; study by department. (a) As used in this section, "self-generation facility" means a facility that generates electricity, is owned or operated by an entity other than an electric distribution company, as defined in section 16-1, or electric supplier, as defined in said section 16-1, and operates in parallel with other generation on the distribution system of an electric distribution company and which reduces or eliminates the purchase of electricity through the distribution network.

      (b) The Department of Public Utility Control shall design a process for determining a fee to be paid by customers who have installed self-generation facilities in order to offset any loss or potential loss in revenue from such facilities toward the competitive transition assessment, the systems benefits charge the conservation and load management assessment collected under section 16-245m and the Renewable Energy Investment Fund assessment collected under section 16-245n. Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, such fee shall apply to customers who have installed self-generation facilities that begin operation on or after July 1, 1998.

      (c) An exit fee shall not apply to a customer who has installed a self-generation facility that (1) exclusively services the load of one to four residential units, or (2) is installed in conjunction with the expansion of an industrial plant that began operation before July 1, 1998, if the self-generation facility predominantly services such industrial plant and the expansion of said industrial plant results in economic development, as determined by the department. The exemption under subdivision (2) of this subsection shall only apply to the amount of any new load provided by the self-generation facility to service the expansion.

      (d) The department shall develop criteria for excluding units based on size or specialized use, balancing concerns of the potential impact on small businesses, equity among customer classes, and the need to offset losses to the competitive transition assessment and the systems benefits charge. The department shall establish procedures for distinguishing between existing load and new load for purposes of self-generation facilities described in subdivision (2) of subsection (c) of this section. The department shall determine how to identify self-generation facilities, such as through a registration process, and how to enforce the collection of such fees. The department shall establish criteria to determine how such fee shall be valued and the process for its collection, which shall include the ability of self-generation facilities to pay the fee over a period of time.

      (e) Not later than January 1, 1999, the department shall submit its findings and recommendations to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 69, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998.

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      Sec. 16-245x. Monitoring and reporting by department of electric rates of each customer class. Action to minimize rate differential. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall, in consultation with the Office of Consumer Counsel, monitor on an on-going basis the state of competition, as it exists and as it is likely to evolve, and the average total rates of each customer class. Not later than January 1, 2002 and annually thereafter, the department shall report its findings to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy.

      (b) (1) As used in this subdivision, "total average residential rate" means the total residential revenues divided by total residential kilowatt hour sales, and "total average industrial rate" means the total industrial revenues divided by total industrial kilowatt hour sales. At least annually, the department shall compute the rate differential for electric service between residential and industrial customers by comparing the total average residential rate and the total average industrial rate, based on filings made by electric suppliers and electric distribution companies with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission or the department. The rate differential shall be the difference between the total average residential rate and the total average industrial rates, divided by the total average residential rate.

      (2) If the department determines that the rate differential for electric service between residential and industrial customers has increased by three percentage points or more from the rate differential that existed on January 1, 1998, the department shall institute an investigatory proceeding in which the Office of the Consumer Counsel shall participate. Not more than ninety days after the official commencement of the proceeding, the department shall issue written findings that identify the factors or circumstances that contributed to such increase in the rate differential. If the department finds that such increase is a result of a violation of this title or of other state or federal laws, the department shall take appropriate enforcement action or refer such violation to the appropriate state or federal authority. If the department finds that such increase is due to factors or circumstances other than a violation of state or federal law, the department shall take action in accordance with methods of allocation in effect on January 1, 1997, to minimize to the greatest extent possible such differential to less than three percentage points, within the authority granted to the department pursuant to section 16-7, subsection (a) or (b) of section 16-8, section 16-8c, 16-9, 16-10, 16-10a, 16-15, 16-19, 16-19a, subsection (g) of section 16-19b, section 16-19e, 16-19f, 16-19gg, 16-19hh, 16-19kk, 16-20, 16-21, 16-24, 16-28, 16-32, 16-41, 16-244c 16-245, 16-245g or 16-245l, provided any action taken by the department shall be in compliance with the principles set forth in section 16-244, and provided further the department shall not allow inter or intra-class rate subsidization.

      (3) Not later than January first, as applicable, the department shall report its findings described in subdivisions (1) and (2) of this subsection, including a description of the factors or circumstances that contributed to such increase in the rate differential and a description of actions taken by the department, along with any legislative recommendations to minimize such differential to less than three percentage points without creating intra or inter class rate subsidization, to members of the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy.

      (c) Each electric distribution company shall submit, on a form prescribed by the department, quarterly reports containing (1) the average price for electric service for each customer class, and (2) separately within the residential class, the price for electric service under the standard offer, as provided in subsection (a) of section 16-244c and the price for default service, as provided in subsection (b) of said section 16-244c.

      (d) The department shall require electric distribution companies and electric suppliers to supply to the department whatever pricing information the department needs to complete its reporting and monitoring requirements under this section. The department may grant confidential status to certain data if a valid claim is made that the information is competitively sensitive, provided composite numbers shall be public information. Any electric distribution company or electric supplier that fails to provide information requested by the department more than thirty days after the department makes such request shall be subject to enforcement measures under this title. The department may adopt regulations pursuant to chapter 54 to implement the provisions of this subsection.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 75, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998.

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      Sec. 16-245y. Annual reporting re status of electric deregulation. (a) Not later than October 1, 1999, and annually thereafter, each electric company and electric distribution company, as defined in section 16-1, shall report to the Department of Public Utility Control its system average interruption duration index (SAIDI) and its system average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) for the preceding twelve months. For purposes of this section: (1) Interruptions shall not include outages attributable to major storms, scheduled outages and outages caused by customer equipment, each as determined by the department; (2) SAIDI shall be calculated as the sum of customer interruptions in the preceding twelve-month period, in minutes, divided by the average number of customers served during that period; and (3) SAIFI shall be calculated as the total number of customers interrupted in the preceding twelve-month period, divided by the average number of customers served during that period. Not later than January 1, 2000, and annually thereafter, the department shall report on the SAIDI and SAIFI data for each electric company and electric distribution, and all state-wide SAIDI and SAIFI data to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy.

      (b) Not later than October 1, 1999, and annually thereafter, each electric supplier, as defined in section 16-1, shall report to the Department of Public Utility Control and the Department of Environmental Protection the following information regarding the preceding twelve-month period or any part thereof that the supplier has been licensed pursuant to section 16-245: (1) Total megawatt hours of electricity produced from generating facilities owned by the supplier or under long-term contract to the supplier that are sold to end use customers in the state; (2) total megawatt hours of electricity purchased by the supplier from other sources and sold to end use customers in the state; (3) the proportion of such production from facilities listed under subdivision (1) of this subsection that use nuclear fuels, oil, coal, natural gas, hydropower and other fuels as the principal generation fuel; and (4) the amount of emissions from facilities listed under subdivision (1) of this subsection of the pollutants identified by the Department of Environmental Protection, which shall include, but not be limited to: (A) Volatile organic compounds; (B) nitrogen oxides; (C) sulfur oxides; (D) carbon dioxide; (E) carbon monoxide; (F) particulates; and (G) heavy metals. Not later than January 1, 2000, and annually thereafter, the Department of Environmental Protection, in consultation with the Department of Public Utility Control, shall report state-wide data for these variables to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to the environment and energy.

      (c) Not later than January 1, 1999, and annually thereafter until January 1, 2005, the Department of Public Utility Control shall report to the joint standing committees of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and labor the number of dislocated workers contained on the roster established pursuant to section 16-245v and the number of such workers hired by electric suppliers in the preceding twelve months.

      (d) Not later than January 1, 1999, and annually thereafter, the Department of Public Utility Control shall report to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy the number of applicants for licensure pursuant to section 16-245 during the preceding twelve months, the number of applicants licensed by the department and the average period of time taken to process a license application.

      (P.A. 98-28, S. 77, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 effective July 1, 1998.

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      Sec. 16-245z. Internet links to Energy Star program. Not later than October 1, 2005, the Department of Public Utility Control and the Energy Conservation Management Board, established in section 16-245m, shall establish links on their Internet web sites to the Energy Star program or successor program that promotes energy efficiency and each electric distribution company shall establish a link under its conservation programs on its Internet web site to the Energy Star program or such successor program.

      (June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 20.)

      History: June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 effective July 21, 2005.

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      Sec. 16-245aa. Municipal renewable energy and efficient energy generation grant program. (a) There is established an account to be known as the "municipal renewable energy and efficient energy grant account", which shall be a separate, nonlapsing account within the Renewable Energy Investment Fund, established pursuant to section 16-245n. The account shall contain any moneys required or permitted by law to be deposited in the account and any funds received from any public or private contributions, gifts, grants, donations, bequests or devises to the fund. Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, may make grants-in-aid from the fund in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section.

      (b) Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, in consultation with the Department of Public Utility Control, the Department of Education and the Department of Emergency Management and Homeland Security, shall establish a municipal renewable energy and efficient energy generation grant program. Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, shall make grants under said program to municipalities for the purchase of (1) renewable energy sources, including solar energy, geothermal energy and fuel cells or other energy-efficient hydrogen-fueled energy, or (2) energy-efficient generation sources, including units providing combined heat-and-power operations with greater than sixty-five per cent efficiency or such higher efficiency level as Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, may prescribe, for municipal buildings. Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, shall give priority to applications for grants for disaster relief centers and high schools. Each grant shall be in an amount that makes the cost of purchasing and operating the renewable energy or energy-efficient generation source competitive with the municipality's current electricity expenses.

      (c) On or before October 1, 2007, Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, shall develop an application for grants-in-aid under this section for the purpose of purchasing and operating renewable energy or energy-efficient generation sources and may receive applications from municipalities for such grants-in-aid on and after said date. Applications shall include, but not be limited to, a complete description of the proposed renewable energy or energy-efficient generation source.

      (d) Commencing with the fiscal year ending June 30, 2008, and for each of the five consecutive fiscal years thereafter, until the fiscal year ending June 30, 2012, not less than ten million dollars shall be available from the municipal renewable energy and efficient energy generation grant account for grants-in-aid to municipalities for the purpose of purchasing and operating renewable energy or energy-efficient generation sources. Any balance of such amount not used for such grants-in-aid during a fiscal year shall be carried forward for the fiscal year next succeeding for such grants-in-aid.

      (e) On or before January 1, 2009, and annually thereafter, Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, shall report on the effectiveness of said program to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy.

      (P.A. 07-242, S. 91.)

      History: P.A. 07-242 effective June 4, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-245bb. Bond authorization. (a) For the purposes described in subsection (b) of this section, the State Bond Commission shall have the power, from time to time, to authorize the issuance of bonds of the state in one or more series and in principal amounts not exceeding in the aggregate eighteen million dollars.

      (b) The proceeds of the sale of said bonds, to the extent of the amount stated in subsection (a) of this section, shall be used by Connecticut Innovations, Incorporated, for the purpose of providing grants-in-aid pursuant to section 16-245aa.

      (c) All provisions of section 3-20, or the exercise of any right or power granted thereby, which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this section are hereby adopted and shall apply to all bonds authorized by the State Bond Commission pursuant to this section, and temporary notes in anticipation of the money to be derived from the sale of any such bonds so authorized may be issued in accordance with said section 3-20 and from time to time renewed. Such bonds shall mature at such time or times not exceeding twenty years from their respective dates as may be provided in or pursuant to the resolution or resolutions of the State Bond Commission authorizing such bonds. None of said bonds shall be authorized except upon a finding by the State Bond Commission that there has been filed with it a request for such authorization which is signed by or on behalf of the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management and states such terms and conditions as said commission, in its discretion, may require. Said bonds issued pursuant to this section shall be general obligations of the state and the full faith and credit of the state of Connecticut are pledged for the payment of the principal of and interest on said bonds as the same become due, and accordingly and as part of the contract of the state with the holders of said bonds, appropriation of all amounts necessary for punctual payment of such principal and interest is hereby made, and the State Treasurer shall pay such principal and interest as the same become due.

      (P.A. 07-242, S. 90; P.A. 10-44, S. 30.)

      History: P.A. 07-242 effective July 1, 2007; P.A. 10-44 amended Subsec. (a) to decrease aggregate authorization from $50,000,000 to $18,000,000, effective July 1, 2010.

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      Sec. 16-245cc. Demand charge waiver for fuel cells. An electric supplier or an electric distribution company shall waive a demand charge for an operator of a fuel cell during (1) a loss of power due to problems at any distribution resource, or (2) a scheduled or unscheduled shutdown of the fuel cell if said shutdown occurs during off-peak hours. The charge waived shall not exceed the amount resulting from the problem or shutdown.

      (P.A. 07-242, S. 118.)

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      Sec. 16-245dd. Residential electric space heating tariff. Any electric distribution company that has a tariff for residential electric space heating customers shall maintain such tariff for a period of not less than five years after July 1, 2007. Such tariff shall be available for requests for electric service at a service location that was previously assigned to said tariff. Such tariff shall be available only to residential electric customers who use electric energy as the primary space heating source and who enter into an agreement with the electric distribution company for a period of not less than twelve months.

      (P.A. 07-242, S. 123.)

      History: P.A. 07-242 effective July 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-246. Other companies which may sell electricity. Any corporation authorized to construct and maintain dams or sites on any stream and to own and operate mills and manufacturing plants and to utilize the power generated by it in the operation of such plants in any town in this state and to generate, sell and distribute in any way electricity may, within the territory where it is so authorized to act and subject to the authority, supervision and order of the Department of Public Utility Control and the restrictions contained in section 16-245, transmit, convey and deliver electricity to any person, company or corporation desiring to use the same for any purpose incident to or connected with manufacturing purposes. The department shall have jurisdiction upon the application of any corporation or person so desiring to supply or be supplied with electricity, after such notice as it deems reasonable, to hear and determine all questions relating to expediency or necessity arising by reason of such application and to make an order respecting the furnishing of electricity and the rates and terms upon which the same shall be furnished if so ordered. Nothing herein shall be construed to authorize any such company to distribute and sell electricity in any town in which any other company or municipality has already been given the right to distribute and sell electricity.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5658; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 107, 348.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation.

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      Sec. 16-246a. Definitions. When used in sections 16-246a to 16-246d, inclusive, the following terms shall have the meanings herein specified, unless the context otherwise indicates:

      (1) "Foreign electric company" means a corporation, company, association, joint stock association or trust organized under the laws of a state other than this state, as well as, a town, city, borough, or any municipal corporation, department or agency thereof, whether separately incorporated or not, of a state other than this state, authorized under the laws of the state in which organized to generate or transmit electric energy;

      (2) "Domestic electric company" means an electric company organized under the laws of this state;

      (3) "Utility facility" means an item of plant used or useful in the electric utility business, and shall include, but is not limited to, such items of plant as generating stations, transmission lines, office buildings and equipment and transportation equipment, and

      (4) Except as otherwise provided in sections 16-246a to 16-246d, inclusive, terms which are defined in section 16-1 shall have the respective meanings specified therein.

      (February, 1965, P.A. 124, S. 1; P.A. 73-442, S. 8, 9.)

      History: P.A. 73-442 redefined "foreign electric company" to include town, city, borough or municipal corporation, department or agency authorized to generate or transmit electricity and added exception in Subsec. (4).

      Texas-based utility fits definition of "foreign electric company". 243 C. 635.

      Subdiv. (3):

      "Utility facility"; cited. 161 C. 430.


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      Secs. 16-246b to 16-246d. Area within which domestic company may generate and transmit electric energy. Area within which foreign electric company may generate and transmit electric energy. Joint ownership of facility; waiver of right to petition. Sections 16-246b to 16-246d, inclusive, are repealed, effective October 1, 2005.

      (February, 1965, P.A. 124, S. 2-6; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-97; 80-482, S. 108, 348; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 40.)

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      Sec. 16-246e. Procurement and sale by department of electric power capacity and power output from out-of-state producers. Approval by Governor. (a) The Governor may designate the Department of Public Utility Control as the agent of the state, subject only to the limitation under subsection (b) of this section, to conduct negotiations and perform all acts necessary to procure electric power capacity, power output from such capacity or both from any out-of-state electric power producer, to transmit it to within the state and to sell or resell it on a nonprofit basis for distribution within the state to electric companies, as defined in section 16-1, municipal electric utilities established under chapter 101, municipal electric energy cooperatives organized under chapter 101a, membership electric cooperatives organized under chapter 597 and such other persons or entities as may be designated by the governor. The department, if designated as such agent, shall arrange for the sale or resale of such power on an equitable basis and in such manner as it finds will most effectively promote the objectives of this title, chapters 101, 101a and 597, and section 16a-35k, subject to any conditions or limitations imposed by the out-of-state electric power producer selling such power. The department, if so designated, may also enter into any contracts or other arrangements for the sale or resale of such power for transmission outside the state if such sale or resale is reasonably incidental to and furthers the needs of the state and the purposes of this section.

      (b) The department shall submit any final action it takes under subsection (a) of this section to the Governor, who may, not later than sixty days after such submission, disapprove such action by notifying the department in writing of such disapproval and the reasons for it.

      (P.A. 82-265, S. 1, 2.)

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      Sec. 16-246f. Electric company emergency assistance. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Assistance" means any aid or support provided, or any actions taken by a domestic electric company for or on behalf of another domestic electric company or by a foreign electric company for or on behalf of a domestic electric company including, without limitation, the temporary transfer or use of repair personnel and equipment;

      (2) "Domestic electric company" means any electric company or electric distribution company, as defined in section 16-1, any membership electric cooperative organized under chapter 597 and any municipal electric utility or municipal electric energy cooperative, as defined respectively in section 7-233b, which has been chartered by or organized or constituted within or under the laws of this state;

      (3) "Foreign electric company" shall have the same meaning as provided in section 16-246a.

      (b) Notwithstanding any contrary provision of any general statute or special act, or any limitation imposed by its charter, a domestic electric company shall have the power to request assistance from and provide assistance to other domestic electric companies and to foreign electric companies and to enter into agreements regarding the reimbursement of expenses and other matters and to perform such other acts as may be necessary or desirable to request and provide such assistance. A domestic electric company shall not be exempt from nor forfeit the benefits of the provisions of any applicable laws solely by requesting or providing such assistance, except as provided in this section.

      (c) Notwithstanding any contrary provision of any general statute or special act, a foreign electric company shall have the right to request assistance from and provide assistance to domestic electric companies and to enter into agreements regarding the reimbursement of expenses and other matters and to perform such other acts as may be necessary or desirable to request and provide such assistance. A foreign electric company shall not constitute an "electric company" or a "public service company" for the purposes of this title solely by requesting or providing assistance in this state.

      (P.A. 87-213; P.A. 98-28, S. 53, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 redefined "domestic electric company" in Subsec. (a)(2) by adding electric distribution companies, effective July 1, 1998.

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      Sec. 16-246g. Pilot program for electric generation. (a) Pursuant to section 22a-174l, the Department of Public Utility Control shall implement a pilot program that will (1) allow the electric generation resources to run more often on an economic and reliability dispatch basis, (2) identify strategies that couple multiple energy conservation and load shifting technologies into an aggregate resource plan that results in aggregate reductions in environmental emissions, and (3) simultaneously maintain the appropriate levels of generating capacity and reserve resources necessary to comply with established electric system reliability standards. Said pilot program shall be limited to resources that can be available to operate on or before December 1, 2007. The Department of Public Utility Control shall determine (A) a minimum ratio by which the benefits derived from the implementation of each application exceed the costs of its implementation, and (B) the maximum level of aggregate investments that will be cost-effective.

      (b) Any person owning or controlling emergency generation resources may apply to the Department of Public Utility Control for approval of a proposal to install equipment on emergency generation resources pursuant to section 22a-174l and the objectives of the pilot program as provided in this section. The department shall accept and act upon applications in the order in which they are received.

      (c) The Department of Public Utility Control shall approve only those applications that meet or exceed the provisions of section 22a-174l and the pilot program established pursuant to this section, provided the department shall not approve applications that will (1) exceed the level of aggregate cost-effective investment pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, or (2) exceed the funding provided pursuant to the provisions of subsection (e) of this section.

      (d) The Department of Public Utility Control shall establish a financing mechanism to help persons applying under the provisions of subsection (b) of this section to defray the costs of installation of the equipment required pursuant to the provisions of section 22a-174l. Any such financing mechanism shall include such terms and conditions that the department determines to be reasonable and necessary to protect the public interest. Such mechanisms may include, but shall not be limited to, collateral requirements and assignment of payments made under any program administered by the regional independent system operator for emergency generation resources that qualify for such payments as the result of the equipment installed pursuant to an application made and approved under the provisions of this section.

      (e) The Department of Public Utility Control shall defray the costs of implementing this section from the revenues derived from charges for federally mandated congestion charges, provided the total costs shall not exceed the sum of ten million dollars in the aggregate. The department may retain such consultants as it deems necessary or convenient for the purposes of implementing the provisions of this section.

      (P.A. 07-242, S. 103.)

      History: P.A. 07-242 effective June 4, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-247. Foreign telephone companies. Section 16-247 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5659; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 109, 348; P.A. 85-187, S. 13, 15.)

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      Sec. 16-247a. Goals of the state. Definitions. (a) Due to the following: Affordable, high quality telecommunications services that meet the needs of individuals and businesses in the state are necessary and vital to the welfare and development of our society; the efficient provision of modern telecommunications services by multiple providers will promote economic development in the state; expanded employment opportunities for residents of the state in the provision of telecommunications services benefit the society and economy of the state; and advanced telecommunications services enhance the delivery of services by public and not-for-profit institutions, it is, therefore, the goal of the state to (1) ensure the universal availability and accessibility of high quality, affordable telecommunications services to all residents and businesses in the state, (2) promote the development of effective competition as a means of providing customers with the widest possible choice of services, (3) utilize forms of regulation commensurate with the level of competition in the relevant telecommunications service market, (4) facilitate the efficient development and deployment of an advanced telecommunications infrastructure, including open networks with maximum interoperability and interconnectivity, (5) encourage shared use of existing facilities and cooperative development of new facilities where legally possible, and technically and economically feasible, and (6) ensure that providers of telecommunications services in the state provide high quality customer service and high quality technical service. The department shall implement the provisions of this section, sections 16-1, 16-18a, 16-19, 16-19e, 16-22, 16-247b, 16-247c, 16-247e to 16-247i, inclusive, and 16-247k and subsection (e) of section 16-331 in accordance with these goals.

      (b) As used in sections 16-247a to 16-247c, inclusive, 16-247e to 16-247i, inclusive, 16-247k, and sections 16-247m to 16-247r, inclusive:

      (1) "Affiliate" means a person, firm or corporation which, with another person, firm or corporation, is under the common control of the same parent firm or corporation.

      (2) "Competitive service" means (A) a telecommunications service deemed competitive in accordance with the provisions of section 16-247f, (B) a telecommunications service reclassified by the department as competitive in accordance with the provisions of section 16-247f, or (C) a new telecommunications service provided under a competitive service tariff accepted by the department, in accordance with the provisions of section 16-247f, provided the department has not subsequently reclassified the service set forth in subparagraph (A), (B) or (C) of this subdivision as noncompetitive pursuant to section 16-247f.

      (3) "Emerging competitive service" means (A) a telecommunications service reclassified as emerging competitive in accordance with the provisions of section 16-247f, or (B) a new telecommunications service provided under an emerging competitive service tariff accepted by the department, in accordance with the provisions of section 16-247f, or of a plan for an alternative form of regulation approved pursuant to section 16-247k, provided the department has not subsequently reclassified the service set forth in subparagraph (A) or (B) of this subdivision as competitive or noncompetitive pursuant to section 16-247f.

      (4) "Noncompetitive service" means (A) a telecommunications service deemed noncompetitive in accordance with the provisions of section 16-247f, (B) a telecommunications service reclassified by the department as noncompetitive in accordance with the provisions of section 16-247f, or (C) a new telecommunications service provided under a noncompetitive service tariff accepted by the department, in accordance with the provisions of section 16-19, and any applicable regulations, or of a plan for an alternative form of regulation approved pursuant to section 16-247k, provided the department has not subsequently reclassified the service set forth in subparagraph (A), (B) or (C) of this subdivision as competitive or emerging competitive pursuant to section 16-247f.

      (5) "Private telecommunications service" means any telecommunications service which is not provided for public hire as a common carrier service and is utilized solely for the telecommunications needs of the person that controls such service and any subsidiary or affiliate thereof, except for telecommunications service which enables two entities other than such person, subsidiary or affiliate to communicate with each other.

      (6) "Telecommunications service" means any transmission in one or more geographic areas (A) between or among points specified by the user, (B) of information of the user's choosing, (C) without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received, (D) by means of electromagnetic transmission, including but not limited to, fiber optics, microwave and satellite, (E) with or without benefit of any closed transmission medium and (F) including all instrumentalities, facilities, apparatus and services, except customer premises equipment, which are used for the collection, storage, forwarding, switching and delivery of such information and are essential to the transmission.

      (7) "Network elements" means "network elements", as defined in 47 USC 153(a)(29).

      (P.A. 85-187, S. 1, 15; P.A. 94-83, S. 2, 16; P.A. 99-222, S. 2, 19.)

      History: P.A. 94-83 added provisions designated as Subsec. (a) re goal of the state and amended prior provisions designated as Subsec. (b) by deleting definitions of "bypass service" and "community antenna television company" and "telephone company", adding definitions of "competitive service", "emerging competitive service" and "noncompetitive service", renumbering Subdivs. (4) and (5) as (5) and (6), and adding "in one or more geographic areas" in Subdiv. (6), effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 99-222 amended Subsec. (b) by making technical changes in introductory clause and Subdiv. (5) and adding new Subdiv. (7) defining "network elements", effective June 29, 1999.

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      Sec. 16-247b. Unbundling of telephone company's network, services and functions. Access to telephone company's telecommunications services, functions and unbundled network elements. Rates for competitive or emerging competitive service. Subsidization prohibited. (a) On petition or its own motion, the department shall initiate a proceeding to unbundle a telephone company's network, services and functions that are used to provide telecommunications services and which the department determines, after notice and hearing, are in the public interest, are consistent with federal law and are technically feasible of being tariffed and offered separately or in combinations. Any telecommunications services, functions and unbundled network elements and any combination thereof shall be offered under tariff at rates, terms and conditions that do not unreasonably discriminate among actual and potential users and actual and potential providers of such local network services.

      (b) Each telephone company shall provide reasonable nondiscriminatory access and pricing to all telecommunications services, functions and unbundled network elements and any combination thereof necessary to provide telecommunications services to customers. The department shall determine the rates that a telephone company charges for telecommunications services, functions and unbundled network elements and any combination thereof, that are necessary for the provision of telecommunications services. The rates for interconnection and unbundled network elements and any combination thereof shall be based on their respective forward looking long-run incremental costs, and shall be consistent with the provisions of 47 USC 252(d).

      (c) (1) The rate that a telephone company charges for a competitive or emerging competitive telecommunications service shall not be less than the sum of (A) the rate charged to another telecommunications company for a noncompetitive or emerging competitive local network service function used by that company to provide a competing telecommunications service, and (B) the applicable incremental costs of the telephone company.

      (2) On and after the date the department certifies a telephone company's operations support systems interface pursuant to section 16-247n, the department shall, upon petition, conduct a contested case proceeding to consider whether modification or removal of the pricing standard set forth in subdivision (1) of this subsection for a telecommunications service deemed competitive pursuant to section 16-247f is appropriate. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection, if the department determines that such a modification or removal is appropriate and is consistent with the goals set forth in section 16-247a, the department shall so modify or remove said pricing standard for such telecommunications service.

      (3) Prior to the date that the department certifies a telephone company's operations support systems interface pursuant to section 16-247n, the department may, upon petition, conduct a contested case proceeding to consider whether modification or removal of the pricing standard set forth in subdivision (1) of this subsection for a telecommunications service deemed competitive pursuant to section 16-247f is appropriate. Any petition filed pursuant to this subdivision shall specify the geographic area in which the applicant proposes to modify or remove such pricing standard. Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection, if the department determines that such modification or removal is appropriate, is consistent with the goals set forth in section 16-247a and facilities-based competition exists in the relevant geographic area, the department shall so modify or remove said pricing standard for such telecommunications service. In determining whether facilities-based competition exists in the relevant geographic area, the department shall consider:

      (A) The number, size and geographic distribution of other providers of service;

      (B) The availability of functionally equivalent services in the relevant geographic area at competitive rates, terms and conditions;

      (C) The financial viability of each company providing functionally equivalent services in the relevant geographic market;

      (D) The existence of barriers to entry into, or exit from, the relevant geographic market;

      (E) Other indicators of market power that the department deems relevant, which may include, but not be limited to, market penetration and the extent to which the applicant can sustain the price for the service above the cost to the company of providing the service in the relevant geographic area;

      (F) The extent to which other telecommunications companies must rely upon the noncompetitive services of the applicant to provide their telecommunications services and carrier access rates charged by the applicant;

      (G) Other factors that may affect competition; and

      (H) Other factors that may affect the public interest.

      (d) A telephone company shall not use the revenues, expenses, costs, assets, liabilities or other resources derived from or associated with providing a noncompetitive service to subsidize the provision of competitive, emerging competitive or unregulated telecommunications services by such telephone company or any affiliate that is a certified telecommunications provider.

      (P.A. 85-187, S. 2, 15; P.A. 93-330, S. 2, 9; P.A. 94-83, S. 3, 16; P.A. 99-222, S. 5, 19.)

      History: P.A. 93-330 added Subsecs. (b), regarding access, access charges and rates, and (c) regarding telephone company subsidization of compensation or unregulated services, effective July 2, 1993; P.A. 94-83 deleted former Subsec. (a) re certificate of public convenience and necessity, inserted new Subsec. (a) re proceeding to unbundle certain functions of a telecommunications company's local network, amended Subsec. (b)(1) by deleting "located within the state" and references to unregulated services and certified providers of telecommunications services, and replacing "provider for any basic service used to provide a competitive service" with "company for a noncompetitive or emerging competitive local network service function used by that company to provide a competing telecommunications service", and amended Subsec. (c) by deleting "local exchange service or other monopoly telecommunications services" and "intrastate" and adding references to noncompetitive and emerging competitive services, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 99-222 amended Subsec. (a) by changing what can be unbundled by referring to unbundling of "a telephone company's network, services and functions", by changing criteria re when unbundling is appropriate and by making other conforming changes, amended Subsec. (b) by changing reference to "equipment, facilities and services" to "telecommunications services, functions and unbundled network elements and any combination thereof" and adding provision re rates for interconnection based on long-run incremental costs, designated provision formerly in Subsec. (b) re rates charged for competitive or emerging competitive service as Subsec. (c)(1), redesignating former Subdivs. (1) and (2) as Subparas. (A) and (B), inserted new Subsec. (c)(2) and (3) re modification or removal of pricing standard and relettered former Subsec. (c) as (d), effective June 29, 1999.

      Subsec. (b):

      Specific terms of statute concerning nondiscriminatory access and pricing to all telecommunciations services, functions and unbundled network elements do not prevail over general grant of authority to department, where services in question consist of pre-due-date service confirmation, expedited services, coordinated cutover service and out-of-hours service. 261 C. 1.


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      Sec. 16-247c. Provision of intrastate telecommunications services. Civil penalty. Competition. (a) No person shall provide intrastate telecommunications services, except for private telecommunications service, commercial mobile telecommunications service to the extent regulated by the federal government and any service authorized under section 16-250a or a joint or shared user tariff approved by the Department of Public Utility Control, unless the person (1) offered, promoted and provided intrastate telecommunications services on or before January 1, 1984, pursuant to a special charter or certificate of public convenience and necessity or (2) is certified to provide intrastate telecommunications services by the Department of Public Utility Control pursuant to sections 16-247f to 16-247h, inclusive.

      (b) Each provider of intrastate telecommunications services, as defined in subsection (a) of this section, or any officer, agent or employee thereof, which the department finds has failed to obey or comply with any applicable order made or regulation adopted by the department pursuant to this section shall be fined, by order of the department, not more than ten thousand dollars for each offense. Each distinct violation of any provision of this section or any such order or regulation shall be a separate offense and, in the case of a continued violation, each day thereof shall be deemed a separate offense. The department shall impose any such civil penalty in accordance with the procedure established in section 16-41.

      (c) The department shall not prohibit or restrict the competitive provision of intrastate telecommunications services offered by a certified telecommunications provider unless the department finds that the competitive provision of a telecommunications service would be contrary to the goals set forth in section 16-247a, or would not be in accordance with the provisions of section 16-247a or 16-247b, this section, sections 16-247e to 16-247h, inclusive, or section 16-247k.

      (P.A. 85-187, S. 3, 15; P.A. 87-415, S. 1, 2, 13; P.A. 90-221, S. 8, 15; P.A. 93-330, S. 3, 9; P.A. 94-83, S. 4, 16; P.A. 99-222, S. 9, 19.)

      History: P.A. 87-415 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting provisions re plan in Subdiv. (2), deleting Subdiv. (3) and provisions related thereto, deleting compensation provisions, deleting provisions re services provided pursuant to special charter or certificate of public convenience and necessity and inserting reference to Sec. 16-247f to Sec. 16-247h, and amended Subsec. (b) by deleting provisions re specialized telecommunications services, deleting provisions re regulations and inserting reference to Secs. 16-247f to 16-247h, inclusive; P.A. 90-221 made technical change in Subsec. (f); P.A. 93-330 deleted Subsecs. (b) to (e), inclusive, re providers of interstate but not intrastate services, re compensation for prohibited intrastate interexchange services and re blocking unauthorized intrastate interexchange calls, relettered former Subsec. (f) as (b) and amended provisions to clarify its application to each intrastate interexchange services provider, effective July 2, 1993; P.A. 94-83 deleted "interexchange", changed "service" to "services", replaced "cellular mobile telephone, radio paging and mobile radio services" with "commercial mobile telecommunications service to the extent regulated by the federal government" in Subsec. (a) and made technical changes and added new Subsec. (c) re competitive provision of intrastate telecommunications services, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 99-222 made technical changes, amended Subsec. (b) by increasing amount of fine from $5,000 to $10,000 and amended Subsec. (c) by changing reference to person, firm or corporation authorized to provide telecommunications service to "certified telecommunications provider", effective June 29, 1999.

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      Sec. 16-247d. Biennial reports on competition for intrastate interexchange telecommunications service. Plan for implementing competition. General Assembly approval required. Section 16-247d is repealed.

      (P.A. 85-187, S. 4, 15; P.A. 87-415, S. 12, 13.)

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      Sec. 16-247e. Basic telecommunications services. Lifeline and telecommunications relay service programs. Universal service program. (a) In order to ensure the universal availability of affordable, high quality telecommunications services to all residents and businesses throughout the state regardless of income, disability or location, the department shall (1) periodically investigate and determine, after notice and hearing, local service options, including the definition and components of any basic telecommunications services, necessary to achieve universal service and meet customer needs; and (2) establish lifeline and telecommunications relay service programs funded by all telecommunications carriers that provide intrastate telecommunications services, as such terms are defined in 47 USC 153, as amended from time to time, sufficient to provide low-income households or individuals or speech and hearing impaired individuals with a level of telecommunications service or package of telecommunications services that supports participation in the economy and society of the state. The department shall apportion the funding for the lifeline and telecommunications relay service programs among telecommunications carriers on an equitable basis based on the gross revenues of each telecommunications carrier that are generated in Connecticut, both interstate and intrastate. The lifeline and telecommunications relay service programs shall be administered by an entity authorized, and subject to oversight, by the department. The department shall determine by order which customers qualify for the lifeline program. Recipients of lifeline funds shall use such funds to pay for telecommunications services provided by any telecommunications carrier.

      (b) The department may, if necessary, establish a universal service program, funded by all telecommunications companies or users in the state on an equitable basis, as determined by the department, to ensure the universal availability of affordable, high quality basic telecommunications services to all residents and businesses throughout the state regardless of location. Any funds contributed to a universal service program shall be used to support the availability of basic telecommunications services provided by any telecommunications company in a manner to be determined by the department.

      (P.A. 85-187, S. 5, 15; P.A. 94-83, S. 5, 16; P.A. 97-121, S. 1, 2; P.A. 99-11, S. 1, 3.)

      History: P.A. 94-83 entirely replaced previously existing language re telephone company rates and revenue requirement with new Subsec. (a) re basic service and lifeline program and new Subsec. (b) re universal service program, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 97-121 amended Subsec. (a) to require telecommunications carriers that provide intrastate telecommunications services to fund lifeline program, based on their gross revenues and substituted "telecommunications carriers" for "telecommunications companies", effective June 6, 1997; P.A. 99-11 amended Subsec. (a) by adding references to telecommunications relay service program and to speech and hearing impaired individuals, effective May 12, 1999.

      Federal Communications Act does not preempt department from imposing universal service contribution assessments on commercial radio service providers. 253 C. 453. State assessment does not violate federal funding mechanisms solely because it taxes both intrastate and intrastate revenues. Id. Court rejected claim that statute had disparate effect on certain commercial mobile radio service providers because complainant provided no evidence to show a discriminatory result. Id.

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      Sec. 16-247f. Regulation of telecommunications services: Initial classifications, reclassifications, tariffs. (a) The department shall regulate the provision of telecommunications services in the state in a manner designed to foster competition and protect the public interest.

      (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 16-19, the following telecommunications services shall be deemed competitive services: (1) A telecommunications service offered on or before July 1, 1994, by a certified telecommunications provider and a wide area telephone service, "800" service, centrex service or digital centrex service offered by a telephone company, (2) a telecommunications service offered to business customers by a telephone company, (3) a home office service offered by a telephone company, and (4) a telecommunications service provided by a telephone company to a residential customer who subscribes to two or more telephone company services, including basic local exchange service, any vertical feature or interstate toll provided by a telephone company affiliate. Unless reclassified pursuant to this section, any other service offered by a telephone company on or before July 1, 1994, shall be deemed a noncompetitive service, provided such initial classification shall not be a factual finding that such service is noncompetitive. Notwithstanding subdivision (3) of subsection (c) of section 16-247b, prior to January 1, 2010, a telephone company shall not obtain a waiver from the department of the pricing standard set forth in subdivision (1) of subsection (c) of section 16-247b for any service reclassified as competitive pursuant to subdivision (2), (3) or (4) of this subsection.

      (c) On petition, on its own motion, or in conjunction with a tariff investigation conducted pursuant to subsection (f) of this section, after notice and hearing, and within ninety days of receipt of a petition or its motion or within the time period set forth in subsection (f) of this section, as applicable, the department may reclassify a telecommunications service as competitive, emerging competitive or noncompetitive, in accordance with the degree of competition which exists for that service in the marketplace, provided (1) a competitive service shall not be reclassified as an emerging competitive service and (2) the department may extend the period (A) before the end of the ninety-day period and upon notifying all parties to the proceedings by thirty days, or (B) in accordance with the provisions of subsection (f) of this section, as applicable.

      (d) In determining whether to reclassify a telecommunications service, the department shall consider:

      (1) The number, size and geographic distribution of certified telecommunications providers of the service, provided the department shall not reclassify any service as competitive if such service is available only from a telephone company or an affiliate of a telephone company that is a certified telecommunications provider;

      (2) The availability of functionally equivalent services in the relevant geographic area at competitive rates, terms and conditions, including, but not limited to, services offered by certified telecommunications providers, providers of commercial mobile radio services, as defined in 47 CFR 20.3, voice over Internet protocol providers and other services provided by means of alternative technologies;

      (3) The existence of barriers to entry into, or exit from, the relevant market;

      (4) Other factors that may affect competition; and

      (5) Other factors that may affect the public interest.

      (e) Each certified telecommunications provider and each telephone company shall file with the department a new or amended tariff for each competitive or emerging competitive intrastate telecommunications service authorized pursuant to section 16-247c. A tariff for a competitive service shall be effective on five days' written notice to the department. A tariff for an emerging competitive service shall be effective on twenty-one days' written notice to the department. A tariff filing for a competitive or emerging competitive service shall include (1) rates and charges which may consist of a maximum rate and a minimum rate, (2) applicable terms and conditions, (3) a statement of how the tariff will benefit the public interest, and (4) any additional information required by the department. A telephone company filing a tariff pursuant to this section shall include in said tariff filing the information set forth in subdivisions (1) to (4), inclusive, of this subsection, a complete explanation of how the company is complying with the provisions of section 16-247b and, in a tariff filing which declares a new service to be competitive or emerging competitive, a statement addressing the considerations set forth in subsection (d) of this section. If the department approves a tariff which consists of a minimum rate and a maximum rate, the certified telecommunications provider or telephone company may amend its rates upon five days' written notice to the department and any notice to customers which the department may require, provided the amended rates are not greater than the approved maximum rate and not less than the approved minimum rate. A promotional offering for a previously approved competitive or emerging competitive tariffed service or a service deemed competitive pursuant to this section shall be effective on three business days' written notice to the department.

      (f) On petition or its own motion, the department may investigate a tariff or any portion of a tariff, which investigation may include a hearing. The department may suspend a tariff or any portion of a tariff during such investigation. The investigation may include, but is not limited to, an inquiry to determine whether the tariff is predatory, deceptive, anticompetitive or violates the pricing standard set forth in subdivision (1) of subsection (c) of section 16-247b. Not later than seventy-five days after the effective date of the tariff, unless the party filing the tariff, all statutory parties to the proceeding and the department agree to a specific extension of time, the department shall issue its decision, including whether to approve, modify or deny the tariff. If the department determines that a tariff filed as a new service is, in fact, a reclassification of an existing service, the department shall review the tariff filing as a petition for reclassification in accordance with the provisions of subsection (c) of this section.

      (g) The provisions of this section shall not prohibit the department from ordering different tariff filing procedures or effective dates for an emerging competitive service, pursuant to a plan for an alternative form of regulation of a telephone company approved by the department in accordance with the provisions of section 16-247k.

      (P.A. 87-415, S. 3, 13; P.A. 93-330, S. 4, 9; P.A. 94-83, S. 6, 16; P.A. 95-215, S. 2; P.A. 99-222, S. 10, 19; P.A. 01-49, S. 8; P.A. 06-144, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 93-330 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting provision regarding purchase or lease of foreign exchange service, making a preauthorization hearing permissive rather than mandatory and adding provision regarding denial of authorization, amended Subsec. (b) by stating it applies to telephone companies and certified competitive telecommunications providers, requiring rather than allowing department to consider all relevant factors, and adding new Subdivs. (4) to (7) regarding market barriers, control over rates, availability of services and pricing and cross-subsidization, and added new Subsecs. (c) and (d) regarding "10XXX" interexchange competition for intrastate interexchange services and tariffs for competitive intrastate interexchange services, respectively, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-83 deleted Subsec. (a) re authorization to provide intrastate interexchange telecommunications services, Subsec. (b) re terms and conditions for the offering of competitive telecommunications service, and Subsec. (c) re "10XXX" interexchange competition for intrastate interexchange services, added new Subsec. (a) re regulation of the provision of telecommunications services, new Subsec. (b) re competitive services, and new Subsecs. (c) and (d) re reclassifying a telecommunications service, relettered and divided Subsec. (d) as (e) and (f), amended Subsec. (e) by deleting "proposed" and "interexchange", adding "emerging competitive", making tariffs effective on written notice, deleting provision re supporting cost and revenue information, adding provisions re Sec. 16-247b and Subsec. (d) of this section, making Subdivs. (1) to (4) applicable to tariff filings rather than tariffs, changing notice of rate change by provider or company with an approved tariff consisting of a minimum and a maximum rate from 10 days to department and customers to 5 days to department and to customers as department may require, and adding provision re promotional offering, amended Subsec. (f) by adding "on petition or its own motion", deleting "proposed", allowing investigation without suspension of tariff, changing deadline for decision from 60 to 75 days, adding provisions re extension of time for decision and tariff treated as petition for reclassification, and added new Subsec. (g) re alternative form of regulation, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 95-215 amended Subsec. (c) by adding time limit, Subdiv. indicators and Subdiv. (2) re extension of time; P.A. 99-222 made technical changes in Subsecs. (b), (d)(1) and (e), amended Subsec. (d)(1) by adding proviso prohibiting department from reclassifying service if service is available only from a telephone company or affiliate and amended Subsec. (e) by changing from 14 to 5 the number of days after written notice is made for a tariff for a competitive service to become effective and by changing from 5 to 3 the number of days after written notice is made for a promotional offering to become effective, effective June 29, 1999; P.A. 01-49 amended Subsec. (c) to make technical changes; P.A. 06-144 amended Subsec. (b) to designate existing language as Subdiv. (1), to make corresponding technical changes, to add Subdivs. (2) to (4), inclusive, re telecommunications services offered to business customers by a telephone company, a home office service offered by a telephone company, and telecommunications service provided by a telephone company to a residential customer who subscribes to two or more telephone company services, and to add provision prohibiting a telephone company from obtaining a waiver from the department of the pricing standard for any service reclassified as competitive, amended Subsec. (d) to add examples of functionally equivalent services in Subdiv. (2), delete former Subdivs. (3), (5) and (6) and redesignate existing Subdivs. (4), (7) and (8) as new Subdivs. (3), (4) and (5), respectively, amended Subsec. (e) to make a technical change, and amended Subsec. (f) to add provision specifying what investigation may include, effective July 1, 2006.

      Specific terms of statute concerning nondiscriminatory access and pricing to all telecommuncations services, functions and unbundled network elements do not prevail over general grant of authority to department, where services in question consist of pre-due-date service confirmation, expedited service, coordinated cutover service and out-of-hours service. 261 C. 1.

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      Sec. 16-247g. Certificate of public convenience and necessity for intrastate telecommunications services: Application, requirements, suspension, revocation. Fees. Obligation to serve. (a)(1) Any person may apply to the department for an initial certificate of public convenience and necessity to offer and provide intrastate telecommunications services. Such application shall include such information as the department shall require, and any reasonable fees, not to exceed actual cost, the department may prescribe, in regulations adopted pursuant to chapter 54. The department may issue such certificate and may, as a precondition to certification, require any applicant to procure a performance bond sufficient to cover moneys due or to become due to other telecommunications companies for the provision of access to local telecommunications networks, to protect any advances or deposits it may collect from its customers if the department does not order that such advances or deposits be held in escrow or trust, and to otherwise protect customers. Following receipt of such application, the department shall give notice of such application to all interested persons. The department may approve or deny the application after holding a hearing with notice to all interested persons if any person requests such hearing.

      (2) Any person may object to a fee charged pursuant to this section by filing with the department, not later than thirty days after the fee was charged, a petition stating the amount of the fee charged to which it objects and the grounds upon which it claims such fee is excessive, erroneous, unlawful or invalid. Upon the request of the person filing the petition, the department shall hold a hearing. After reviewing the petition and testimony, if any, the department shall issue its order in accordance with its findings. The person shall pay the department the amount indicated in the order not later than thirty days after the date of the order.

      (b) A certified telecommunications provider may petition the department to expand the authority granted in its certificate of public convenience and necessity to the provision of a previously-authorized service in an additional service area or to the provision of a service not previously authorized, or to both. Such petition shall include such information as the department shall require by regulations adopted pursuant to chapter 54. The department may expand the authority granted in such a certificate and may, as a precondition to such expansion, require a petitioner to procure a performance bond sufficient to cover moneys due or to become due to other telecommunications companies for the provision of access to local telecommunications networks, to protect any advances or deposits it may collect from its customers if the department does not order that such advances or deposits be held in escrow or trust, and to otherwise protect customers. Following receipt of such petition, the department may, on petition or its own motion, hold a hearing with notice to all interested parties, after which the department may approve or deny the application.

      (c) The department may certify an applicant if the applicant: (1) Provides the information requested by the department pursuant to the provisions of sections 16-247f to 16-247h, inclusive, and section 16-247j; (2) provides a performance bond or complies with escrow or trust requirements, if required by the department; (3) provides a fee, if required by this section; and (4) possesses and demonstrates adequate financial resources, managerial ability and technical competency to provide the proposed service.

      (d) Any certified telecommunications provider and any telephone company shall (1) maintain its accounts in such manner as the department shall require; (2) file financial reports at such times and in such form as the department shall prescribe; (3) file with the department such current descriptions of services and listings of rates and charges as it may require; (4) cooperate with the department in its investigations of consumer complaints and comply with any resulting orders; (5) comply with standards established pursuant to section 16-247p; and (6) comply with additional requirements as the department shall prescribe by regulation.

      (e) Except as provided in subsection (f) of this section, on or after July 1, 2001, each certified telecommunications provider shall, within a period of time the department determines is reasonable after said provider is certified, be obligated to serve a residential or business customer in its authorized area of operation who is seeking from said provider telecommunications services that are provided by said provider.

      (f) Any community antenna television company that is a certified telecommunications provider or an affiliate of a community antenna television company that is a certified telecommunications provider and that provides telecommunications services shall be obligated to serve all residential and business customers seeking local exchange service in its entire franchise area in which said company provides community antenna television services pursuant to section 16-331. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, the department shall not require any such company to provide local exchange service outside of its franchise area. If, however, any such company elects to provide local exchange service to customers outside its franchise area, such company shall be subject to all geographic service requirements established by the department.

      (g) Notwithstanding any decision of the department to allow the competitive provision of a telecommunications service or to grant a certificate pursuant to this section, the department, after holding a hearing with notice to all interested parties and determining that (1) continued competitive provision of a telecommunications service would be contrary to the goals set forth in section 16-247a, or would not be in accordance with the provisions of sections 16-247a to 16-247c, inclusive, section 16-247e or 16-247f, this section, or section 16-247h, or 16-247k, (2) a certified telecommunications provider does not have adequate financial resources, managerial ability or technical competency to provide the service, or (3) a certified telecommunications provider has failed to comply with an applicable order made or regulation adopted by the department, may suspend or revoke the authorization to provide said telecommunications service or take any other action it deems appropriate. In determining whether to suspend or revoke such authorization, the department shall consider, without limitation, (A) the effect of such suspension or revocation on the customers of the telecommunications service, (B) the technical feasibility of suspending or revoking the authorized usage only on an intrastate basis, and (C) the financial impact of such suspension or revocation on the provider of the telecommunications service.

      (h) The department shall remit all fees collected under this section to the State Treasurer for deposit in the Consumer Counsel and Public Utility Control Fund established in section 16-48a.

      (i) On October first, annually, the department shall submit to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and technology a report of all fees collected pursuant to this section during the preceding fiscal year.

      (P.A. 87-415, S. 4, 13; P.A. 93-330, S. 5, 9; P.A. 94-83, S. 7, 16; P.A. 95-86, S. 1, 2; P.A. 99-222, S. 11, 19; P.A. 02-98, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 93-330 amended Subsec. (d) by making hearing mandatory rather than permissive, adding provisions regarding competition's impact on cost and determination of a provider's resources, ability and competency, allowing suspension of authorization or other action, and stating factors to consider before suspending or revoking authorization, effective July 2, 1993; P.A. 94-83 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing "interexchange telecommunications services authorized under section 16-247f" with "intrastate telecommunications services" and changing "local exchange networks" to "local telecommunications networks", amended Subsec. (b) by changing bases for denying certification to requirements for certifying an applicant and deleting reference to Sec. 16-247c, amended Subsec. (c) by deleting "intrastate interexchange" and changing "service" to "services", amended Subsec. (d) by replacing "open a telecommunications service to competition pursuant to section 16-247f" with "allow the competitive provision of a telecommunications service", replaced provision re service open to competition impairing universal service or impacting cost of service with Subdiv. (1) re goals set forth in Sec. 16-247a and provisions of Secs. 16-247a to 16-247c, 16-247e, 16-247f, this section, 16-247h and 16-247k, adding Subdiv. (3) re department orders and regulations, and relettering Subdivs. (1) to (3) as Subparas. (A) to (C), effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 95-86 amended Subsec. (a) by designating existing provisions as Subdiv. (1), adding "an initial", provision re fees, and "and to otherwise protect customers" in Subdiv. (1) and adding Subdiv. (2) re objection to fees charged, added new Subsec. (b) re petitions for expanded authority, relettered Subsecs. (b) to (d) as (c) to (e), amended Subsec. (c) by adding provision re fee, and added new Subsecs. (f) and (g) re remittance and report of fees, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 99-222 made technical changes, changed references to person, firm or corporation certified to provide telecommunications services in Subsecs. (b) and (d) to "certified telecommunications provider", inserted new Subsec. (e) requiring each certified telecommunications provider to serve residential and business customers in its authorized area, inserted new Subsec. (f) requiring community antenna television companies to serve all residential and business customers in its franchise area and relettered former Subsecs. (e) to (g) as (g) to (i), respectively, effective June 29, 1999; P.A. 02-98 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to replace requirement for the department to hold a hearing on an application and provide notice to all interested parties with requirement for the department to give notice of an application to interested persons and, if requested, to hold a hearing on the application with notice to all interested persons.

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      Sec. 16-247h. Use of public right-of-way for provision of intrastate telecommunications service. The department shall authorize any certified telecommunications provider to install, maintain, operate, manage or control poles, wires, conduits or other fixtures under or over any public highway or street for the provision of telecommunications service authorized by section 16-247c, if such installation, maintenance, operation, management or control is in the public interest, which includes but is not limited to, facilitating the efficient development and deployment of an advanced telecommunications infrastructure, facilitating maximum network interoperability and interconnectivity, and encouraging shared use of existing facilities and cooperative development of new facilities where legally possible and technically and economically feasible. The department shall adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, governing such use of the public right-of-way, including, without limitation, design and construction standards and specifications to protect the public safety and implement the purposes of the goals set forth in sections 16-247a to 16-247c, inclusive, 16-247e to 16-247g, inclusive, this section and section 16-247j.

      (P.A. 87-415, S. 5, 13; P.A. 93-330, S. 6, 9; P.A. 94-83, S. 8, 16; P.A. 99-222, S. 12, 19.)

      History: P.A. 93-330 made authorization mandatory rather than permissive if acts to be authorized are in the public interest, effective July 2, 1993; P.A. 94-83 deleted "interexchange", changed reference of authorization to provide telecommunications service from Sec. 16-247f to Sec. 16-247c, added provision re what public interest includes, required adoption of regulations to implement purposes of goals in Sec. 16-247a, Secs. 16-247a to 16-247c, 16-247e to 16-247g, this section and 16-247j, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 99-222 changed reference to person, firm or corporation certified pursuant to section 16-247g to "certified telecommunications provider", effective June 29, 1999.

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      Sec. 16-247i. Telecommunications service and regulation status report. (a) Not later than January 1, 2007, and annually thereafter, the department shall submit a report to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and technology on the status of telecommunications service and regulation in the state of Connecticut. Such report shall include: (1) An analysis of universal service and any changes therein; (2) an analysis of the impact, if any, of competition in telecommunications markets on the work force of the state and employment opportunities in the telecommunications industry in the state; (3) an analysis of the level of regulation which the public interest requires; (4) the status of implementing the provisions of sections 16-247a to 16-247c, inclusive, 16-247e to 16-247h, inclusive, 16-247k and this section, including achieving each of the objectives of the goals set forth in section 16-247a; (5) the status of the development of competition for all telecommunications services; (6) the status of the deployment of telecommunications infrastructure in the state; and (7) the status of the implementation of sections 16-247f and 16-247i and section 3 of public act 06-144*.

      (b) In compiling the information for this report, the department shall require, among other things, each telephone company to provide to the department annually: (1) Its aggregate number of telephone access lines in service, not including resold lines or other wholesale lines; (2) the annual change in such telephone company's access lines over the preceding five years; (3) the number of active wholesale customers served by the telephone company; (4) the nature of the wholesale services provided; (5) the number of wholesale service requests; (6) the impact of competition on the work force of the telephone company; (7) a general discussion of the state of the industry, industry trends, and competitive alternatives available in the market, including, but not limited to, technological changes affecting the market; (8) the number of competitive local exchange carriers; and (9) how long it takes the company to respond to a wholesale service request.

      (P.A. 87-415, S. 6, 13; P.A. 94-83, S. 10, 16; P.A. 06-144, S. 2.)

      *Note: Section 3 of public act 06-144 is special in nature and therefore has not been codified but remains in full force and effect according to its terms.


      History: P.A. 94-83 required report for 1995 and thereafter to include, rather than contain, Subdivs. (1) to (6), deleted Subdiv. (2) re any services opened to competition, renumbered Subdiv. (3) as Subdiv. (2) and changed "workers" to "the work force of the state and employment opportunities in the telecommunications industry in the state", deleted Subdiv. (4) re federal tax reform and Subdiv. (5) re federal subscriber line charges, renumbered Subdiv. (6) as (3), and added new Subdiv. (4) re implementation of Secs. 16-247a to 16-247c, 16-247e to 16-247h, this section and 16-247k, new Subdiv. (5) re development of competition, and new Subdiv. (6) re deployment of infrastructure, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 06-144 designated existing language as Subsec. (a) and amended same to replace "1995" with "2007", to replace "General Assembly" with "joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to energy and technology", and to add new Subdiv. (7) re status of implementation of Secs. 16-247f and 16-247i and section 3 of public act 06-144, and added Subsec. (b) re annual submission of information from each telephone company, effective July 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 16-247j. Regulations. The Department of Public Utility Control shall adopt such regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, as necessary to carry out the provisions of section 16-247c and sections 16-247f to 16-247i, inclusive.

      (P.A. 87-415, S. 9, 13.)

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      Sec. 16-247k. Alternative forms of regulation for telephone companies: Plan requirements, monitoring period, modification. (a) The department may, and is encouraged to, implement an alternative form of regulation, including, but not limited to, price indexing, price regulation, cost indexing or price benchmarks, for noncompetitive and emerging competitive services provided by a telephone company. Any such alternative form of regulation shall be developed for, and tailored to, the individual company. A plan for such an alternative form of regulation may be filed by a telephone company or developed at the initiative of the department. Prior to approval by the department of any such plan, the noncompetitive and emerging competitive services provided by a telephone company shall continue to be regulated in accordance with the provisions of sections 16-19 and 16-19e. Upon approval by the department of any such plan, the services to which the plan applies shall be regulated in accordance with the provisions of the plan, and the provisions of sections 16-19 and 16-19e shall not apply to such services.

      (b) Upon the filing of a proposed plan for alternative regulation by a telephone company, the department shall, after notice and hearing, issue a decision in which it approves, modifies or denies the proposed plan. The department shall approve the proposed or modified plan only if it finds that such plan (1) includes a pricing methodology that reasonably ensures that customers and other telecommunications companies have access to the noncompetitive services of the telephone company at just and reasonable rates which reflect prudent and efficient management, and that such access is available on nondiscriminatory terms and conditions, (2) is designed to streamline, minimize the costs of and maximize the effectiveness of regulation for the telephone company, (3) encourages prudent infrastructure investment and improvements in productivity and service quality for noncompetitive services, (4) does not impede the continued development of competition for the noncompetitive services or disadvantage the provision of emerging competitive or competitive services by the telephone company, (5) ensures that the investment risk associated with the provision of competitive and emerging competitive services by the telephone company shall not be borne by customers of noncompetitive services, (6) notwithstanding the provisions of sections 16-19, 16-19e and 16-22 and subsection (a) of this section, includes a mechanism by which the department may monitor the earnings of the affected company over a monitoring period, (7) is in the public interest, and (8) is consistent with the goals set forth in section 16-247a.

      (c) During the monitoring period of an approved plan for an alternative form of regulation, the telephone company shall use any earnings in excess of a ceiling approved by the department to offset the depreciation reserve deficiency of the company.

      (d) Following the monitoring period, an approved plan for alternative regulation of a telephone company shall continue unless or until the department (1) changes the form of regulation pursuant to an application filed by the company, or (2) determines that the plan does not continue to meet the criteria set forth in subsection (b) of this section. Upon such change or determination, the department may order a different form of alternative regulation consistent with the criteria set forth in subsection (b) of this section. If the department finds that competition has not developed or will not develop for certain services, the department may apply traditional cost-based rate of return regulation to those noncompetitive services.

      (e) The department may modify a plan for an alternative form of regulation which it approved pursuant to this section and which is in effect if the department determines such modification is required due to previously unforeseen circumstances, including, but not limited to, allowing the company to recover the reasonable costs of security of assets, facilities and equipment, both existing and foreseeable, that are incurred solely for the purpose of responding to security needs associated with the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and the continuing war on terrorism.

      (P.A. 94-83, S. 9, 16; P.A. 02-94, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 94-83 effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 02-94 amended Subsec. (e) to allow the department to modify a plan to allow the recovery of reasonable costs of security associated with the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and the continuing war on terrorism.

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      Sec. 16-247l. Access by certified telecommunications providers to occupied buildings: Service, wiring, compensation, regulations, civil penalty. (a) As used in this section, "occupied building" means a building or a part of a building which is rented, leased, hired out, arranged or designed to be occupied, or is occupied (1) as the home or residence of three or more families living independently of each other, (2) as the place of business of three or more persons, firms or corporations conducting business independently of each other, or (3) by any combination of such families and such persons, firms or corporations totaling three or more, and includes trailer parks, mobile manufactured home parks, nursing homes, hospitals and condominium associations.

      (b) No owner of an occupied building shall demand or accept payment, in any form, except as provided in subsection (f) of this section, in exchange for permitting a certified telecommunications provider on or within his property or premises, or discriminate in rental charges or the provision of service between tenants who receive such service and those who do not, or those who receive such service from different certified telecommunications providers, provided such owner shall not be required to bear any cost for the installation or provision of such service.

      (c) An owner of an occupied building shall permit wiring to provide telecommunications service by a certified telecommunications provider in such building provided: (1) A tenant of such building requests services from that certified telecommunications provider; (2) the entire cost of such wiring is assumed by that certified telecommunications provider; (3) the certified telecommunications provider indemnifies and holds harmless the owner for any damages caused by such wiring; and (4) the certified telecommunications provider complies with all regulations of the Department of Public Utility Control pertaining to such wiring. The department shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, which shall set forth terms which may be included, and terms which shall not be included, in any contract to be entered into by an owner of an occupied building and a certified telecommunications provider concerning such wiring. No certified telecommunications provider shall present to an owner of an occupied building for review or for signature such a contract which contains a term prohibited from inclusion in such a contract by regulations adopted hereunder. The owner of an occupied building may require such wiring to be installed when the owner is present and may approve or deny the location at which such wiring enters such building.

      (d) Prior to completion of construction of an occupied building, an owner of such a building in the process of construction shall permit prewiring to provide telecommunications services in such building provided: (1) The certified telecommunications provider complies with all the provisions of subdivisions (2), (3) and (4) of subsection (c) of this section and subsection (f) of this section; and (2) all wiring other than that to be directly connected to the equipment of a telecommunications service customer shall be concealed within the walls of such building.

      (e) No certified telecommunications provider may enter into any agreement with the owner or lessee of, or person controlling or managing, an occupied building serviced by such provider, or commit or permit any act, that would have the effect, directly or indirectly, of diminishing or interfering with existing rights of any tenant or other occupant of such building to use or avail himself of the services of other certified telecommunications providers.

      (f) The department shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 authorizing certified telecommunications providers, upon application by the owner of an occupied building and approval by the department, to reasonably compensate the owner for any taking of property associated with the installation of wiring and ancillary facilities for the provision of telecommunications service. The regulations may include, without limitation:

      (1) Establishment of a procedure under which owners may petition the department for additional compensation;

      (2) Authorization for owners and certified telecommunications providers to negotiate settlement agreements regarding the amount of such compensation, which agreements shall be subject to the department's approval;

      (3) Establishment of criteria for determining any additional compensation that may be due;

      (4) Establishment of a schedule or schedules of such compensation under specified circumstances; and

      (5) Establishment of application fees, or a schedule of fees, for applications under this subsection.

      (g) Nothing in subsection (f) of this section shall preclude a certified telecommunications provider from installing telecommunications equipment or facilities in an occupied building prior to the department's determination of reasonable compensation.

      (h) Any determination by the department under subsection (f) of this section regarding the amount of compensation to which an owner is entitled or approval of a settlement agreement may be appealed by an aggrieved party in accordance with the provisions of section 4-183.

      (i) Any person which the Department of Public Utility Control determines, after notice and opportunity for a hearing as provided in section 16-41, has failed to comply with any provision of subsections (b) to (e), inclusive, of this section shall pay to the state a civil penalty of not more than one thousand dollars for each day following the issuance of a final order by the department pursuant to section 16-41 that the person fails to comply with said subsections.

      (P.A. 94-106, S. 1; P.A. 99-286, S. 2, 19; P.A. 07-217, S. 61.)

      History: P.A. 99-286 deleted former Subsec. (a)(2) which defined "telecommunications provider", changed references to "telecommunications provider" to "certified telecommunications provider" and made technical changes, effective July 19, 1999; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subsec. (h) effective July 12, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-247m. Withdrawal by telephone company of retail telecommunications service. Applications. (a) On and after July 1, 2001, a telephone company may apply to the Department of Public Utility Control to withdraw from the retail provision of a telecommunications service, provided such telecommunications service has been deemed competitive pursuant to section 16-247f prior to the date such application is submitted. Any such application shall specify (1) the service that the telephone company no longer wishes to provide, (2) the geographic area or areas in which the telephone company proposes to no longer provide the service, and (3) the number of customers of the telephone company that will be affected by the proposed withdrawal and a discussion of ways to mitigate such impact.

      (b) In considering any application by a telephone company pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the department shall consider (1) the impact the proposed withdrawal will have on the goals set forth in section 16-247a, (2) the impact the proposed withdrawal will have on the financial, managerial and technical ability of the telephone company to provide other retail and wholesale telecommunications services and the quality of such services, (3) the impact the proposed withdrawal will have on the rates paid by retail customers for the service that the telephone company no longer wishes to provide at retail, (4) the impact the proposed withdrawal will have on the retail availability of such service, and (5) the impact the proposed withdrawal will have on the ability of certified telecommunications providers to provide a functionally equivalent service at retail. The department shall not approve any such application for withdrawal unless it finds that such withdrawal (A) is consistent with the goals set forth in section 16-247a, and (B) is not contrary to the public interest. The department shall not approve any such application or authorize the withdrawal of a telephone company from the provision of a telecommunications service at retail unless the service that the telephone company no longer wishes to provide has been deemed competitive pursuant to section 16-247f. The department, in approving any such application, shall develop a method to allow customers receiving such service from the telephone company to choose a new provider of such service, provided the department shall not order the allocation or assignment of any customer.

      (c) Any proceeding conducted pursuant to this section shall be considered a contested case, as defined in section 4-166.

      (d) The provisions of this section shall not (1) preclude the withdrawal of a competitive or an emerging competitive tariff pursuant to section 16-247f, (2) preclude a telephone company from withdrawing a noncompetitive service in the normal course of business, or (3) apply to any certified telecommunications provider or any telephone company serving fewer than seventy-five thousand customers.

      (P.A. 99-222, S. 3, 19.)

      History: P.A. 99-222 effective June 29, 1999.

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      Sec. 16-247n. Certification of telephone company's operations support systems interface. Rates. Proceedings. (a) The department shall (1) not later than September 1, 1999, require each telephone company serving seventy-five thousand or more retail customers to release complete and usable specifications and business rules relating to the interface into its operations support systems for unbundled network elements and combinations thereof and any changes to the interface must be in accordance with industry standards and consistent with change management principles, (2) not later than November 1, 2000, certify that any such telephone company's operations support systems interface associated with network elements and combinations thereof are fully functional at commercial volumes, (3) not later than April 1, 2000, establish standards pursuant to section 16-247p, and (4) not later than July 1, 2000, determine the rates for such unbundled network elements and combinations thereof, pursuant to section 16-247b. If a ruling of the Federal Communications Commission pursuant to 47 USC 251(c)(3) or 47 USC 251(d)(2) necessitates a subsequent change in such rates, the department shall redetermine such rates no more than two hundred seventy days after such ruling is issued.

      (b) Upon petition by any telephone company serving fewer than seventy-five thousand retail customers, the department shall conduct a proceeding to certify that such telephone company's operations support systems interface associated with network elements and combinations thereof are fully functional at commercial volumes.

      (P.A. 99-222, S. 4, 19.)

      History: P.A. 99-222 effective June 29, 1999.

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      Sec. 16-247o. Consultant to test operations support systems interface. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall, after consultation with the Office of Consumer Counsel, retain a consultant for the purpose of overseeing the testing of a telephone company's interface into its operations support systems, as set forth in subsection (a) of section 16-247n, and attempting to resolve expeditiously any disputes that arise among interested parties. The costs of the consultant shall be recovered from certified telecommunications providers and telephone companies using such operations support systems in the manner provided in section 16-49. The contract with such consultant shall include provisions for the testing of operations support systems and shall require the consultant to recommend adequate performance standards and appropriate methodologies of operations support systems testing, that may include, but are not limited to, the use of an artificial telecommunications provider, and to implement whatever testing methodology is selected for use. The department shall select a testing methodology through a process that provides an opportunity for input from any certified telecommunications provider that uses such operations support systems, the applicable telephone company and the Office of Consumer Counsel. Such a contract shall also provide for status reports as required by the department.

      (b) If the consultant hired pursuant to subsection (a) of this section is unable to resolve a dispute, the consultant shall immediately notify the department and the dispute shall be subject to a compulsory arbitration proceeding to be conducted by the department. The department shall provide notice to ensure all parties are given the opportunity to participate in such arbitration proceeding. The consultant shall appear at any such arbitration proceeding and present the consultant's position. Any such arbitration hearing shall not be considered a contested case, as defined in section 4-166. The decision of the arbitrator shall be final and binding on all parties and shall be subject to judicial review and enforcement against all parties in the manner prescribed by chapter 909.

      (P.A. 99-222, S. 6, 19; P.A. 00-53, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 99-222 effective June 29, 1999; P.A. 00-53 made a technical change in Subsec. (a).

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      Sec. 16-247p. Quality-of-service standards. Performance standards. (a) Not later than April 1, 2000, the Department of Public Utility Control shall, by regulations adopted pursuant to chapter 54, establish quality-of-service standards that shall apply to all telephone companies and certified telecommunications providers and to all telecommunications services. Such standards shall include, but not be limited to, measures relating to customer trouble reports, service outages, installation appointments and repeat problems as well as timeliness in responding to complaints or reports. The department shall include with the quality of service standards methodologies for monitoring compliance with and enforcement of such standards. Such monitoring shall include input from employees of telephone companies and certified telecommunications providers, including members of collective bargaining units.

      (b) Not later than April 1, 2000, the department shall, by regulations adopted pursuant to chapter 54, establish comprehensive performance standards and performance based reporting requirements for functions provided by a telephone company to a certified telecommunications provider, including, but not limited to, telephone company performance relating to customer ordering, preordering, provisioning, billing, maintenance and repair. Such service standards shall be sufficiently comprehensive to ensure that a telephone company meets its obligations under 47 USC 251. Such regulations may also contain provisions the department deems necessary to prevent anticompetitive actions by any telephone company or certified telecommunications provider.

      (P.A. 99-222, S. 7, 19.)

      History: P.A. 99-222 effective June 29, 1999.

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      Sec. 16-247q. Education outreach program for telecommunications competition, scope. Consumer Education Advisory Council established. (a) Not later than January 1, 2001, the Department of Public Utility Control shall, in conjunction with the Office of Consumer Counsel, implement a comprehensive public education outreach program to educate customers about the implementation of competition among certified telecommunications providers, as defined in section 16-1, providing intrastate telecommunications services. The goals of the program shall be to maximize public information, minimize customer confusion and enable all customers to participate in a competitive environment. The program shall include, but not be limited to: (1) Dissemination of information through mass media, interactive approaches and written materials with the goal of reaching every telephone customer; (2) conduct of public forums in different geographical areas of the state to foster public input and provide opportunities for an exchange of questions and answers; (3) involvement of community-based organizations in developing messages and in devising and implementing education strategies; (4) targeted efforts to reach rural, low income, elderly, foreign language, disabled, ethnic minority and other traditionally underserved populations; and (5) periodic evaluations of the effectiveness of educational efforts. The department shall assign one individual within the department to coordinate the outreach program and oversee the education process. Reasonable costs incurred by the department to develop and implement the education outreach program shall be recovered from certified telecommunications providers and telephone companies other than telephone companies serving fewer than seventy-five thousand customers in the manner provided in section 16-49.

      (b) There shall be established a Consumer Education Advisory Council which shall advise the department on the development and implementation of the outreach program. Membership of the advisory council shall be established by the Office of Consumer Counsel not later than September 1, 2000, and shall include, but not be limited to, representatives of the Department of Public Utility Control, the Office of Consumer Counsel, the office of the Attorney General, the Office of Policy and Management, community and business organizations, consumer groups, including, but not limited to, a group that represents hardship cases, as defined in section 16-262c, telephone companies and certified telecommunications providers. The advisory council shall determine the information to be distributed to customers as part of the education effort. The advisory council shall advise the outreach program coordinator on the methods of distributing information in accordance with subsection (a) of this section and the timing of such distribution. The advisory council shall meet on a regular basis and report to the outreach program coordinator as it deems appropriate.

      (P.A. 99-222, S. 8, 19; P.A. 00-53, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 99-222 effective June 29, 1999; P.A. 00-53 amended Subsec. (a) by changing "2000" to "2001".

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      Sec. 16-247r. Discrimination by telephone companies and certified telecommunications providers prohibited. No telephone company or certified telecommunications provider, as defined in section 16-1, shall refuse to provide telecommunications services to, or refuse to negotiate to provide such services to any customer because of age, race, creed, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, marital status, sexual orientation, lawful source of income, disability or familial status. No telephone company or certified telecommunications provider shall decline to provide telecommunications services to a customer for the sole reason that the customer is located in an economically distressed geographic area or the customer qualifies for hardship status under section 16-262c. No telephone company or certified telecommunications provider shall terminate or refuse to reinstate telecommunications services except in accordance with the provisions of this title.

      (P.A. 99-222, S. 18, 19.)

      History: P.A. 99-222 effective June 29, 1999.

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      Sec. 16-247s. Directory assistance database. Disclosure and distribution of cellular mobile telephone numbers. (a) For purposes of this section, "carrier" means a cellular mobile telephone carrier, a reseller of service provided by a cellular mobile telephone carrier or a retailer of a mobile service, as mobile service is defined in 47 USC 153.

      (b) Each certified telecommunications provider, as defined in section 16-1, that provides local exchange service to customers in the state shall provide without charge to a telephone company serving more than one hundred thousand customers for directory assistance purposes all listings for its Connecticut customers other than those listings that are nonpublished. Such telephone company, or its agent or affiliate as applicable, shall, in accordance with the terms and conditions set forth in the federal Telecommunications Act of 1996, as from time to time amended, and any applicable order or regulation adopted by the Federal Communications Commission thereunder, including the availability and timing of updates and applicable rates, compile all such listings and all listings for its own Connecticut customers other than those that are nonpublished in a directory assistance database and make all such listings contained in such database available in electronic format to directory assistance providers. If a customer requests a customer listing from a certified telecommunications provider that does not provide directory assistance, such provider shall connect the customer at no charge with an entity that provides directory assistance to the customer. Each such certified telecommunications provider shall indemnify a telephone company for any damages caused by that certified telecommunications provider's negligence in misidentifying a nonpublished customer.

      (c) Unless required by law, no carrier may disclose the cellular mobile telephone number, name or address of a customer to another person for use as a listing in a directory assistance data base or for publication or listing in a directory unless such customer authorizes such disclosure in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d) of this section.

      (d) The customer's authorization permitted under subsection (c) of this section shall be obtained through a separate question, given orally, by written record or by electronic means, provided such carrier shall maintain a record or copy of such authorization for as long as the person is a customer of such carrier.

      (e) A customer who gives the authorization permitted under subsection (c) of this section may revoke such authorization at any time. A carrier shall comply with a request to revoke authorization no later than sixty days after receiving such a request.

      (f) No carrier may charge a fee to a customer or refuse to provide service to a person for declining to give the authorization permitted under subsection (c) of this section.

      (g) No person may distribute a directory containing the name or cellular mobile telephone number information of a customer of a carrier who has not given an authorization in accordance with the provisions in subsection (d) of this section.

      (h) Failure to comply with any provisions of subsections (c) to (g), inclusive, of this section shall constitute an unfair or deceptive trade practice under section 42-110b.

      (P.A. 00-221, S. 3; P.A. 01-49, S. 9; P.A. 05-241, S. 1; P.A. 06-196, S. 98.)

      History: P.A. 01-49 made technical changes; P.A. 05-241 added Subsec. (a) defining "carrier", designated existing language as Subsec. (b), and added Subsecs. (c) to (h), inclusive, re disclosure and distribution of cellular mobile telephone numbers, effective July 8, 2005; P.A. 06-196 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective June 7, 2006.

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      Sec. 16-247t. Customer inquiries and complaints regarding cellular mobile telephone service. (a) For purposes of this section, "carrier" means a cellular mobile telephone carrier or a reseller of service provided by a cellular mobile telephone carrier.

      (b) The Department of Public Utility Control shall receive customer inquiries and complaints regarding cellular mobile telephone service in the state. For purposes of this section, complaints do not include customer complaints not previously referred to such customer's carrier. Not later than January 1, 2006, the Department of Public Utility Control shall provide a toll-free telephone number and Internet web site at which members of the public may submit to the department their information inquiries and complaints regarding activations, disputed bills, collections, deactivations, equipment problems, network trouble and other service problems. The department shall also accept such inquiries and complaints by mail.

      (c) Not later than January 1, 2006, each carrier shall notify each of its customers concerning such toll-free telephone number, Internet web site address and the address of the department for submitting such inquiries and complaints. Beginning not later than January 1, 2006, and ending on January 1, 2008, each such carrier shall disclose to all new customers at the point of sale or contract the toll-free telephone number, Internet web site address and the address of the department for submitting such inquiries and complaints.

      (d) Not later than March 1, 2007, and March 1, 2008, the department shall prepare a report for the preceding calendar year containing information on carrier customer inquiries and complaints. Such report shall include information on consumer complaints regarding activations, disputed bills, collections, deactivations, equipment problems, network trouble and other service problems of carriers as may be relevant for the purposes of the report, provided the report may not include any information that may be a violation of section 42-110b. The information may include an analysis of such complaints and recommendations to address problems raised by customers. The department shall make the report available to the Attorney General and the public, on request and on the department's Internet web site.

      (e) The department shall, within available appropriations, carry out its responsibilities under this section.

      (P.A. 05-241, S. 2; P.A. 06-196, S. 99.)

      History: P.A. 06-196 made a technical change in Subsec. (a), effective June 7, 2006.

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      Sec. 16-247u. Unauthorized procurement and sale of telephone records. Definitions. Exclusions. Telephone company protection of records. Penalties. Unfair trade practice. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Telephone record" means information retained by a telephone company that relates to a telephone number dialed by a customer or another person using the customer's telephone with such customer's permission, or the incoming number of a call directed to a customer or another person using the customer's telephone with such customer's permission, or other data related to such call typically contained on a customer's telephone bill, including, but not limited to, the time the call started and ended, the duration of the call, the time the call was made and any charges applied. A telephone record does not include information collected and retained by or on behalf of a customer utilizing caller identification or similar technology;

      (2) "Telephone company" means any person that provides commercial telephone services to a customer, irrespective of the communications technology used to provide such service, including, but not limited to, traditional wireline or cable telephone service, cellular, broadband PCS or other wireless telephone service, microwave, satellite or other terrestrial telephone service, and voice over Internet telephone service;

      (3) "Telephone" means any device used by a person for voice communications, in connection with the services of a telephone company, whether such voice communications are transmitted in analog, data or any other form;

      (4) "Customer" means the person who subscribes to telephone service from a telephone company or the person in whose name such telephone service is listed;

      (5) "Person" means any individual, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, trust, estate, cooperative association or other entity;

      (6) "Procure" in regard to a telephone record, means to obtain by any means, whether electronically, in writing or in oral form, with or without consideration.

      (b) No person shall: (1) Knowingly procure, attempt to procure, solicit or conspire with another to procure a telephone record of any resident of this state without the authorization of the customer to whom the record pertains, (2) knowingly sell or attempt to sell a telephone record of any resident of this state without the authorization of the customer to whom the record pertains, or (3) receive a telephone record of any resident of this state with the knowledge such record has been obtained without the authorization of the customer to whom the record pertains or by fraudulent, deceptive or false means.

      (c) The provisions of this section shall not apply to any person acting pursuant to a valid court order, warrant or subpoena and shall not be construed to prevent any action by a law enforcement agency, or any officer, employee or agent of such agency, to obtain telephone records in connection with the performance of the official duties of the agency.

      (d) The provisions of this section shall not be construed to prohibit a telephone company from obtaining, using, disclosing or permitting access to any telephone record, either directly or indirectly through its agents (1) as otherwise authorized by law, (2) with the lawful consent of the customer, (3) as may be necessarily incident to the rendition of the service, including, but not limited to, initiating, rendering, billing and collecting customer charges, or to the protection of the rights or property of the telephone company, or to protect the customer of those services and other carriers from fraudulent, abusive or unlawful use of or subscription to, such services, (4) to a governmental entity, if the telephone company reasonably believes that an emergency involving immediate danger of death or serious physical injury to any person justifies disclosure of the information, or (5) to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, in connection with a report submitted thereto under Section 227 of the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990.

      (e) The provisions of this section shall not be construed to expand upon the obligations and duties of any telephone company to protect telephone records beyond those otherwise established by federal or state law, including, but not limited to, provisions governing customer proprietary network information in Section 222 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, and 47 USC 222.

      (f) The provisions of this section shall not apply to a telephone company and its agents or representatives who act reasonably and in good faith pursuant to this section.

      (g) Each telephone company that maintains telephone records of a resident of this state shall establish reasonable procedures to protect against unauthorized or fraudulent disclosure of such records which could result in substantial harm or inconvenience to any customer. For purposes of this subsection, a telephone company's procedures shall be deemed reasonable if the telephone company complies with the provisions governing customer proprietary network information in Section 222 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, and 47 USC 222.

      (h) Any violation of subsection (b) of this section: (1) Involving a single telephone record of a resident of this state shall be a class C misdemeanor, (2) involving two to not more than ten telephone records of a resident of this state shall be a class B misdemeanor, and (3) involving more than ten telephone records of a resident of this state shall be a class A misdemeanor.

      (i) Any violation of subsection (b) of this section shall be deemed an unfair or deceptive trade act or practice under subsection (a) of section 42-110b.

      (P.A. 06-96, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 16-248. Rights of telephone company in operation May 23, 1985. Every telephone company organized before May 23, 1985, under special or general law, for the transaction of a telephone exchange business, in whole or in part, is limited in its operation, so far as pertains to the telephone exchange business, to the limits of the town or towns in which the plant and structures of such company, association or corporation actually existed and were in operation, in whole or in part, on such date, except upon a finding that public convenience and necessity require an extension of such limits as hereinafter provided.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5660; P.A. 85-187, S. 6, 15.)

      History: P.A. 85-187 applied provisions of section to every telephone company organized before May 23, 1985, instead of to every company, association or corporation organized before May 3, 1899.

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      Sec. 16-249. Department to authorize extension of operations of telephone companies. Every telephone company whose plant was in existence and in operation on May 23, 1985, desiring to extend its telephone exchange business to another town or towns, is prohibited from taking any steps under the general statutes for the location of its poles or conduits, and from commencing to construct its extension or its plant, until it has applied to the Department of Public Utility Control and has obtained from the department, in the manner hereinafter provided, a finding that public convenience and necessity require the carrying on of such telephone exchange business by such company, association or corporation, within the territorial limits, or some portion thereof, stated in its application.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5661; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 80-482, S. 110, 348; P.A. 85-187, S. 7, 15.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 85-187 applied provisions of section to every telephone company whose plant was in existence and in operation on May 23, 1985, instead of to every company, association or corporation under former Sec. 16-248 whose plant was in existence and in operation on May 3, 1899 and to any other such company, association or corporation theretofore existing, or thereafter organized under state law to do a telephone exchange business.

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      Sec. 16-250. Determination of public convenience and necessity for extension. Every telephone company whose plant was in existence and in operation on May 23, 1985, intending to extend a telephone system for doing a telephone exchange business, shall make application to the Department of Public Utility Control for a finding that public convenience and necessity require such extension by such company and any such application shall state the territorial limits in which it is intended in good faith to extend such system. The department shall thereupon fix a time and place to hear such application, and shall cause notice to be served, at least twelve days before the date of the hearing, upon any other telephone company, association or corporation, organized under special or general law, that may be affected by such extension, and upon the selectmen of any town, the mayor of any city or the warden and burgesses of any borough, within whose limits such extension may be made. The department may hear the parties and determine whether, upon consideration of the facts, circumstances and conditions of the business, public convenience and necessity require the extension as heretofore defined by such company and may make a finding that public convenience and necessity require the extension of such telephone exchange system by the applicant in the whole or a part of the territory named in the application.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5662; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 111, 348; P.A. 85-187, S. 8, 15.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 85-187 applied provisions of section to every telephone company whose plant was in existence and in operation on May 23, 1985, instead of to every company, association under former Sec. 16-249 and applied provisions of section to extension of a telephone system instead to both extension and construction.

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      Sec. 16-250a. Reselling or sharing of line purchased or leased from telephone company. The Department of Public Utility Control shall not prohibit any customer of a telephone company, as defined in section 16-1, from reselling or sharing any wide area telephone service or foreign exchange line purchased or leased from the telephone company, provided (1) the provision of telecommunications services is not the primary business of the customer and (2) the wide area telephone service or foreign exchange line is purchased or leased primarily for the customer's own use and is resold to or shared with persons or entities occupying or granted the right to use the customer's premises.

      (P.A. 84-238.)

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      Sec. 16-250b. Cellular mobile telephone service. Department jurisdiction over. Regulations. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall have jurisdiction over the provision of cellular mobile telephone service by cellular mobile telephone carriers licensed by the Federal Communications Commission to operate within the state.

      (b) Not later than six months after July 3, 1985, the department shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, establishing (1) conditions under which the department may forbear from regulating such carriers and (2) standards and procedures for the regulation, on an equal basis with regard to all carriers, of the rates and charges, services, accounting practices, safety and conduct of operations of such carriers if the department does not forbear from regulating such carriers. Such conditions, standards and procedures shall provide for the public convenience, necessity and welfare.

      (P.A. 85-552, S. 7, 8.)

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      Sec. 16-251. Bonds of telephone company. Any telephone company may borrow money, and issue its bonds therefor, under its seal and signed by its president or vice president and by its treasurer or assistant treasurer. The signatures of such officers may be facsimiles thereof and the seal of the company may be a facsimile of such seal.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5663; 1957, P.A. 84, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 16-252. Bonds may be secured by mortgage. All such bonds may be secured by a mortgage of the property, real, personal or mixed, of the mortgagor, executed by its president, under its corporate seal, to the Treasurer of the state, and his successors in office, in trust, for the holders of such bonds, and recorded in the office of the Secretary of the State, and such mortgage shall secure equally all such bonds as may be issued from time to time to the full amount specified in the mortgage, and may include not only the property then owned by the mortgagor but also property to be thereafter acquired by it. In such mortgage deed, it shall be sufficient to describe the lines, wires, poles, conduits, equipment and apparatus of the telephone company, in general terms and by general reference to locality. The provisions of sections 16-218 to 16-227, inclusive, concerning the foreclosure of mortgages of railroad companies, shall apply to any mortgages or bonds issued by telephone companies, associations or corporations.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5665.)

      Cited. 28 CS 459.

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      Secs. 16-253 and 16-254. Amount of capital to be paid in. Subscriptions for cash. Sections 16-253 and 16-254 are repealed, effective October 1, 2002.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5666, 5667; P.A. 02-89, S. 90; S.A. 02-12, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 16-255. General powers. All companies, associations or corporations affected by the provisions of sections 16-248 to 16-253, inclusive, shall, subject to the restrictions therein imposed, have all the powers and rights of construction that are or have by law been conferred upon any domestic telephone corporation by special charter or otherwise.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5668; P.A. 85-187, S. 10, 15; P.A. 02-89, S. 24.)

      History: P.A. 85-187 deleted obsolete reference to Sec. 16-247, substituting reference to Sec. 16-248; P.A. 02-89 replaced reference to Sec. 16-254 with reference to Sec. 16-253, reflecting repeal of Sec. 16-254 by the same public act.

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      Secs. 16-255a to 16-255i. Acquisition of control of domestic telephone companies limited; statement; expenses of department. Form of statement. Hearing re department approval of acquisition; standard of review. Nonvotable securities; injunctive relief. Regulations. Appeals. Remedial and penal provisions. Exemptions. Severability. Sections 16-255a to 16-255i, inclusive, are repealed.

      (P.A. 81-329, S. 2-11; P.A. 87-446, S. 2, 3.)

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      Sec. 16-256. Notice of offense in party line usage in telephone directory. Every telephone directory distributed to the members of the general public in this state or in any portion thereof which lists the calling numbers of telephones of any telephone exchange located in this state shall contain a notice which explains the offense provided for in section 53-210, such notice to be printed in type which is not smaller than any other type on the same page and to be preceded by the word "warning" printed in type at least as large as the largest type on the same page; provided the provisions of this section shall not apply to those directories distributed solely for business advertising purposes, commonly known as classified directories. Any person that distributes or causes to be distributed in this state copies of a telephone directory, subject to the provisions of this section, which do not contain the notice herein provided shall be fined not more than fifty dollars.

      (1957, P.A. 375, S. 2; P.A. 99-286, S. 9, 19.)

      History: P.A. 99-286 made a technical change, effective July 19, 1999.

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      Sec. 16-256a. Directory assistance charge prohibited. Section 16-256a is repealed.

      (P.A. 79-494; P.A. 80-482, S. 4, 40, 345, 348; P.A. 95-217, S. 9.)

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      Sec. 16-256b. Special telecommunications equipment for deaf and hearing impaired persons. Fund. Amplification controls for coin and coinless telephones installed for public or semipublic use. (a) Each telephone company and each certified telecommunications provider that makes equipment available to customers shall make special telecommunications equipment capable of serving the needs of deaf and hearing and speech impaired persons available for rental or purchase and be responsible for the maintenance and repair of any such equipment it leases or sells.

      (b) (1) Each domestic telephone company having at least one hundred thousand customers shall pay into a Special Telecommunications Equipment Fund twenty thousand dollars not later than July 1, 1992. The fund shall be administered by the Commission on the Deaf and Hearing Impaired. The Department of Public Utility Control shall include all payments made by a company into said fund as operating expenses of the company for purposes of rate-making under section 16-19.

      (2) Except for the funding specified in subdivision (1) of this subsection, the State Commission on the Deaf and Hearing Impaired may draw on funds obtained through agreements between the state and domestic telephone companies in accordance with a plan developed, after notice and hearing, by the commission not later than January first, annually, and approved by the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to public utilities. The plan shall provide for the distribution of moneys from the funds to deaf and hearing and speech impaired persons for the purchase, upgrading, rental, maintenance and repair of special telecommunications equipment capable of serving the needs of such persons or to vendors providing such equipment or servicing. The plan may also provide for the distribution of moneys from the funds for the provision of message relay services for persons using telecommunication devices for the deaf, upon a determination by the commission that such moneys are needed to ensure that such services are made available to such persons and that there are adequate moneys in the funds for special telecommunications equipment purposes. The plan shall provide that not more than ten per cent of the moneys annually paid into the fund shall be allocated to the commission to carry out its administrative responsibilities under this subdivision and not more than five per cent of the moneys annually paid by a telephone company into the fund shall be allocated to such corporation to carry out its responsibilities under subdivision (1) of this subsection. All moneys allocated to the commission shall be paid to the State Treasurer for deposit in the General Fund.

      (3) The Commission on the Deaf and Hearing Impaired shall, not later than March first, annually, submit a written financial report on the fund it administers under subdivision (2) of this section to the General Assembly and the Auditors of Public Accounts. Such report shall include a balance sheet and income and expense statement for the preceding calendar year, clearly setting forth the fund's income and expenses and all amounts spent for the direct purpose of the fund.

      (c) (1) Each telephone company and each certified telecommunications provider shall, in consultation with the Commission on the Deaf and Hearing Impaired, prepare and submit to the Department of Public Utility Control and the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to public utilities a plan which shall provide that, to the extent possible, (A) not less than eighty per cent of the coin and coinless telephones installed for public use by the telephone company or certified telecommunications provider shall be equipped, not later than July 1, 1995, with controls for the amplification of incoming transmissions and not less than eighty per cent of the coin and coinless telephones installed for public use by the telephone company or certified telecommunications provider after July 1, 1995, shall be equipped with such controls, and (B) not less than fifty per cent of the coin and coinless telephones installed for semipublic use by the telephone company or certified telecommunications provider pursuant to tariffs shall be equipped, not later than July 1, 1995, with such controls and not less than fifty per cent of the coin and coinless telephones installed for semipublic use by the telephone company or certified telecommunications provider pursuant to tariffs after July 1, 1995, shall be equipped with such controls.

      (2) Not later than July first, annually, each such telephone company and each such certified telecommunications provider shall submit a report to said commission, department and joint standing committee on the implementation of the plan prepared under subdivision (1) of this subsection, provided, if a telephone company or a certified telecommunications provider documents in any such report that it has fully complied with the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection, it shall not be required to submit additional annual reports.

      (3) The cost of compliance with the provisions of this subsection shall be recoverable from ratepayers through the overall rate structure approved by the Department of Public Utility Control.

      (d) Not less than eighty per cent of the coin and coinless telephones installed for public use on or after July 1, 1993, by any person, other than a telephone company or a certified telecommunications provider shall be equipped with such amplification controls at the time the telephones are installed.

      (P.A. 79-156; P.A. 80-482, S. 4, 40, 345, 348; P.A. 82-254, S. 1, 2; P.A. 83-125, S. 1, 2; P.A. 85-228, S. 1, 2; P.A. 86-50, S. 2; P.A. 87-388, S. 1, 3; P.A. 88-158, S. 1, 2; P.A. 92-146, S. 4, 5; P.A. 93-34, S. 1, 2; P.A. 94-74, S. 7, 11; P.A. 99-286, S. 10, 19; P.A. 00-53, S. 6.)

      History: P.A. 80-482 made division of public utility control within the department of business regulation an independent department and abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 82-254 required telephone companies to maintain and repair only special telecommunications equipment they lease or sell and department to establish conditions of service and rates for such maintenance and repair, relettered subsections, made all provisions of Subsec. (a) applicable only to extent consistent with federal law and added new Subsec. (b) requiring establishment of special telecommunications equipment funds; P.A. 83-125 established procedure under Subsec. (b) for transferring administration of funds from telephone companies to tax-exempt corporation and added Subdiv. (3) requiring corporation to submit annual financial report on fund to general assembly and auditors of public accounts; P.A. 85-228 added Subsecs. (c) and (d) re the installation of amplification controls for coin and coinless telephones for public use; P.A. 86-50 allowed the plan to provide for the distribution of funds for message relay services; P.A. 87-388 amended Subsec. (b) by requiring payment of $75,000 into fund by January 1, 1988; P.A. 88-158 amended Subsec. (b)(1) requiring that any person, firm or corporation authorized by the department to provide intrastate interexchange telecommunications service pay into the fund; extended the fund's existence to 1990 and provided for payments by telecompanies and others certified by the department to pay $50,000 into the fund in 1989 and $25,000 in 1990; P.A. 92-146 amended Subsec. (b) re funding of special telecommunications fund and specified commission on deaf and hearing impaired as administrator of fund; P.A. 93-34 amended Subsec. (c) by requiring each telephone company to submit a plan by January 1, 1994, to equip at least 80% of coin and coinless telephones installed for public use and at least 50% of coin and coinless telephones installed for semipublic use pursuant to tariffs with amplification controls by July 1, 1995, and thereafter, and submit a report by July 1, 1994, and amended Subsec. (d) by increasing the percentage of coin and coinless telephones installed for public use by anyone other than a telephone company which must be equipped with amplification controls from 25% to 80% as of July 1, 1993, effective May 5, 1993; P.A. 94-74 amended Subsecs. (a), (c) and (d) by adding provision re persons, firms or corporations certified to provide intrastate telecommunication service, and amended Subsec. (a) by deleting provision re conditions of service and rates for equipment, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 99-286 changed references to person, firm or corporation certified to provide intrastate telecommunications service to "certified telecommunications provider" and made technical changes, effective July 19, 1999; P.A. 00-53 made technical changes in Subsec. (b)(1).

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      Sec. 16-256c. Extended local calling criteria. Calling volume. Subscriber survey and vote. Petitions. (a) In establishing criteria for the granting of extended local calling service to a telephone exchange, the Department of Public Utility Control may consider the volume of calls made by such exchange to other exchanges; provided, in considering whether to grant extended local calling service to a telephone exchange within the lowest exchange classification, the calling volume of such exchange shall not be the exclusive or determinative factor.

      (b) In any survey of the subscribers of a telephone exchange subject to reclassification which is conducted by a telephone company in response to a petition for extended local calling telephone service, the Department of Public Utility Control shall approve and order such extended local calling if, after a hearing, the department finds that more than fifty per cent of the responding subscribers in each exchange required to be surveyed vote in favor of the additional extended local calling route and at least fifty per cent of all subscribers in each exchange required to be surveyed respond to the survey; provided, only validly completed and signed ballots shall be used in computing the required percentages.

      (c) Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes to the contrary, the Department of Public Utility Control shall consider a petition for extended local calling when (1) the petition is from an exchange which serves less than thirty-eight thousand equivalent main stations, (2) the petition is sponsored by the chief administrative officer of a distressed municipality, as defined in section 32-9p, which municipality is within the petitioning exchange, (3) the toll messages on the route requested average greater than or equal to four calls per customer per month from the petitioning exchange over a six-month period, and (4) the petitioning exchange has extended local calling to a contiguous exchange which has extended local calling to the exchange to which extended local calling is sought.

      (P.A. 79-330; P.A. 80-242; 80-482, S. 4, 40, 345, 348; P.A. 85-36; 85-187, S. 14, 15; P.A. 95-217, S. 8; P.A. 96-266, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 80-242 added Subsec. (b) re extension of local calling through survey of subscribers; P.A. 80-482 made division of public utility control an independent department and abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 85-36 changed, from at least 51% to more than 50%, the favorable vote necessary to require department order for extended local calling; P.A. 85-187 changed effective date of P.A. 85-36 from October 1, 1985 to June 1, 1985; P.A. 95-217 added new Subsec. (c) re requirements to petition for extended local calling; P.A. 96-266 amended Subsec. (c)(1) to increase to 38,000 the maximum number of equivalent main stations.

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      Sec. 16-256d. Itemized telephone bills for business customers. Each telephone company, as defined in section 16-1, shall, upon request of any business customer, provide the customer with an itemization of tariffed equipment and associated charges, indicating the number of telephones and lines and the types of service the customer is being billed for and the charge for each such telephone, line and service. Each such company shall, on a quarterly basis, notify its business customers of the availability of such itemizations.

      (P.A. 83-172.)

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      Sec. 16-256e. Recorded telephone message devices prohibited. No person may use any device which transmits an unsolicited recorded telephone message for any commercial, business or advertising purpose to any telephone customer in the state and which continues the call and message after the customer hangs up the receiver. Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be fined not more than five hundred dollars.

      (P.A. 83-419; P.A. 99-286, S. 11, 19.)

      History: P.A. 99-286 made technical changes, effective July 19, 1999.

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      Sec. 16-256f. Blocking service available to customers. Each telephone company and each certified telecommunications provider may make blocking service available to its customers and may charge the customer for providing such service.

      (P.A. 89-259, S. 4, 5; P.A. 94-74, S. 8, 11; P.A. 99-286, S. 12, 19.)

      History: P.A. 94-74 added provision re persons, firms or corporations certified to provide intrastate telecommunication service, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 99-286 changed reference to person, firm or corporation certified to provide intrastate telecommunications service to "certified telecommunications provider" and made a technical change, effective July 19, 1999.

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      Sec. 16-256g. Proceeding to determine monthly subscriber fee. Assessment of subscribers for Enhanced 9-1-1 Telecommunications Fund. (a) By June first of each year, the Department of Public Utility Control shall conduct a proceeding to determine the amount of the monthly fee to be assessed against each subscriber of: (1) Local telephone service, (2) commercial mobile radio service, as defined in 47 CFR Section 20.3, (3) voice over Internet protocol service, as defined in section 28-30b, and (4) prepaid wireless telephone service, as defined in section 28-30b, to fund the development and administration of the enhanced emergency 9-1-1 program. The department shall base such fee on the findings of the Commissioner of Public Safety, pursuant to subsection (c) of section 28-24, taking into consideration any existing moneys available in the Enhanced 9-1-1 Telecommunications Fund. The department shall consider the progressive wire line inclusion schedule contained in the final report of the task force to study enhanced 9-1-1 telecommunications services established by public act 95-318*. The department shall not approve any fee greater than fifty cents per month per access line nor shall it approve any fee that does not include the progressive wire line inclusion schedule.

      (b) Each telephone or telecommunications company providing local telephone service, each provider of commercial mobile radio service, each provider of prepaid wireless telephone service and each provider of voice over Internet protocol service shall assess against each subscriber, the fee established by the department pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, which shall be remitted to the Office of State Treasurer for deposit into the Enhanced 9-1-1 Telecommunications Fund established pursuant to section 28-30a, not later than the fifteenth day of each month.

      (P.A. 89-259, S. 3, 5; P.A. 96-150, S. 3, 5; P.A. 99-286, S. 13, 19; P.A. 07-106, S. 4.)

      *Note: Public act 95-318 is special in nature and therefore has not been codified but remains in full force and effect according to its terms.


      History: P.A. 96-150 established, in Subsec. (a), annual proceeding to determine amount of monthly subscriber fee, lettered existing provisions as Subsec. (b), and amended Subsec. (b) to require assessment of such fee by local service providers and commercial mobile radio service providers rather than by "domestic telephone companies", effective May 31, 1996; P.A. 99-286 amended Subsec. (b) by making a technical change, effective July 19, 1999; P.A. 07-106 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes, add Subdiv. (1) and (2) designators and add new Subdivs. (3) and (4) re voice over Internet protocol service and prepaid wireless telephone service and amended Subsec. (b) to add provisions re providers of prepaid wireless telephone service and voice over Internet protocol service and re fee remitted to Treasurer's office for deposit into fund not later than 15th day of each month.

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      Sec. 16-256h. Business to residential pricing ratio for basic exchange service. In a proceeding under subsection (a) of section 16-19, the Department of Public Utility Control may approve a modification of the existing business to residential pricing ratio for basic exchange service of a telephone company toward the then-current national average business to residential pricing ratio, as determined by the department, but shall not approve a modification which brings such ratio below two and seven-tenths to one prior to June 30, 1994, and shall not approve a modification which brings such ratio below two and five-tenths to one or the then-current national average business to residential pricing ratio, as determined by the department, whichever is higher, prior to June 30, 1995.

      (P.A. 93-330, S. 8, 9.)

      History: P.A. 93-330 effective July 2, 1993.

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      Sec. 16-256i. Primary local or intrastate interexchange carrier orders. Unauthorized switching. Penalty. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Customer" means (A) in the case of a residential customer, any adult who is authorized by the individual in whose name the local exchange carrier has established an account for telecommunications services to authorize a change in telecommunications services, and (B) in the case of a business customer, any individual who is authorized by the business to authorize a change in telecommunications services;

      (2) "Telemarketer" means any individual who, by telephone, initiates the sale of telecommunications services for a telecommunications company; and

      (3) "Telemarketing" means the act of soliciting by telephone the sale of telecommunications services.

      (b) A telecommunications company shall not submit a primary, local or intrastate interexchange carrier change order to a company providing local exchange telephone service prior to the order being confirmed in accordance with the provisions of Subpart K of Part 64 of Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations, as from time to time amended, and the provisions of this section, if applicable.

      (c) A telecommunications company or its affiliate or authorized representative using telemarketing to initiate the sale of telecommunications services shall comply with the following requirements for all such telemarketing calls: (1) The telemarketer shall identify himself by name and identify the telecommunications company providing the proposed services and the name of the business, firm, corporation, association, joint stock association, trust, partnership, or limited liability company, if different from the telecommunications company, for whom the call is made; (2) the telemarketer shall state that only the customer may authorize a change in service; (3) the telemarketer shall confirm that he is speaking to the customer; (4) the telemarketer shall clearly explain the proposed services in detail and explain that an affirmative response will change the customer's telecommunications carrier; (5) the telemarketer shall obtain from the customer an affirmative response that the customer agrees to a change in his primary, local or intrastate interexchange carrier; and (6) the primary, local or intrastate interexchange carrier change order or independent third party verification record shall identify the individual with whom the telemarketer confirmed the authorization to change the primary, local or intrastate interexchange carrier.

      (d) (1) A telecommunications company or its affiliate or authorized representative using telemarketing to initiate the sale of telecommunications services shall (A) prior to submitting a change in primary, local or intrastate interexchange carriers, obtain verbal authorization confirmed by an independent third party or written authorization of such change from the customer, and (B) not more than four business days after obtaining notification or confirmation that the change in carrier has been made, send by first class mail to the customer notification that the customer's primary, local or intrastate interexchange carrier has been changed, along with a postpaid postcard or toll-free number which the customer can use to deny authorization for the change order. If the telecommunications company receives a postcard or telephone call at the toll-free number provided in the notification denying authorization for the change, the company shall immediately notify the customer's previous carrier and shall cause the customer's primary, local or intrastate interexchange service to be switched back to the customer's previous carrier and shall: (i) Adjust the affected customer's bill so that the customer pays no more than the customer would have paid had his carrier not been switched; (ii) pay the previous carrier an amount equal to all charges paid by the customer after the change to the new carrier; and (iii) pay the previous carrier an amount equal to all expenses assessed by the local exchange company for switching the customer's primary, local or intrastate interexchange service.

      (2) It shall be an unfair or deceptive trade practice, in violation of chapter 735a, for any telecommunications company to unreasonably delay or deny a request by a customer to switch a customer's primary, local or intrastate interexchange carrier back to the customer's previous carrier.

      (e) The department shall adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54 to implement the provisions in this section.

      (f) A telecommunications company, or its affiliate or authorized representative using telemarketing to initiate the sale of telecommunications services, which the department determines, after notice and opportunity for a hearing as provided in section 16-41, has failed to comply with the provisions of this section or section 16-256j shall pay to the state a civil penalty of not more than ten thousand dollars per violation.

      (P.A. 95-326; P.A. 96-266, S. 1; P.A. 98-148, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 31.)

      History: P.A. 96-266 made section applicable to "local" interexchange carrier change orders; P.A. 98-148 added new Subsec. (a) re definitions, designated most of existing provisions as Subsec. (b) and made technical changes, added new Subsecs. (c) to (e) re telemarketing, designated existing penalty provision as Subsec. (f) and added to Subsec. (f) references to telemarketing and Sec. 16-256j; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 amended Subsec. (f) to increase maximum penalty from $5,000 to $10,000.

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      Sec. 16-256j. Billing for telecommunications services. Information re carriers, basic, local service and taxes. All bills for telecommunications services, whether issued by a telecommunications company or by a billing service, shall (1) contain the name of each carrier providing service as well as a toll-free number for customer complaints for each such carrier printed clearly and conspicuously on the portion of the bill relating to each carrier; (2) clearly and conspicuously identify on the bill those charges for which nonpayment will not result in disconnection of basic, local service; and (3) only label a charge as a tax if such tax is directly assessed by the taxing entity on the customer through the telecommunications company, which tax shall appear as a separate charge on such bill.

      (P.A. 98-148, S. 2; P.A. 02-32, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 02-32 added provisions as Subdivs. (2) and (3) re charges that do not relate to basic, local service and re labeling of charges as taxes on bills, and inserted Subdiv. (1) designator.

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      Sec. 16-256k. Disclosure for removal or change in telecommunications service. Disclosure for promotional offerings. Each telephone company, as defined in section 16-1, and each certified telecommunications provider, as defined in said section 16-1, shall clearly and conspicuously disclose, in writing, to customers, upon subscription and annually thereafter, (1) whether the removal or change in any telecommunications service will result in the loss of a discount or other change in the rate charged for any telecommunications service subscribed to or used by the customer; and (2) for any promotional offering filed on and after October 1, 2002, with the Department of Public Utility Control pursuant to subsection (e) of section 16-247f, that the offering is a promotion and will be in effect for a limited period of time.

      (P.A. 02-32, S. 2.)

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      Sec. 16-257. Recording of agreement of consolidation or merger of electric and gas companies. Any corporation, incorporated for or engaged in the business of manufacturing, distributing or using electricity for purposes of light, heat, power or other lawful purposes, or supplying gas for any or all of said purposes, which has consolidated with or merged into itself, or consolidates with or merges into itself, any other corporation, in accordance with the provisions of its charter and of the statutes, may record in the office of the Secretary of the State the agreement of such consolidation or merger. When such agreement has been so recorded, it shall not be necessary to record the same in the towns where the property of such consolidating companies or such companies so being merged is located, but the same shall be valid and effectual notice of the facts therein set forth, provided a certificate shall be filed in the office of the town clerk of each town where the property of any such consolidating companies or of such companies so being merged is located, setting forth the names of the consolidating company and the companies so consolidated or the name of the company into which such companies owning such property may have become merged and the names of such companies, the date of such agreement and the fact that the same has been filed and recorded in the office of the Secretary of the State. The clerk of any town where any such certificate is filed shall record the same.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5669.)

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      Sec. 16-258. Standards concerning electricity and gas. Section 16-258 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5670; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 112, 348; P.A. 95-217, S. 9.)

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      Sec. 16-258a. Registration of natural gas sellers. Procedures. Penalties. (a) Each person that sells natural gas to an end user in the state and is not (1) a gas company, as defined in section 16-1, (2) a municipal gas utility established under chapter 101 or any other gas utility owned, leased, maintained, operated, managed or controlled by any unit of local government under any general statute or any public or special act, or (3) a gas pipeline or gas transmission company subject to the provisions of chapter 208, shall register with the Department of Public Utility Control prior to making any such sale by filing a form supplied by said department. The registration period shall be for a one-year term from October first to September thirtieth of the following year.

      (b) Each person registered with the department shall: (1) Maintain a bond or other security for at least the registration period or longer in amount and form approved by the department, to ensure the person's financial responsibility and its supply of natural gas to end-use customers in accordance with contracts, agreements or arrangements; (2) have a contractual relationship with an entity or entities to purchase natural gas supply; (3) comply with the National Labor Relations Act and regulations, if applicable; (4) comply with the Connecticut Unfair Trade Practices Act and applicable regulations; and (5) agree to cooperate with (A) each gas company, (B) each municipal gas utility established under chapter 101 or any other gas utility owned, leased, maintained, operated, managed or controlled by any unit of local government under any general statute or special act, (C) each gas pipeline or gas transmission company subject to the provisions of chapter 208, (D) the department, and (E) all other gas suppliers in the event of an emergency condition that may jeopardize the safety and reliability of the state's natural gas system.

      (c) Each person registered with the department shall submit to the department by July fifteenth of each year, on a form prescribed by the department, an update of information the department deems relevant. Each registered person shall pay an annual registration fee to be determined by the department which shall not exceed the actual administrative costs of the department and provide a bond or other security as described in subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of this section. If the department determines that a person registered with the department has not complied with the requirements of subsection (b) or (c) of this section, the department shall notify such person that such person's registration expires on September thirtieth of that year and such person shall no longer be authorized to sell natural gas to an end user in the state.

      (d) A registered person shall notify the department at least ten days before a change in corporate structure that affects the person. No registration may be transferred without the prior approval of the department. The department may assess additional registration fees to pay the administrative costs of reviewing a request for such transfer.

      (e) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be subject to sanctions by the department in accordance with section 16-41, which may include, but are not limited to, the suspension or revocation of such registration or a prohibition on accepting new customers.

      (P.A. 95-114, S. 1, 5; P.A. 98-218, S. 1, 3; P.A. 00-91, S. 1; P.A. 01-49, S. 10; P.A. 03-27, S. 1; P.A. 04-236, S. 14.)

      History: P.A. 95-114 effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 98-218 moved "in the state", effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 00-91 made technical changes in existing provisions, designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and inserted new Subsecs. (b) to (e), inclusive, re gas registrant requirements and penalties; P.A. 01-49 amended Subsec. (a) to make a technical change; P.A. 03-27 amended Subsec. (a) to designate the registration period as a one-year term from October first to September thirtieth, amended Subsec. (b) to add "for at least the registration period or longer", amended Subsec. (c) to replace provision re not less than annual submission with provision re submission "by July fifteenth of each year", to delete provision re notice of change in corporate structure, to add provision requiring a bond or other security, and to add provision re failure to comply with Subsecs. (b) or (c), and amended Subsec. (d) to add provision re notification ten days before a change in corporate structure, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 04-236 amended Subsec. (c) to make a technical change, effective June 8, 2004.

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      Sec. 16-258b. Registration of electric generating facilities. Each person, as defined in section 16-1, operating an electric generating facility in this state shall register with the Department of Public Utility Control. Not later than January 1, 2001, the department shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 to establish standards and procedures for the registration of electric generators pursuant to this section. The provisions of this section shall not apply to any (1) hydroelectric generating facility, or (2) electric generating device (A) with a generating capacity of four megawatts or less, or (B) that is owned and operated by an electric distribution company or gas company, as defined in section 16-1.

      (P.A. 00-186, S. 2.)

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      Sec. 16-258c. Dual-fuel capability requirements for electric generating facilities. On and after January 1, 2008, the Department of Public Utility Control shall order and direct that any intermediate or base load electric generating unit owned by an electric distribution company or covered by a bilateral contract with an electric distribution company that is fueled by either oil or natural gas, with a rating of not less than sixty-five megawatts, shall have the actual ability to operate on demand for a forty-eight-hour period using either oil or natural gas, provided the department may determine that dual fuel capability is not required for a specific generating unit if imposing such requirement is not in the best interest of Connecticut consumers.

      (P.A. 07-242, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 07-242 effective June 4, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-259. Inspection of meters. Upon petition of any person and the payment of a fee of ten dollars for each meter, the Department of Public Utility Control may cause to be inspected any meter used in measuring electricity, gas or water supplied to the petitioner. The department may prescribe such limits of variation from accurate registration by such meters as it determines to be reasonable. The company supplying electricity, gas or water through any such meter shall reimburse the petitioner for the inspection fee if the meter is found not to register accurately within the limit of variation so prescribed, and the company may not again use the meter until it is corrected and approved by the department.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5671; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 113, 348; P.A. 81-348, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 81-348 increased fee from $1 to $10 and made inspection optional rather than mandatory.

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      Sec. 16-259a. Inaccurate billing. Financial liability of customer. Payment plan. (a) No electric, electric distribution, gas or water company or electric supplier, which inaccurately bills a retail customer for service may bill or otherwise hold the customer financially liable for more than one year after the customer receives such service, unless the customer, either alone or with an individual other than an employee of the company, by an affirmative act, is responsible for the inaccurate billing or fails to provide for reasonable access to the premises where the company's meter is located by an employee of the company during business hours for the purpose of reading the meter.

      (b) Any such electric, electric distribution, gas or water company or electric supplier which inaccurately bills a retail customer for service may bill or otherwise hold the customer financially liable for not more than one year after the customer receives such service, unless a delayed bill for the service (1) would deprive the customer of the opportunity to apply for or receive energy assistance or (2) is the result of the customer's meter erroneously registering another customer's consumption, in which case the company may not bill or otherwise hold the customer liable for the service provided to another customer.

      (c) No telephone company or certified telecommunications provider that inaccurately bills a retail customer for service may bill or otherwise hold the customer financially liable for more than two years or the time provided in federal law, whichever is longer, after the customer receives such service, unless the customer, either alone or with a person other than an employee of the telephone company or certified telecommunications provider by an affirmative act, is responsible for the inaccurate billing.

      (d) Any company, electric supplier or certified telecommunications provider that holds a customer financially liable under subsection (a), (b) or (c) of this section shall establish a payment plan which prorates all arrearages for service the customer owes over a period of time that is no shorter than the period for which the customer is being held financially liable by such company, electric supplier or certified telecommunications provider. The payment plan shall provide that no payment charged to a customer under such plan shall exceed fifty per cent of the average amount that the company charged such customer for each billing period over the previous twelve-month period for services received during that period. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, a company, electric supplier or certified telecommunications provider may require immediate payment of the full amount due under subsection (a), (b) or (c) of this section if such customer fails to make timely payments in accordance with the payment plan established by such company, electric supplier or certified telecommunications provider.

      (P.A. 84-218; P.A. 94-74, S. 9, 11; P.A. 96-136; P.A. 98-28, S. 37, 117; P.A. 99-286, S. 14, 19.)

      History: P.A. 94-74 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) by deleting telephone companies, and added new Subsec. (c) re telephone companies and persons, firms or corporations certified to provide intrastate telecommunication services, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 96-136 changed period in Subsecs. (a) and (b) for which an electric, gas or water company may hold a customer financially liable from six months or three billing periods to one year after the customer receives service and added Subsec. (d) re payment plans; P.A. 98-28 added electric suppliers and electric distribution companies, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-286 changed reference to person, firm or corporation certified to provide intrastate telecommunications services to "certified telecommunications provider" and made technical changes, effective July 19, 1999.

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      Sec. 16-260. Water meters may be required. Any water company supplying water to the inhabitants of any city, town, village or borough, for domestic, manufacturing or fire protection purposes, may refuse to furnish water, except by metered measurement at established rates, to the owner or occupant of any premises upon which water is allowed to be wasted by reason of defective fixtures, or otherwise, after notification to such owner or occupant and reasonable time given to him to make necessary repairs.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5672.)

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      Sec. 16-261. Extension of electric lines to unserved areas. Determination of rates. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall order and direct the electric and electric distribution companies providing electric distribution services in this state to extend lines in their chartered territory to all unserved areas having a density of subscribers for electric distribution service averaging at least two per mile on such proposed new lines, in accordance with the provisions of this section.

      (b) The Department of Public Utility Control is directed, in considering the rates of electric or electric distribution companies or in the proceedings having to do with such rates, to consider the expenses and revenues of each company as a whole, in arriving at a fair return on the fair value of such properties. In prescribing a rate for service on such new lines, the department shall exercise its statutory powers, except that the guarantee required shall not exceed thirteen dollars and fifty cents per mile per month.

      (c) The Department of Public Utility Control is directed to advance the objects of this section in every lawful manner.

      (d) Nothing in this section shall authorize the Department of Public Utility Control to order and direct electric or electric distribution companies to extend their lines in their chartered territory over or under any body of water or elsewhere than along public highways unless such department, exercising its powers under section 16-20, finds such extension to be economically justifiable.

      (1949 Rev., S. 5673; 1955, S. 2616d; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 114, 348; P.A. 98-28, S. 102, 117.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 98-28 amended Subsec. (a) by changing electric utility companies distributing current to electric and electric distribution companies providing electric distribution services and amended Subsecs. (b) and (d) by adding electric distribution companies, effective July 1, 1998.

      To refuse an extension the commission must find facts from which it reasonably concludes that the order for extension would amount to a use of the company's property without just compensation or to the imposition of a discriminatory rate upon other subscribers. 142 C. 359.

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      Sec. 16-261a. Interagency electric and magnetic fields task force; composition; study. Assessment of electric public service companies for specified expenses of task force. (a) There is established an interagency task force to study electric and magnetic fields. The task force shall determine the appropriate role of the state in addressing the potential problems associated with electric and magnetic fields and may make recommendations to the General Assembly regarding any legislation which it deems appropriate. The task force shall consist of (1) the Commissioner of Public Health or his designee; (2) the Commissioner of Environmental Protection or his designee; (3) the Commissioner of Economic and Community Development or his designee; (4) the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management or his designee; (5) the chairperson of the Public Utilities Control Authority or his designee; and (6) the chairman of the Connecticut Siting Council or his designee.

      (b) The Commissioner of Environmental Protection, in consultation with the Department of Public Health and the Department of Public Utility Control, shall assess all electric public service companies, as defined in section 16-1, for a total of one hundred fifty thousand dollars for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1992. The commissioner, in consultation with the task force, shall develop an equitable method of assessing the companies for their reasonable pro rata share of the assessment. The moneys assessed by the commissioner shall be deposited with the Treasurer and shall only be expended by the interagency electric and magnetic fields task force for the purpose of (1) contracting for the services of electric and magnetic fields experts to assist the task force in determining the need for and the development of recommendations to the public concerning prudent methods of avoiding exposure to electric and magnetic fields, and (2) reviewing and compiling the existing scientific literature concerning electric and magnetic fields to identify any significant adverse effects caused by exposure to electric and magnetic fields and to determine whether there are gaps in the existing scientific literature that could be filled by original scientific research completed in Connecticut. The task force shall submit reports of its findings and recommendations to the joint standing committees on energy and technology, public health and the environment on or before February 1, 1998.

      (P.A. 91-317, S. 1-3; P.A. 92-169, S. 1-3; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-250, S. 1; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 96-211, S. 1, 5, 6; 96-245, S. 12, 44.)

      History: P.A. 92-169 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize the task force to make recommendations to the general assembly and amended Subsec. (b) to provide for consultation by the commissioner with the task force in assessing companies under this section and to change the date re submission of reports by the task force from February 1, 1992, to February 1, 1995; P.A. 93-381 replaced department and commissioner of health services with department and commissioner of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-250 and P.A. 96-211 replaced Commissioner and Department of Economic Development with Commissioner and Department of Economic and Community Development; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995 (Revisor's note: The phrase "Commissioner of the Department of Environmental Protection" in Subsec. (b) was replaced editorially by the Revisors with "Commissioner of Environmental Protection" for consistency with customary statutory usage); P.A. 96-245 amended Subsec. (b) to change the date re submission of reports by the task force from February 1, 1995, to February 1, 1998, effective June 6, 1996.

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      Sec. 16-262. Gas companies authorized to deal in natural gas. Any gas company is authorized to buy, manufacture, produce, sell, furnish, transport, store, distribute, dispose of or otherwise deal in natural gas and a mixture of natural and manufactured gas and the by-products thereof, to the same extent and with the same rights, privileges and limitations conferred or imposed upon it with respect to manufactured gas, and within the same territorial limitations within which it is authorized to deal in manufactured gas.

      (1951, S. 2614d.)

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      Sec. 16-262a. Water company to have area resident as director or advisory council of area residents. The board of directors of each water company shall include at least one member who is a resident of the area served by such company and who is not an officer or employee of the company; provided, in lieu of this requirement, such company may establish an area advisory council, consisting of three or more members who are residents of the area served by the company and who are not officers or employees of the company. The members of the advisory council shall be appointed as follows: (1) If the service area contains three or more municipalities, the chief elected official of each municipality shall appoint one member to the council, (2) if the service area contains two municipalities, the chief elected official of each municipality shall appoint one member and the local legislative body shall appoint one member and (3) if the service area contains one municipality, the chief elected official shall appoint two members and the local legislative body shall appoint two members. Such company shall report to the Department of Public Utility Control, within thirty days after appointment, the names and towns of residence of such appointees. Each company having such a council shall, through its officers and board of directors, consult and advise with the council on matters of local interest.

      (1961, P.A. 220; P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 115, 348; P.A. 91-300, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 91-300 added provision concerning the appointment of advisory council members by the chief elected official and the local legislative body, replacing provision whereby company appointed members.

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      Sec. 16-262b. Notice of discharge of explosives or highway excavation to gas companies. Section 16-262b is repealed.

      (1961, P.A. 278; P.A. 77-350, S. 12.)

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      Sec. 16-262c. Termination of utility service for nonpayment, when prohibited. Amortization agreements. Moneys allowed to be deducted from customers' accounts and moneys to be included in rates as an operating expense. Hardship cases. Notice. Regulations. Annual reports. Privacy of individual customer utility usage and billing information. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of the general statutes no electric, electric distribution, gas, telephone or water company, no electric supplier or certified telecommunications provider, and no municipal utility furnishing electric, gas, telephone or water service shall cause cessation of any such service by reason of delinquency in payment for such service (1) on any Friday, Saturday, Sunday, legal holiday or day before any legal holiday, provided such a company, electric supplier, certified telecommunications provider or municipal utility may cause cessation of such service to a nonresidential account on a Friday which is not a legal holiday or the day before a legal holiday when the business offices of the company, electric supplier, certified telecommunications provider or municipal utility are open to the public the succeeding Saturday, (2) at any time during which the business offices of said company, electric supplier, certified telecommunications provider or municipal utility are not open to the public, or (3) within one hour before the closing of the business offices of said company, electric supplier or municipal utility.

      (b) (1) From November first to May first, inclusive, no electric or electric distribution company, as defined in section 16-1, no electric supplier and no municipal utility furnishing electricity shall terminate or refuse to reinstate residential electric service in hardship cases where the customer lacks the financial resources to pay his or her entire account. From November first to May first, inclusive, no gas company and no municipal utility furnishing gas shall terminate or refuse to reinstate residential gas service in hardship cases where the customer uses such gas for heat and lacks the financial resources to pay his or her entire account, except a gas company that, between May second and October thirty-first, terminated gas service to a residential customer who uses gas for heat and who, during the previous period of November first to May first, had gas service maintained because of hardship status, may refuse to reinstate the gas service from November first to May first, inclusive, only if the customer has failed to pay, since the preceding November first, the lesser of: (A) Twenty per cent of the outstanding principal balance owed the gas company as of the date of termination, (B) one hundred dollars, or (C) the minimum payments due under the customer's amortization agreement. Notwithstanding any other provision of the general statutes to the contrary, no electric, electric distribution or gas company, no electric supplier and no municipal utility furnishing electricity or gas shall terminate or refuse to reinstate residential electric or gas service where the customer lacks the financial resources to pay his or her entire account and for which customer or a member of the customer's household the termination or failure to reinstate such service would create a life-threatening situation.

      (2) During any period in which a residential customer is subject to termination, an electric, electric distribution or gas company, an electric supplier or a municipal utility furnishing electricity or gas shall provide such residential customer whose account is delinquent an opportunity to enter into a reasonable amortization agreement with such company, electric supplier or utility to pay such delinquent account and to avoid termination of service. Such amortization agreement shall allow such customer adequate opportunity to apply for and receive the benefits of any available energy assistance program. An amortization agreement shall be subject to amendment on customer request if there is a change in the customer's financial circumstances.

      (3) As used in this section, (A) "household income" means the combined income over a twelve-month period of the customer and all adults, except children of the customer, who are and have been members of the household for six months or more, and (B) "hardship case" includes, but is not limited to: (i) A customer receiving local, state or federal public assistance; (ii) a customer whose sole source of financial support is Social Security, Veterans' Administration or unemployment compensation benefits; (iii) a customer who is head of the household and is unemployed, and the household income is less than three hundred per cent of the poverty level determined by the federal government; (iv) a customer who is seriously ill or who has a household member who is seriously ill; (v) a customer whose income falls below one hundred twenty-five per cent of the poverty level determined by the federal government; and (vi) a customer whose circumstances threaten a deprivation of food and the necessities of life for himself or dependent children if payment of a delinquent bill is required.

      (4) In order for a residential customer of a gas or electric distribution company using gas or electricity for heat to be eligible to have any moneys due and owing deducted from the customer's delinquent account pursuant to this subdivision, the company furnishing gas or electricity shall require that the customer (A) apply and be eligible for benefits available under the Connecticut energy assistance program or state appropriated fuel assistance program; (B) authorize the company to send a copy of the customer's monthly bill directly to any energy assistance agency for payment; (C) enter into and comply with an amortization agreement, which agreement is consistent with decisions and policies of the Department of Public Utility Control. Such an amortization agreement shall reduce a customer's payment by the amount of the benefits reasonably anticipated from the Connecticut energy assistance program, state appropriated fuel assistance program or other energy assistance sources. Unless the customer requests otherwise, the company shall budget a customer's payments over a twelve-month period with an affordable increment to be applied to any arrearage, provided such payment plan will not result in loss of any energy assistance benefits to the customer. If a customer authorizes the company to send a copy of his monthly bill directly to any energy assistance agency for payment, the energy assistance agency shall make payments directly to the company. If, on April thirtieth, a customer has been in compliance with the requirements of subparagraphs (A) to (C), inclusive, of this subdivision, during the period starting on the preceding November first, or from such time as the customer's account becomes delinquent, the company shall deduct from such customer's delinquent account an additional amount equal to the amount of money paid by the customer between the preceding November first and April thirtieth and paid on behalf of the customer through the Connecticut energy assistance program and state appropriated fuel assistance program. Any customer in compliance with the requirements of subparagraphs (A) to (C), inclusive, of this subdivision, on April thirtieth who continues to comply with an amortization agreement through the succeeding October thirty-first, shall also have an amount equal to the amount paid pursuant to such agreement and any amount paid on behalf of such customer between May first and the succeeding October thirty-first deducted from the customer's delinquent account. In no event shall the deduction of any amounts pursuant to this subdivision result in a credit balance to the customer's account. No customer shall be denied the benefits of this subdivision due to an error by the company. The Department of Public Utility Control shall allow the amounts deducted from the customer's account pursuant to the implementation plan, described in subdivision (5) of this subsection, to be recovered by the company in its rates as an operating expense, pursuant to said implementation plan. If the customer fails to comply with the terms of the amortization agreement or any decision of the department rendered in lieu of such agreement and the requirements of subparagraphs (A) to (C), inclusive, of this subdivision, the company may terminate service to the customer, pursuant to all applicable regulations, provided such termination shall not occur between November first and May first.

      (5) Each gas and electric distribution company shall submit to the Department of Public Utility Control annually, on or before July first, an implementation plan which shall include information concerning amortization agreements, counseling, reinstatement of eligibility, rate impacts and any other information deemed relevant by the department. The Department of Public Utility Control may, in consultation with the Office of Policy and Management, approve or modify such plan within ninety days of receipt of the plan. If the department does not take any action on such plan within ninety days of its receipt, the plan shall automatically take effect at the end of the ninety-day period, provided the department may extend such period for an additional thirty days by notifying the company before the end of the ninety-day period. Any amount recovered by a company in its rates pursuant to this subsection shall not include any amount approved by the Department of Public Utility Control as an uncollectible expense. The department may deny all or part of the recovery required by this subsection if it determines that the company seeking recovery has been imprudent, inefficient or acting in violation of statutes or regulations regarding amortization agreements.

      (6) On or after January 1, 1993, the Department of Public Utility Control may require gas companies to expand the provisions of subdivisions (4) and (5) of this subsection to all hardship customers. Any such requirement shall not be effective until November 1, 1993.

      (7) (A) All electric, electric distribution and gas companies, electric suppliers and municipal utilities furnishing electricity or gas shall collaborate in developing, subject to approval by the Department of Public Utility Control, standard provisions for the notice of delinquency and impending termination under subsection (a) of section 16-262d. Each such company and utility shall place on the front of such notice a provision that the company, electric supplier or utility shall not effect termination of service to a residential dwelling for nonpayment of disputed bills during the pendency of any complaint. In addition, the notice shall state that the customer must pay current and undisputed bill amounts during the pendency of the complaint. (B) At the beginning of any discussion with a customer concerning a reasonable amortization agreement, any such company or utility shall inform the customer (i) of the availability of a process for resolving disputes over what constitutes a reasonable amortization agreement, (ii) that the company, electric supplier or utility will refer such a dispute to one of its review officers as the first step in attempting to resolve the dispute, and (iii) that the company, electric supplier or utility shall not effect termination of service to a residential dwelling for nonpayment of a delinquent account during the pendency of any complaint, investigation, hearing or appeal initiated by the customer, unless the customer fails to pay undisputed bills, or undisputed portions of bills, for service received during such period. (C) Each such company, electric supplier and utility shall inform and counsel all customers who are hardship cases as to the availability of all public and private energy conservation programs, including programs sponsored or subsidized by such companies and utilities, eligibility criteria, where to apply, and the circumstances under which such programs are available without cost.

      (8) The Department of Public Utility Control shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 to carry out the provisions of this subsection. Such regulations shall include, but not be limited to, criteria for determining hardship cases and for reasonable amortization agreements, including appeal of such agreements, for categories of customers. Such regulations may include the establishment of a reasonable rate of interest which a company may charge on the unpaid balance of a customer's delinquent bill and a description of the relationship and responsibilities of electric suppliers to customers.

      (c) Each electric, electric distribution and gas company, electric supplier and municipal utility shall, not later than December first, annually, submit a report to the department and the General Assembly indicating (1) the number of customers in each of the following categories and the total delinquent balances for such customers as of the preceding May first: (A) Customers who are hardship cases and (i) who made arrangements for reasonable amortization agreements, (ii) who did not make such arrangements, and (B) customers who are nonhardship cases and who made arrangements for reasonable amortization, (2) (A) the number of heating customers receiving energy assistance during the preceding heating season and the total amount of such assistance, and (B) the total balance of the accounts of such customers after all energy assistance is applied to the accounts, (3) the number of hardship cases reinstated between November first of the preceding year and May first of the same year, the number of hardship cases terminated between May first of the same year and November first and the number of hardship cases reinstated during each month from May to November, inclusive, of the same year, (4) the number of reasonable amortization agreements executed and the number breached during the same year by (A) hardship cases, and (B) nonhardship cases, and (5) the number of accounts of (A) hardship cases, and (B) nonhardship cases for which part or all of the outstanding balance is written off as uncollectible during the preceding year and the total amount of such uncollectibles.

      (d) Nothing in this section shall (1) prohibit a public service company, electric supplier or municipal utility from terminating residential utility service upon request of the customer or in accordance with section 16-262d upon default by the customer on an amortization agreement or collecting delinquent accounts through legal processes, including the processes authorized by section 16-262f, or (2) relieve such company, electric supplier or municipal utility of its responsibilities set forth in sections 16-262d and 16-262e to occupants of residential dwellings or, with respect to a public service company or electric supplier, the responsibilities set forth in section 19a-109.

      (e) No provision of the Freedom of Information Act, as defined in section 1-200, shall be construed to require or permit a municipal utility furnishing electric, gas or water service, a municipality furnishing water or sewer service, a district established by special act or pursuant to chapter 105 and furnishing water or sewer service or a regional authority established by special act to furnish water or sewer service to disclose records under the Freedom of Information Act, as defined in section 1-200, which identify or could lead to identification of the utility usage or billing information of individual customers, to the extent such disclosure would constitute an invasion of privacy.

      (f) If an electric supplier suffers a loss of revenue by operation of this section, the supplier may make a claim for such revenue to the department. The electric distribution company shall reimburse the electric supplier for such losses found to be reasonable by the department at the lower of (1) the price of the contract between the supplier and the customer, or (2) the electric distribution company's price to customers for default service, as determined by the department. The electric distribution company may recover such reimbursement, along with transaction costs, through the systems benefits charge.

      (1969, P.A. 194, S. 1; P.A. 75-625, S. 2, 8; P.A. 79-362, S. 1, 2; P.A. 83-505, S. 1, 3; P.A. 90-338; P.A. 91-150, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-39, S. 1, 3; 95-274, S. 2; P.A. 96-46, S. 3; 96-204; P.A. 97-9, S. 1, 2; 97-20, S. 1, 2; 97-47, S. 32; P.A. 98-28, S. 38, 117; P.A. 99-222, S. 14, 19; P.A. 03-47, S. 1; P.A. 07-242, S. 67.)

      History: P.A. 75-625 included telephone companies and service and municipal utilities providing gas, electric, telephone or water service in provisions and added "notwithstanding" phrase; P.A. 79-362 prohibited cessation of services to any customer because of delinquent payment "within one hour before the closing" of business office and added Subsecs. (b) and (c); P.A. 83-505 renumbered Subsec. (b)(4) as Subdiv. (5) and inserted new Subdiv. (4) setting forth requirements re notice to customers of termination and reasonable amortization agreement procedures and energy conservation programs and relettered Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d) and inserted new Subsec. (c) requiring companies and utilities to submit annual report consisting of data re delinquencies and terminations; P.A. 90-338 added Subsec. (e) re nondisclosure of certain customer information; P.A. 91-150 inserted new Subsec. (b)(4) to (6) establishing procedures which allow a gas company to deduct moneys from a customer's bill upon compliance with certain conditions and authorizing gas companies to include such moneys deducted as an operating expense, requiring each gas company to annually submit a report to the department concerning the procedures and authorizing the department to expand the procedures to apply to all hardship customers, renumbering as necessary; P.A. 95-39 amended Subsec. (a) by dividing Subsec. into Subdivs. and adding proviso in Subdiv. (1) re nonresidential accounts, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-274 amended Subsec. (b)(1) by adding provision re life-threatening termination or refusal to reinstate and Subdiv. (b)(3) by adding definition of "household income", changing lettering and numbering and in new (iii) adding provision re federal poverty level; P.A. 96-46 amended Subsec. (b)(5) to make the approval or modification of plans by the department discretionary rather than mandatory and to add provision re effect of plan if department takes no action on it; P.A. 96-204 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to add exception allowing gas companies to refuse to reinstate service in certain circumstances and made technical changes to Subsec. (b)(2); P.A. 97-9 amended Subsec. (a)(1) to delete termination date of July 1, 1997, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 97-20 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to substitute "the preceding November first" for "April fifteenth", effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 97-47 substituted "the Freedom of Information Act, as defined in Sec. 1-18a" for "chapter 3"; P.A. 98-28 added provisions re electric suppliers and electric distribution companies, made technical changes and added new Subsec. (f) re electric supplier losses, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-222 amended Subsec. (a) by adding "certified telecommunications provider" and making a technical change, effective June 29, 1999; P.A. 03-47 amended Subsec. (b)(4) and (5) to include electric distribution companies and make conforming changes; P.A. 07-242 changed "April fifteenth" to "May first" and made conforming and technical changes in Subsecs. (b) and (c).

      Cited. 183 C. 85.

      Cited. 12 CA 499. Cited. 25 CA 226.


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      Sec. 16-262d. Termination of residential utility service on account of nonpayment. Notice. Nontermination in event of illness during pendency of customer complaint or investigation. Amortization agreement. Appeal. Notice re credit rating information. (a) No electric, electric distribution, gas, telephone or water company, no electric supplier and no municipal utility furnishing electric, gas or water service may terminate such service to a residential dwelling on account of nonpayment of a delinquent account unless such company, electric supplier or municipal utility first gives notice of such delinquency and impending termination by first class mail addressed to the customer to which such service is billed, at least thirteen calendar days prior to the proposed termination, except that if an electric, electric distribution or gas company, electric supplier or municipal utility furnishing electric or gas service has issued a notice under this subsection but has not terminated service prior to issuing a new bill to the customer, such company, electric supplier or municipal utility may terminate such service only after mailing the customer an additional notice of the impending termination, addressed to the customer to which such service is billed either (1) by first class mail at least thirteen calendar days prior to the proposed termination or (2) by certified mail, at least seven calendar days prior to the proposed termination. In the event that multiple dates of proposed termination are provided to a customer, no such company, electric supplier or municipal utility shall terminate service prior to the latest of such dates. For purposes of this subsection, the thirteen-day periods and seven-day period shall commence on the date such notice is mailed. If such company, electric supplier or municipal utility does not terminate service within one hundred twenty days after mailing the initial notice of termination, such company, electric supplier or municipal utility shall give the customer a new notice at least thirteen days prior to termination. Every termination notice issued by a public service company, electric supplier or municipal utility shall contain or be accompanied by an explanation of the rights of the customer provided in subsection (c) of this section.

      (b) No such company, electric supplier or municipal utility shall effect termination of service for nonpayment during such time as any resident of a dwelling to which such service is furnished is seriously ill, if the fact of such serious illness is certified to such company, electric supplier or municipal utility by a registered physician within such period of time after the mailing of a termination notice pursuant to subsection (a) of this section as the Department of Public Utility Control may by regulation establish, provided the customer agrees to amortize the unpaid balance of his account over a reasonable period of time and keeps current his account for utility service as charges accrue in each subsequent billing period.

      (c) No such company, electric supplier or municipal utility shall effect termination of service to a residential dwelling for nonpayment during the pendency of any complaint, investigation, hearing or appeal, initiated by a customer within such period of time after the mailing of a termination notice pursuant to subsection (a) of this section as said Department of Public Utility Control may by regulation establish; provided, any telephone company during the pendency of any complaint, investigation, hearing or appeal may terminate telephone service if the amount of charges accruing and outstanding subsequent to the initiation of any complaint, investigation, hearing or appeal exceeds on a monthly basis the average monthly bill for the previous three months or if the customer fails to keep current his telephone account for all undisputed charges or fails to comply with any amortization agreement as hereafter provided.

      (d) Any customer who has initiated a complaint or investigation under subsection (c) of this section shall be given an opportunity for review of such complaint or investigation by a review officer of the company, electric supplier or municipal utility other than a member of such company's, electric supplier's or municipal utility's credit department, provided the Department of Public Utility Control may waive this requirement for any company, electric supplier or municipal utility employing fewer than twenty-five full-time employees, which review shall include consideration of whether the customer should be permitted to amortize the unpaid balance of his account over a reasonable period of time. No termination shall be effected for any customer complying with any such amortization agreement, provided such customer also keeps current his account for utility service as charges accrue in each subsequent billing period.

      (e) Any customer whose complaint or request for an investigation has resulted in a determination by a company, electric supplier or municipal utility which is adverse to him may appeal such determination to the Department of Public Utility Control or a hearing officer appointed by the department.

      (f) If, following the receipt of a termination notice or the entering into of an amortization agreement, the customer makes a payment or payments amounting to twenty per cent of the balance due, the public service company or electric supplier shall not terminate service without giving notice to the customer, in accordance with the provisions of this section, of the conditions the customer must meet to avoid termination, but such subsequent notice shall not entitle such customer to further investigation, review or appeal by the company, electric supplier, municipal utility or department.

      (g) No electric distribution, gas, telephone or water company, certified telecommunications provider, gas registrant or municipal utility furnishing electric, gas or water service shall submit to a credit rating agency, as defined in section 36a-695, any information about a residential customer's nonpayment for electric, gas, telephone, telecommunications or water service unless the customer is more than sixty days delinquent in paying for such service. In no event shall such a company, certified telecommunications provider, gas registrant or municipal utility submit to a credit rating agency any information about a residential customer's nonpayment for such service if the customer has initiated a complaint, investigation hearing or appeal with regard to such service under subsection (c) of this section that is pending before the department. If such a company, certified telecommunications provider, gas registrant or municipal utility intends to submit to a credit rating agency information about a customer's nonpayment for service, it shall, at least thirty days before submitting such information, send the customer by first class mail notification that includes the statement, "AS AUTHORIZED BY LAW, FOR RESIDENTIAL ACCOUNTS, WE SUPPLY PAYMENT INFORMATION TO CREDIT RATING AGENCIES. IF YOUR ACCOUNT IS MORE THAN SIXTY DAYS DELINQUENT, THE DELINQUENCY REPORT COULD HARM YOUR CREDIT RATING".

      (P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; 75-625, S. 1, 8; P.A. 77-20; 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 116, 348; P.A. 96-141; P.A. 97-11; P.A. 98-28, S. 39, 117; 98-254; P.A. 00-41.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 allowed replacement of public utilities commission with public utilities control authority where appearing in P.A. 75-625; P.A. 77-20 required 13 days' notice of termination rather than 7 days' notice and made period begin on date notice mailed; P.A. 77-614 replaced authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division of public utility control an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 96-141 amended Subsec. (a) to add provision re 7 days' notice and to require utilities to include an explanation of customers' rights with notice of termination; P.A. 97-11 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. designators, adding Subdiv. (1) re 13-day notice by first class mail, and designating as Subdiv. (2) existing language re 7-day notice by certified mail and restated provision re termination when multiple notices of proposed termination are provided to customer; P.A. 98-28 added electric suppliers and electric distribution companies and made technical changes, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 98-254 added new Subsec. (g) re provision of information concerning residential customers to credit rating agencies; P.A. 00-41 amended Subsec. (g) by making provisions apply to electric distribution companies, certified telecommunications providers and gas registrants and by adding provisions re credit rating notification to customers.

      Cited. 183 C. 85.

      Cited. 12 CA 499. Cited. 25 CA 226.


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      Sec. 16-262e. Notice furnished tenants re intended termination of utility service. Assumption by tenants of liability for future service. Liability of landlords for certain utility services. Deduction from rent. Access to meters. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 16-262d, wherever an owner, agent, lessor or manager of a residential dwelling is billed directly by an electric, electric distribution, gas, telephone or water company or by a municipal utility for utility service furnished to such building not occupied exclusively by such owner, agent, lessor, or manager, and such company or municipal utility or the electric supplier providing electric generation services has actual or constructive knowledge that the occupants of such dwelling are not the individuals to whom the company or municipal utility usually sends its bills, such company, electric supplier or municipal utility shall not terminate such service for nonpayment of a delinquent account owed to such company, electric supplier or municipal utility by such owner, agent, lessor or manager unless: (1) Such company, electric supplier or municipal utility makes a good faith effort to notify the occupants of such building of the proposed termination by the means most practicable under the circumstances and best designed to provide actual notice; and (2) such company, electric supplier or municipal utility provides an opportunity, where practicable, for such occupants to receive service in their own names without any liability for the amount due while service was billed directly to the lessor, owner, agent or manager and without the necessity for a security deposit; provided, if it is not practicable for such occupants to receive service in their own names, the company, electric supplier or municipal utility shall not terminate service to such residential dwelling but may pursue the remedy provided in section 16-262f.

      (b) Whenever a company, electric supplier or municipal utility has terminated service to a residential dwelling whose occupants are not the individuals to whom it usually sends its bills, such company, electric supplier or municipal utility shall, upon obtaining knowledge of such occupancy, immediately reinstate service and thereafter not effect termination unless it first complies with the provisions of subsection (a) of this section.

      (c) The owner, agent, lessor or manager of a residential dwelling shall be liable for the costs of all electricity, gas, water or heating fuel furnished by a public service company, electric supplier, municipal utility or heating fuel dealer to the building, except for any service furnished to any dwelling unit of the building on an individually metered or billed basis for the exclusive use of the occupants of that dwelling unit, provided an owner, agent, lessor or manager shall be liable for service provided on an individually metered or billed basis pursuant to subsection (g) of this section from ten days after the date of written request by the company, supplier, utility or dealer if the company, supplier, utility or dealer is denied access to its individual meters or other facilities located on the premises of the building. Such owner, agent, lessor or manager shall only be liable when such owner, agent, lessor or manager controls access to such individual meters to which access is denied. If service is not provided on an individually metered or billed basis and the owner, agent, lessor or manager fails to pay for such service, any occupant who receives service in his own name may deduct, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (d) of this section, a reasonable estimate of the cost of any portion of such service which is for the use of occupants of dwelling units other than such occupant's dwelling unit.

      (d) Any payments made by the occupants of any residential dwelling pursuant to subsection (a) or (c) of this section shall be deemed to be in lieu of an equal amount of rent or payment for use and occupancy and each occupant shall be permitted to deduct such amounts from any sum of rent or payment for use and occupancy due and owing or to become due and owing to the owner, agent, lessor or manager.

      (e) Wherever a company, electric supplier or municipal utility provides service pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of this section, the company, electric supplier or municipal utility shall notify each occupant of such building in writing that service will be provided in the occupant's own name. Such writing shall contain a conspicuous notice in boldface type stating,

      "NOTICE TO OCCUPANT. YOU MAY DEDUCT THE FULL AMOUNT YOU PAY (name of company or municipal utility) FOR (type of service) FROM THE MONEY YOU PAY YOUR LANDLORD OR HIS AGENT."

      (f) The owner, agent, lessor or manager shall not increase the amount paid by such occupant for rent or for use and occupancy in order to collect all or part of that amount lawfully deducted by the occupant pursuant to this section.

      (g) The owner, agent, lessor or manager of a residential dwelling shall be responsible for providing a public service company, electric supplier or municipal utility or heating fuel dealer access to its meter or other facilities located on the premises of the residential dwelling promptly upon written request of the public service company, electric supplier or municipal utility or heating fuel dealer during reasonable hours. If such owner, agent, lessor or manager fails to provide such access upon reasonable written request, the owner, agent, lessor or manager shall be liable for the costs incurred by the public service company, electric supplier or municipal utility or heating fuel dealer in gaining access to the meter and facilities, including costs of collection and attorneys' fees. If the failure to provide access delays the ability of the public service company, electric supplier or municipal utility or heating fuel dealer to terminate service to an individually metered or billed portion of the dwelling, the owner, agent, lessor or manager failing to provide access shall also be liable for the amounts billed by the public service company, electric supplier or municipal utility or heating fuel dealer for service provided to the individually metered or billed portion of the dwelling for the period beginning ten days after access has been requested and ending when access is provided by such owner, agent, lessor or manager.

      (h) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the company, electric supplier, municipal utility, heating fuel dealer or occupant from pursuing any other action or remedy at law or equity that it may have against the owner, agent, lessor, or manager.

      (P.A. 75-625, S. 3, 8; P.A. 84-321; P.A. 98-28, S. 40, 117; P.A. 09-31, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 84-321 inserted new Subsec. (c) re liability of landlords for electricity, gas, water and heating fuel not furnished on an individually metered or billed basis, relettering former Subsecs. (c) through (f) accordingly; P.A. 98-28 added electric suppliers and electric distribution companies and made technical changes, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 09-31 amended Subsec. (c) to provide for liability for individual service when access to meters is denied, made a technical change in Subsec. (e), added new Subsec. (g) re access to meters, and redesignated existing Subsec. (g) as Subsec. (h), effective July 1, 2009.

      Cited. 183 C. 85.

      Cited. 12 CA 499. Cited. 25 CA 177; Id., 226.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 191 C. 514. Cited. 231 C. 441. Cited. 239 C. 313.

      Subsec. (c):

      A nursing home is not a "residential dwelling" within context of statute. 25 CA 177.


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      Sec. 16-262f. Action for receivership of rents and common expenses by electric, electric distribution, gas and telephone companies; petition; hearing; appointment; duties; termination. (a)(1) Upon default of the owner, agent, lessor or manager of a residential dwelling who is billed directly by an electric, electric distribution, gas or telephone company or by a municipal utility for electric or gas utility service furnished to such building, such company or municipal utility or electric supplier providing electric generation services may petition the Superior Court or a judge thereof, for appointment of a receiver of the rents or payments for use and occupancy or common expenses, as defined in section 47-202, for any dwelling for which the owner, agent, lessor or manager is in default. The court or judge shall forthwith issue an order to show cause why a receiver should not be appointed, which shall be served upon the owner, agent, lessor or manager or his agent in a manner most reasonably calculated to give notice to such owner, agent, lessor or manager as determined by such court or judge, including, but not limited to, a posting of such order on the premises in question.

      (2) A hearing shall be had on such order no later than seventy-two hours after its issuance or the first court day thereafter. The sole purpose of such a hearing shall be to determine whether there is an amount due and owing between the owner, agent, lessor or manager and the company, electric supplier or municipal utility. The court shall make a determination of any amount due and owing and any amount so determined shall constitute a lien upon the real property of such owner. A certificate of such amount may be recorded in the land records of the town in which such property is located describing the amount of the lien and the name of the party in default. When the amount due and owing has been paid the company, electric supplier or municipality shall issue a certificate discharging the lien and shall file the certificate in the land records of the town in which such lien was recorded.

      (3) The receiver appointed by the court shall collect all rents or payments for use and occupancy or common expenses forthcoming from or paid on behalf of the occupants or residents of the building or facility in question in place of the owner, agent, lessor, manager or administrator.

      (4) The receiver shall pay the petitioner or other supplier, from such rents or payments for use and occupancy or common expenses for electric, gas, telephone, water or heating oil supplied on and after the date of his appointment. The owner, agent, lessor or manager shall be liable for such reasonable fees and costs determined by the court to be due the receiver, which fees and costs may be recovered from the rents or payments for use and occupancy under the control of the receiver, provided no such fees or costs shall be recovered until after payment for current electric, gas, telephone and water service and heating oil deliveries has been made. The owner, agent, lessor or manager shall be liable to the petitioner for reasonable attorney's fees and costs incurred by the petitioner, provided no such fees or costs shall be recovered until after payment for current electric, gas, telephone and water service and heating oil deliveries has been made and after payments of reasonable fees and costs to the receiver. Any moneys from rental payments or payments for use and occupancy or common expenses remaining after payment for current electric, gas, telephone and water service or heating oil deliveries, and after payment for reasonable costs and fees to the receiver, and after payment to the petitioner for reasonable attorney's fees and costs, shall be applied to any arrearage found by the court to be due and owing the company, electric supplier or municipal utility from the owner, agent, lessor or manager for service provided such building. Any moneys remaining thereafter shall be turned over to the owner, agent, lessor or manager. The court may order an accounting to be made at such times as it determines to be just, reasonable, and necessary.

      (b) Any receivership established pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall be terminated by the court upon its finding that the arrearage which was the subject of the original petition has been satisfied, or that all occupants have agreed to assume liability in their own names for prospective service supplied by the petitioner, or that the building has been sold and the new owner has assumed liability for prospective service supplied by the petitioner.

      (c) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the petitioner from pursuing any other action or remedy at law or equity that it may have against the owner, agent, lessor or manager.

      (d) Any owner, agent, lessor or manager who collects or attempts to collect any rent or payment for use and occupancy from any occupant of a building subject to an order appointing a receiver shall be found, after due notice and hearing, to be in contempt of court.

      (e) If a proceeding is initiated pursuant to sections 47a-14a to 47a-14h, inclusive, or sections 47a-56 to 47a-56i, inclusive, or if a receiver of rents is appointed pursuant to chapter 735a or pursuant to any other action involving the making of repairs to residential rental property under court supervision, rent or use and occupancy payments shall be made pursuant to such proceeding or action without regard to whether such proceeding or action is initiated before or after a receivership is established under this section, and such proceeding or action shall take priority over a receivership established under this section in regard to expenditure of such rent or use and occupancy payments.

      (P.A. 75-625, S. 4, 8; P.A. 77-452, S. 51, 72; P.A. 84-394, S. 1; P.A. 89-254, S. 15; P.A. 91-310, S. 2; P.A. 98-28, S. 41, 117; 98-102, S. 1; P.A. 07-217, S. 62; 07-228, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 77-452 replaced court of common pleas with superior court and deleted phrase which had limited judge's power to act to time when court not in session; P.A. 84-394 inserted references to payment for heating oil in Subsec. (a); P.A. 89-254 added Subsec. (e) re the payment and expenditure of rent or use and occupancy payments made pursuant to certain proceedings or actions in relation to receiverships established under this section; P.A. 91-310 added provision allowing companies or municipal utilities to obtain a lien against parties in default; P.A. 98-28 amended Subsec. (a) by adding electric suppliers and electric distribution companies, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 98-102 amended Subsec. (a) by inserting Subdiv. indicators, deleting water companies and inserting "common expenses"; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 12, 2007; P.A. 07-228 amended Subsec. (a)(3) to include payments paid on behalf of occupants or residents of building or facility, and in place of the administrator, effective July 1, 2007.

      Cited. 183 C. 85. Provisions of this statute which do not provide exemption for public housing authorities had to prevail over those earlier enacted in Sec. 8-65. 191 C. 514. Cited. 196 C. 172. Cited. 231 C. 441. Cited. 239 C. 313.

      Cited. 7 CA 802. Cited. 12 CA 499. Cited. 25 CA 226.

      Remedy provided by statute is not an unconstitutional taking of private property for a public purpose; legislative intent was that receivership proceeding should be a summary proceeding, not a "civil action"; personal service by sheriff not required. 35 CS 609.


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      Sec. 16-262g. Penalty. Any wilful or malicious violation of sections 16-262c to 16-262i, inclusive, by any agent, owner, lessor, manager or any company, electric supplier or municipal utility shall be punishable by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars or imprisonment for not more than thirty days or both.

      (P.A. 75-625, S. 5, 8; P.A. 98-28, S. 62, 117.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 added electric suppliers, effective July 1, 1998.

      Cited. 183 C. 85.

      Cited. 12 CA 499. Cited. 25 CA 226.


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      Sec. 16-262h. Nonexclusivity of remedy. Nothing in sections 16-262c to 16-262i, inclusive, shall be construed to prevent the occupant of such building from pursuing any other action or remedy at law or equity that it may have against the owner, agent, lessor, manager, company, electric supplier, certified telecommunications provider or municipal utility.

      (P.A. 75-625, S. 6, 8; P.A. 98-28, S. 63, 117; P.A. 99-222, S. 16, 19.)

      History: P.A. 98-28 added electric suppliers, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-222 added "certified telecommunications provider", effective June 29, 1999.

      Cited. 183 C. 85.

      Cited. 12 CA 499. Cited. 25 CA 226.


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      Sec. 16-262i. Regulations. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control shall adopt regulations necessary to carry out the purposes of sections 16-262c to 16-262h, inclusive.

      (b) The department may adopt regulations in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, setting forth the terms and conditions under which electric, electric distribution, gas, telephone and water companies, electric suppliers, certified telecommunications providers and municipal utilities furnishing electric, gas or water service may be prohibited from terminating service to a residential dwelling on account of nonpayment of a delinquent account in the name of the former spouse or spouse of the individual who occupies the dwelling, if the marriage of such individuals has been dissolved or annulled or such individuals are legally separated or have an action for dissolution or annulment of a marriage or for legal separation pending, pursuant to chapter 815j.

      (c) The department may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, setting forth the terms and conditions under which electric distribution, gas, telephone and water companies, electric suppliers, certified telecommunications providers and municipal utilities furnishing electric, gas, telecommunications or water service may terminate service for reasons other than nonpayment of a delinquent account.

      (P.A. 75-486, S. 1, 69; 75-625, S. 7, 8; P.A. 77-614, S. 162, 610; P.A. 80-482, S. 117, 348; P.A. 85-103; P.A. 98-28, S. 42, 117; P.A. 99-222, S. 15, 19; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1, S. 29.)

      History: P.A. 75-486 replaced public utilities commission with public utilities control authority where appearing in P.A. 75-625; P.A. 77-614 replaced public utilities control authority with division of public utility control within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 made division an independent department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 85-103 added Subsec. (b) re regulations concerning termination of utility service for persons who have separated or whose marriage has been dissolved or annulled; P.A. 98-28 added electric suppliers and electric distribution companies and made technical changes in Subsec. (b), effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-222 amended Subsec. (b) by adding "certified telecommunications providers", effective June 29, 1999; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-1 added Subsec. (c) re adoption of regulations containing terms and conditions for termination of service.

      Cited. 183 C. 85.

      Cited. 12 CA 499. Cited. 25 CA 226.


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      Sec. 16-262j. Refusal of residential utility service. Regulations. Refusal of telecommunications service to a candidate or committee. Interest on customer security deposits. Deposit index. (a) No public service company and no electric supplier shall refuse to provide electric, gas or water service to a residential customer based on the financial inability of such customer to pay a security deposit for such service. The Department of Public Utility Control shall adopt regulations in accordance with chapter 54 to carry out the provisions of this subsection.

      (b) No telephone company and no certified telecommunications provider shall refuse to provide telecommunications service to a candidate or a committee, as defined in section 9-601, on the grounds that such candidate, such committee or the person acting on behalf of such committee has offered to pay the security deposit for such service with a credit card.

      (c) Each public service company, certified telecommunications provider and electric supplier shall pay interest on any security deposit it receives from a customer at the average rate paid, as of December 30, 1992, on savings deposits by insured commercial banks as published in the Federal Reserve Board bulletin and rounded to the nearest one-tenth of one percentage point, except in no event shall the rate be less than one and one-half per cent. On and after January 1, 1994, the rate for each calendar year shall be not less than the deposit index as defined in subsection (d) of this section for that year and rounded to the nearest one-tenth of one percentage point, except in no event shall the rate be less than one and one-half per cent.

      (d) The deposit index for each calendar year shall be equal to the average rate paid on savings deposits by insured commercial banks as last published in the Federal Reserve Board bulletin in November of the prior year. The Banking Commissioner shall determine the deposit index for each calendar year and publish such deposit index in the Department of Banking news bulletin no later than December fifteenth of the prior year. For purposes of this section, "Federal Reserve Board bulletin" means the monthly survey of selected deposits published as a special supplement to the Federal Reserve Statistical Release Publication H.6 published by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or, if such bulletin is superseded or becomes unavailable, a substantially similar index or publication.

      (P.A. 79-329; P.A. 80-482, S. 4, 40, 345, 348; P.A. 83-178, S. 1, 2; P.A. 91-407, S. 34, 42; P.A. 93-242, S. 1, 2; P.A. 98-28, S. 64, 117; P.A. 99-222, S. 17, 19; P.A. 03-84, S. 15.)

      History: P.A. 80-482 made division of public utility control an independent department and deleted reference to division's being within abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 83-178 consolidated Subsecs. (a) and (b) into Subsec. (a) and added new Subsec. (b) requiring companies to pay interest on customer security deposits at legal rate; P.A. 91-407 inserted new Subsec. (b) prohibiting telephone company from refusing service to candidate or committee on grounds that security deposit was offered to be paid with a credit card, relettering former Subsec. (b) as (c); P.A. 93-242 amended Subsec. (c) by changing the interest rate on customer security deposits from the legal rate provided in Sec. 37-1 to, from July 1, 1993, to January 1, 1994, the average rate paid on savings deposits but not less than 1.5%, and, on and after January 1, 1994, not less than the deposit index, and added new Subsec. (d) defining the deposit index, effective July 1, 1993; (Revisor's note: In 1997 a reference in Subsec. (d) to "Banking Commissioner" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "Commissioner of Banking" for consistency with customary statutory usage); P.A. 98-28 added electric suppliers in Subsecs. (a) and (c), effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-222 amended Subsecs. (b) and (c) by adding "certified telecommunications provider", effective June 29, 1999; P.A. 03-84 changed "Commissioner of Banking" to "Banking Commissioner" in Subsec. (d), effective June 3, 2003.

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      Sec. 16-262k. Interconnection of public water supply systems to relieve site-specific water shortages. The Department of Public Utility Control may require any water company as defined in section 16-1 to connect its public water supply system with that of another water company or municipal utility if it finds that such a connection would be an effective means of relieving site-specific water shortages.

      (P.A. 81-358, S. 3.)

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      Sec. 16-262l. Receivership of water companies for failure to provide adequate service. Personal liability of directors, officers and managers. (a) As used in this section, "water company" includes every corporation, company, association, joint stock association, partnership or person, or lessee thereof, except an association providing water only to its members, owning, leasing, maintaining, operating, managing or controlling any pond, lake, reservoir, stream, well or distributing plant or system employed for the purpose of supplying water to twenty-five or more consumers on a regular basis, provided if any corporation, company, association, joint stock association, partnership or person, or lessee thereof, owns or controls eighty per cent of the equity value of more than one such water supply system, the number of consumers shall, for the purposes of this definition, be the total number of consumers of all such systems so controlled by that corporation, company, association, joint stock association, partnership or person, or lessee thereof.

      (b) If the Department of Public Utility Control determines, after notice and hearing, that any water company is unable or unwilling to provide adequate service to its consumers, the department may petition the superior court for any judicial district wherein the company conducts its business for an order attaching the assets of the company and placing it under the sole control and responsibility of a receiver.

      (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (b) of this section, the Department of Public Utility Control, the Department of Public Health, the municipality served by a water company or an organization representing twenty per cent of the consumers of the company may, upon notice to the company, petition the Superior Court for an order attaching the assets of the water company and placing it under the sole control and responsibility of a receiver, if (1) the company has failed to supply water to consumers for at least five days during the preceding three months, (2) the Department of Public Health determines that the company has not met the standards adopted under section 25-32 for the quantity and quality of public drinking water or (3) the petitioner has reasonable cause to believe the consumers of the company have not received and are unlikely to receive adequate service due to gross mismanagement of the company. Upon the filing of such a petition, the court shall order the company to show cause why such an order of attachment and receivership should not issue ten days from the date of service of the order to show cause upon the company at its last known address.

      (d) Any receiver appointed by the court shall file a bond in accordance with section 52-506 unless the court finds it unnecessary. The receiver shall operate the company to preserve its assets and to serve the best interests of its consumers. If the receiver determines that the water company's actions which caused it to be placed under the control and responsibility of the receiver under subsection (b) or (c) of this section were due to misappropriation or wrongful diversion of the assets or income of such company or to other wilful misconduct by any director, officer or manager of the company, the receiver shall file a petition, with the superior court that issued the order of attachment and receivership, for an order that such director, officer or manager be ordered to pay compensatory damages to the company by reason of such misappropriation, diversion or misconduct.

      (e) The Department of Public Utility Control shall determine the value of the assets of a water company at the time of appointment of a receiver and immediately prior to return of the assets to the owner. The claim of the owner of the company shall be limited to the value determined at the time of the appointment of the receiver. The assets shall be returned to the owner after full restitution has been made to the receiver for the value of any improvements to the system and after payment has been made for any appraisal pursuant to this subsection.

      (P.A. 81-358, S. 4; P.A. 82-472, S. 51, 183; P.A. 83-542; P.A. 84-330, S. 7; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; 95-329, S. 8, 31.)

      History: P.A. 82-472 made technical correction in Subsec. (a); P.A. 83-542 added Subsec. (c), allowing, in addition to department, municipalities and organizations representing water company consumers to petition superior court for receivership in certain situations and providing for expedited judicial proceedings in such situations and added provisions in Subsec. (d) allowing receiver to petition superior court in certain situations for order that director, officer or manager pay compensatory damages to company; P.A. 84-330 added Subsec. (e) re valuation of assets of water company; P.A. 93-381 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-329 added in Subsec. (c), Department of Public Health and Addiction Services [sic] to the list of those who may petition Superior Court, and in Subsec. (c)(2) added "quantity" to the reference to adopted standards, effective July 1, 1995.

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      Sec. 16-262m. Construction specifications for water companies. (a) As used in this section and section 8-25a, "water company" means a corporation, company, association, joint stock association, partnership, municipality, state agency, other entity or person, or lessee thereof, owning, leasing, maintaining, operating, managing or controlling any pond, lake, reservoir, stream, well or distributing plant or system employed for the purpose of supplying water to fifteen or more service connections or twenty-five or more persons for at least sixty days in any one year.

      (b) No water company may begin the construction of a water supply system for the purpose of supplying water to fifteen or more service connections or twenty-five or more persons for at least sixty days in any one year, and no person or entity, except a water company supplying more than two hundred fifty service connections or one thousand persons, may begin expansion of such a water supply system, without having first obtained a certificate of public convenience and necessity.

      (c) For systems serving twenty-five or more residents that are not the subject of proceedings under subsection (c) of section 16-262n or section 16-262o, an application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity shall be on a form prescribed by the Department of Public Utility Control, in consultation with the Department of Public Health, and accompanied by a copy of the applicant's construction or expansion plans, a fee of one hundred dollars and when an exclusive service area provider has been determined pursuant to section 25-33g, a copy of a signed ownership agreement between the applicant and provider for the exclusive service area, as determined pursuant to section 25-33g, detailing those terms and conditions under which the system will be constructed or expanded and for which the provider will assume service and ownership responsibilities. When an exclusive service area provider has been determined pursuant to section 25-33g, the application shall also be accompanied by a written confirmation from the exclusive service area provider, as the person that will own the water supply system, that such exclusive service area provider has received the application and is prepared to assume responsibility for the water supply system subject to the terms and conditions of the ownership agreement. Written confirmation from the exclusive service area provider shall be on a form prescribed by said departments. Said departments shall issue a certificate to an applicant upon determining, to their satisfaction, that (1) no interconnection is feasible with a water system owned by, or made available through arrangement with, the provider for the exclusive service area, as determined pursuant to section 25-33g or with another existing water system where no exclusive service area has been assigned, (2) the applicant will complete the construction or expansion in accordance with engineering standards established by regulation by the Department of Public Utility Control for water supply systems, (3) ownership of the system will be assigned to the provider for the exclusive service area, when an exclusive service area provider has been determined pursuant to section 25-33g, (4) the proposed construction or expansion will not result in a duplication of water service in the applicable service area, (5) the applicant meets all federal and state standards for water supply systems, and (6) the person that will own the water supply system has the financial, managerial and technical resources to (A) operate the proposed water supply system in a reliable and efficient manner, and (B) provide continuous adequate service to consumers served by the water supply system. Any construction or expansion with respect to which a certificate is required shall thereafter be built, maintained and operated in conformity with the certificate and any terms, limitations or conditions contained therein.

      (d) The Department of Public Utility Control and the Department of Public Health shall each adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to carry out the purposes of subsections (a) to (c), inclusive, of this section.

      (e) (1) For systems serving twenty-five or more persons, but not twenty-five or more residents, at least sixty days in any one year an application for a certificate of public convenience and necessity shall be on a form prescribed by the Department of Public Health and accompanied by a copy of the construction or expansion plans. The Department of Public Health shall issue a certificate to an applicant upon determining, to its satisfaction, that (A) no interconnection is feasible with a water system owned by, or made available through arrangement with, the provider for the exclusive service area, as determined pursuant to section 25-33g or with another existing water system where no existing exclusive service area has been assigned, (B) the applicant will complete the construction or expansion in accordance with engineering standards established by regulation for water supply systems, (C) ownership of the system will be assigned to the provider for the exclusive service area, as determined pursuant to section 25-33g, if agreeable to the exclusive service area provider and the Department of Public Health, or may remain with the applicant, if agreeable to the Department of Public Health, until such time as the water system for the exclusive service area, as determined by section 25-33g, has made an extension of the water main, after which the applicant shall obtain service from the provider for the exclusive service area, (D) the proposed construction or expansion will not result in a duplication of water service in the applicable service area, (E) the applicant meets all federal and state standards for water supply systems, and (F) the person that will own the water supply system has the financial, managerial and technical resources to (i) operate the proposed water supply system in a reliable and efficient manner, and (ii) provide continuous adequate service to consumers served by the water supply system. Any construction or expansion with respect to which a certificate is required shall thereafter be built, maintained and operated in conformity with the certificate and any terms, limitation or conditions contained therein. Properties held by the Department of Environmental Protection and used for or in support of fish culture, natural resource conservation or outdoor recreational purposes shall be exempt from the requirements of subdivisions (1), (3) and (4) of subsection (c) of this section and subparagraphs (A), (C) and (D) of subdivision (1) of subsection (e) of this section.

      (2) The Department of Public Health shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to carry out the purposes of this subsection. Such regulations may include measures that encourage water conservation and proper maintenance.

      (P.A. 81-427, S. 1, 3; P.A. 84-330, S. 1; P.A. 86-247, S. 1, 2; P.A. 93-245; 93-381, S. 9, 39; 93-435, S. 59, 95; P.A. 94-219, S. 3; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 98-250, S. 22, 39; P.A. 07-244, S. 1; P.A. 09-220, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 84-330 amended Subsec. (a) to apply definition of water company "to sections 16-262n to 16-262q, inclusive, and section 8-25a", to include municipalities in such definition and to expand the definition by including companies supplying water to not less than 15 service connections or 25 persons nor more than 250 service connections or 1,000 persons, amended Subsec. (b) to require, as a condition for issuing a certificate that determination be made that no feasible interconnection with an existing system is available and that applicant meets all federal and state standards for community water supply and amended Subsecs. (b) and (c) to require departments of public utility control and health services to jointly carry out purposes of the section; P.A. 86-247 added provision in Subsec. (b) re certificate for a community water supply system for an elderly housing project; P.A. 93-245 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting exception for elderly housing projects and adding provisions regarding excepted community water supply systems and voluntarily transferring ownership of community water supply systems; P.A. 93-381 and 93-435 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-219 made a technical change in Subsec. (a); P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 98-250 amended Subsec. (a) to delete "nor more than two hundred fifty service connections or one thousand persons", amended Subsec. (b) to add exception re "a water company supplying more than two hundred fifty service connections or one thousand persons" and delete reference to "community" water supply systems, and made technical changes, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 07-244 amended Subsec. (a) to redefine "water company" to include state agencies and substitute "for at least sixty days in any one year" for "on a regular basis", amended Subsec. (b) to limit its provisions to systems supplying water to 15 or more service connections or 25 or more persons, and to move provisions re application for certificate of public convenience and necessity into newly designated Subsec. (c), added provisions in new Subsec. (c) re agreement between water company and provider for exclusive service area, and factors to be used by department in determining whether to issue certificate, redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d) and added Subsec. (e) specifying application requirements for systems serving 25 or more persons, but not 25 or more residents, and requiring adoption of regulations pertaining to such systems; P.A. 09-220 amended Subsec. (c) by providing that application for certificate of public convenience and necessity shall be accompanied by signed ownership agreement between applicant and exclusive service area provider when such provider has been determined pursuant to Sec. 25-33g, by requiring that, in applicable cases, application shall be accompanied by written confirmation from exclusive service area provider confirming receipt of application and that such provider is prepared to assume responsibility for water supply system, by revising criteria that departments consider when granting certificate of public convenience and necessity, by specifying that Subdiv. (3) is applicable when exclusive service area provider has been determined, by adding Subdiv. (6) re financial, managerial and technical resources required of owner of water system and by making conforming changes, amended Subsec. (d) by making a technical change and amended Subsec. (e)(1)(C) by deleting language re financial, managerial and technical resources required of owner of water system and redesignating such language as Subsec. (e)(1)(F).

      Cited. 44 CS 34.

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      Sec. 16-262n. Definition. Economic viability of water companies. Reviews. Failure to comply with orders. Hearings. (a) As used in this section, sections 16-262o to 16-262q, inclusive, and section 16-262s, "water company" means a corporation, company, association, joint stock association, partnership, municipality, other entity or person, or lessee thereof, owning, leasing, maintaining, operating, managing or controlling any pond, lake, reservoir, stream, well or distributing plant or system employed for the purpose of supplying water to not less than two service connections or twenty-five persons.

      (b) The Department of Public Utility Control, in consultation with the Department of Public Health and the Department of Environmental Protection, may review the economic viability of a water company, except a municipal water company, based upon performance measures of the company's stability and financial condition, technical and managerial expertise and efficiency, and physical condition and capacity of plant. The Department of Public Utility Control shall make recommendations for improvement or provide counseling to a reviewed water company to assist in improving the company's economic viability.

      (c) Whenever any water company fails to comply with an order issued pursuant to section 16-11, 25-32, 25-33 or 25-34, concerning the availability or potability of water or the provision of water at adequate volume and pressure, or if the Department of Public Utility Control determines a water company does not possess economic viability pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, the Department of Public Utility Control, the Department of Public Health and, when its participation is required, the Department of Environmental Protection, may, or following a request from a water company filed pursuant to section 16-46, shall, after notice to public and private water companies, municipal utilities furnishing water service, municipalities or other appropriate governmental agencies in the service area of the water company, conduct a hearing in accordance with the provisions of sections 4-176e, 4-177, 4-177c and 4-180 to determine the actions that may be taken and the expenditures that may be required, including the acquisition of the water company by a suitable public or private entity, to assure the availability and potability of water and the provision of water at adequate volume and pressure to the persons served by the water company at a reasonable cost.

      (P.A. 84-330, S. 2; P.A. 88-317, S. 64, 107; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 94-219, S. 4; P.A. 95-118, S. 4; 95-174, S. 1; 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 97-69, S. 1, 3.)

      History: P.A. 88-317 added references to Secs. 4-176e, 4-177c and 4-180, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 93-381 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1 1993; P.A. 94-219 made existing section Subsec. (b) and added provisions as Subsec. (a) defining water company for purposes of Secs. 12-262n to 12-262q, inclusive; P.A. 95-118 in Subsec. (a) changed the reference from "sections 12-262n to 12-262q" to "sections 12-262o to 12-262q" and added provision in Subsec. (b) re request from a water company pursuant to Sec. 16-46; P.A. 95-174 amended Subsec. (a) by correcting reference from "12-262n to 12-262q" to "16-262n to 16-262q" and changing fifteen service connections to two service connections, inserted new Subsec. (b) re economic viability of water companies, relettered existing Subsec. (b) as (c), adding provisions re economic viability and Department of Environmental Protection and inserting "at a reasonable cost"; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 97-69 added reference to Sec. 16-262s in Subsec. (a) and substituted "a suitable" for "the most suitable" in Subsec. (c), effective July 1, 1997.

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      Sec. 16-262o. Acquisition of water company ordered by department. Rates and charges. Recovery of acquisition costs. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control, in consultation with the Department of Public Health, upon a determination that the costs of improvements to and the acquisition of the water company are necessary and reasonable, shall order the acquisition of the water company by the most suitable public or private entity. In making such determination, the department shall consider: (1) The geographical proximity of the plant of the acquiring entity to the water company, (2) whether the acquiring entity has the financial, managerial and technical resources to operate the water company in a reliable and efficient manner and to provide continuous, adequate service to the persons served by the company, (3) the current rates that the acquiring entity charges its customers, and (4) any other factors the department deems relevant. Such order shall authorize the recovery through rates of all reasonable costs of acquisition and necessary improvements. A public entity acquiring a water company beyond the boundaries of such entity may charge customers served by the acquired company for water service and may, to the extent appropriate, as determined by the governing body of the public entity, recover through rates all reasonable costs of acquisition and necessary improvements.

      (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of any special act, the Department of Public Utility Control shall extend the franchise areas of the acquiring water company to the service area of the water company acquired pursuant to this section.

      (c) On and after December 1, 1989, in the case of any proposed acquisition of a water company for which the Department of Public Utility Control has provided notice of a hearing pursuant to section 16-262n, the department may, to encourage and facilitate such acquisition, and shall, if it orders such acquisition, require the acquiring water company, as defined in section 16-1, to implement, and revise quarterly thereafter, a rate surcharge applied to the rates of the acquired water company or of both the acquiring water company and the acquired water company, as determined by the department, that would recover on a current basis all costs of such acquisition and of needed improvements to the acquired water company's system. Such surcharge may be designed to recover one hundred per cent of the revenues necessary to provide a net after-tax return on investment actually made in the acquisition and improvement of the acquired water company, at a rate of return equivalent to that authorized for the acquiring water company in its last general rate proceeding. The department shall, not later than December 1, 1989, adopt regulations, in accordance with chapter 54, to carry out the purposes of this section.

      (d) Not later than sixty days after the issuance of an order for an acquisition pursuant to this section, the acquired water company shall properly execute and deliver to the acquiring water company all documents necessary to complete the transfer of title to all real and personal property that is the subject of the acquisition order, including, but not limited to, land, structures, easements, and every estate, right or interest therein, to the entity ordered to acquire such water company. If the acquired company fails to deliver such documents in accordance with this subsection, the acquiring company shall notify the Department of Public Utility Control of such failure to act. Upon receipt of such notice, the department shall petition the Superior Court to enforce the provisions of its acquisition order. Nothing in this subsection shall deprive any entity of the compensation rights set forth in section 16-262q.

      (P.A. 84-330, S. 3; P.A. 89-261, S. 3, 4; P.A. 93-380, S. 1, 19; 93-381, S. 9, 39; P.A. 94-219, S. 5; P.A. 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58; P.A. 05-224, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 89-261 added new Subsec. (d) re recovery of costs of acquisition of a water company; P.A. 93-380 amended Subsec. (a) by specifying the public entity determines when recovering costs through rates is appropriate, deleted Subsec. (c) regarding rates charged customers of water company acquired by public entity, relettered Subsec. (d) as (c) and amended provisions to define acquiring water companies as those defined in Sec. 16-1, effective June 30, 1993; P.A. 93-381 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-219 added new Subsec. (a)(3) requiring the department to consider the current rates that the acquiring entity charges its customers and renumbered the remaining Subdiv. accordingly; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 05-224 added Subsec. (d) re execution and delivery of documents, effective July 6, 2005.

      Cited. 219 C. 121.

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      Sec. 16-262p. Improvements by acquiring entity. Any recipient of an order pursuant to section 16-262o shall make improvements it determines are necessary within a reasonable time after transfer of the company to the acquiring entity to assure the availability and potability of water and the provision of water at adequate volume and pressure to the persons served by the water company. The water company shall immediately take the steps necessary for the transfer of the company to the acquiring company, municipal water authority, municipality or other public or private entity.

      (P.A. 84-330, S. 4; P.A. 93-380, S. 2, 19.)

      History: P.A. 93-380 specified that the recipient determines what improvements are necessary and that they be made within a reasonable time, effective June 30, 1993.

      Cited. 219 C. 121.

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      Sec. 16-262q. Compensation for acquisition of water company. Compensation for the acquisition of a water company pursuant to section 16-262o shall be determined by the procedures for determining compensation under section 25-42 or by agreement between the parties, provided the Department of Public Utility Control in consultation with the Department of Public Health, after a hearing, approves such agreement. The provisions of this section shall not apply to the sale of a private water company to a municipally owned and operated water company providing service in such municipality. In such cases, if the parties determine compensation for such acquisition by agreement the sale may proceed without the approval of the Department of Public Utility Control.

      (P.A. 84-330, S. 5; P.A. 93-381, S. 9, 39; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 11, 85; P.A. 95-160, S. 64, 69; 95-257, S. 12, 21, 58.)

      History: P.A. 93-381 replaced department of health services with department of public health and addiction services, effective July 1, 1993; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 exempted sales of private water companies to a municipally owned and operated water company, effective June 9, 1994; P.A. 95-160 revised effective date of May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 but without affecting this section; P.A. 95-257 replaced Commissioner and Department of Public Health and Addiction Services with Commissioner and Department of Public Health, effective July 1, 1995.

      Cited. 219 C. 121.

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      Sec. 16-262r. Satellite management of water companies. Expedited rate proceedings. (a) As used in this section:

      (1) "Provider water company" means a water company, as defined in section 16-1, which provides satellite management services.

      (2) "Recipient water company" means a water company, as defined in section 25-32a, which receives satellite management services.

      (3) "Satellite management services" includes any of the following services relating to public water systems: Operation, maintenance, administration, emergency and scheduled repairs, monitoring and reporting, billing, operator training and the purchase of supplies and equipment.

      (b) A provider water company may provide satellite management services to a recipient water company.

      (c) In any proceeding pursuant to section 16-19 on a rate amendment proposed by a provider water company, the Department of Public Utility Control shall review any revenue derived and expenses incurred from satellite management services provided by the provider water company, and the department, if it deems appropriate, may deem such revenue and expenses to be excluded for purposes of rate-making under said section 16-19.

      (d) The department, if it deems appropriate, may equalize the rates charged to customers by a provider water company and a recipient water company having fifty or more consumers, which are participating in a satellite management services arrangement. The department may phase in such equalization over a period of time.

      (e) Notwithstanding any provision of subdivision (4) of subsection (a) of section 16-19e, the department, if it deems appropriate, may award a premium rate of return to a provider water company, in accordance with the provisions of subdivisions (1), (2), (3) and (5) of subsection (a) of section 16-19e, on any water system which the company voluntarily acquires or acquires pursuant to an order issued under section 16-262o.

      (P.A. 85-259, S. 1.)

      Subsec. (d):

      Cited. 219 C. 121.


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      Sec. 16-262s. Voluntary acquisition of water company. Surcharges. In the case of a proposed acquisition of a water company that is not economically viable, as determined by the Department of Public Utility Control in accordance with the criteria provided in subsection (b) of section 16-262n, by a water company that is economically viable, as determined by the department in accordance with said criteria, upon petition of the acquiring water company and after notice and hearing, the department may allow the acquiring water company to implement, and revise quarterly thereafter, a rate surcharge applied to the rates of the acquired water company or of both the acquiring water company and the acquired water company, as determined by the department, that would recover on a current basis those costs of such acquisition and of needed improvements to the acquired water company's system, to the extent the department deems such costs appropriate. The regulations adopted by the department pursuant to section 16-262o shall apply for purposes of this section.

      (P.A. 97-69, S. 2, 3.)

      History: P.A. 97-69 effective July 1, 1997.

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      Sec. 16-262t. Action for receivership of rent and common expenses by water companies; petition; hearing; appointment; duties; termination. (a)(1) Upon default of the owner, agent, lessor or manager of a residential dwelling or dwellings who is billed directly by a water company or by a municipal water utility for water service furnished to such building or buildings, such company or municipal utility may petition the Superior Court or a judge thereof, for appointment of a receiver of the rents or payments for use and occupancy or common expenses, as defined in section 47-202, for any dwelling or dwellings for which the owner, agent, lessor or manager is in default. The court or judge shall forthwith issue an order to show cause why a receiver should not be appointed, which shall be served upon the owner, agent, lessor or manager or his agent in a manner most reasonably calculated to give notice to such owner, agent, lessor or manager as determined by such court or judge, including, but not limited to, a posting of such order on the premises in question. If a petition or petitions are filed by a single petitioner regarding more than one building under the same ownership, the court shall, if practicable, appoint a common receiver for all such buildings and, if filed as separate actions, may consolidate such petitions and treat them as a single action.

      (2) A hearing shall be had on such order no later than seventy-two hours after its issuance or the first court day thereafter. The sole purpose of such a hearing shall be to determine whether there is an amount due and owing between the owner, agent, lessor or manager and the company or municipal utility. The court shall make a determination of any amount due and owing and any amount so determined shall constitute a lien upon the real property of such owner. A certificate of such amount may be recorded in the land records of the town in which such property is located describing the amount of the lien and the name of the party in default. When the amount due and owing has been paid, the company or municipality shall issue a certificate discharging the lien and shall file the certificate in the land records of the town in which such lien was recorded.

      (3) Not more than ten days after receipt of the order of appointment by the receiver, such receiver shall provide written notice to all occupants of the building or buildings, delivered separately to each dwelling unit, stating that the receiver has been authorized to collect all rents or payments for use and occupancy or common expenses, as defined in section 47-202, due from such occupant and that the owner, agency, lessor or manager, as the case may be, is prohibited from collecting such rents or payments for use and occupancy or common expenses. The notice shall include the address to which payments are to be made and a telephone number at which the receiver can be contacted. The notice shall be in plain and simple language and shall be written in English and in Spanish. A copy of the court order appointing the receiver and authorizing the collection of rents shall be attached to the notice.

      (4) The receiver appointed by the court shall collect all rents or payments for use and occupancy or common expenses forthcoming from the occupants of the building or buildings in question in place of the owner, agent, lessor or manager. The court may authorize the receiver to make reasonable repairs and provide reasonable maintenance to the premises, as determined by the court, the reasonable cost of which shall be added to the total amount due and owing from the owner, agency, lessor or manager.

      (5) The receiver shall pay to the petitioner, other supplier or receiver, as is appropriate, from such rents or payments for use and occupancy or common expenses from such building or buildings, in the following priority: (A) For electric, gas, telephone, water or heating oil supplied on and after the date of his appointment and for the reasonable cost of repairs and maintenance made or provided pursuant to subdivision (4) of this subsection; (B) for such reasonable fees and costs determined by the court to be due the receiver; (C) for reasonable attorney's fees and costs incurred by the petitioner; and (D) for any arrearage found by the court to be due and owing the company or municipal utility from the owner, agent, lessor or manager for service provided such building or buildings. The owner, agent, lessor or manager shall be liable for all such costs. Any moneys remaining thereafter shall be turned over to the owner, agent, lessor or manager. The court may order an accounting to be made at such times as it determines to be just, reasonable and necessary.

      (b) Any receivership established pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, shall be terminated by the court upon its finding that the arrearage which was the subject of the original petition or petitions have been satisfied for all buildings subject to the receivership, or that all occupants of a building have agreed to assume liability in their own names for prospective service supplied by the petitioner, or that the building has been sold and the new owner has assumed liability for prospective service supplied by the petitioner.

      (c) On motion by the receiver, the court may authorize the receiver to institute a summary process action pursuant to chapter 832 against an occupant, upon a prima facie showing that: (1) The occupant has received notice in accordance with subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of this section; (2) the receiver has made reasonable efforts to supplement such notice with other written and oral notice; (3) after the occupant has received notice in accordance with subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of this section, payments equal to one month's rent or use and occupancy have not been made by or on behalf of the occupant during the most recent sixty consecutive days; and (4) the duty to make such payments has not been suspended as a result of the condition of the premises or any applicable preoccupancy certification requirements. In any such summary process action, the receiver shall be subject to all claims and defenses that the occupant could assert against the owner, agent, lessor or manager of the dwelling.

      (d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the petitioner from pursuing any other action or remedy at law or equity that it may have against the owner, agent, lessor or manager.

      (e) Any owner, agent, lessor or manager who collects or attempts to collect any rent or payment for use and occupancy or common expenses, as defined in section 47-202, from any occupant of a building or buildings subject to an order appointing a receiver or who in any other way interferes with the receiver in the performance of his duties shall be found, after due notice and hearing, to be in contempt of court.

      (f) If a proceeding is initiated pursuant to sections 47a-14a to 47a-14h, inclusive, or sections 47a-56 to 47a-56i, inclusive, or if a receiver of rents is appointed pursuant to chapter 735a or pursuant to any other action involving the making of repairs to residential rental property under court supervision, rent or use and occupancy payments and common expenses, as defined in section 47-202, shall be made pursuant to such proceeding or action without regard to whether such proceeding or action is initiated before or after a receivership is established under this section, and such proceeding or action shall take priority over a receivership established under this section in regard to expenditure of such rent or use and occupancy payments.

      (P.A. 98-102, S. 2.)

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      Sec. 16-262u. Replacement and repair of water service connections. (a) For purposes of this section, (1) "service connection" means the service pipe from the water main to the curb stop, at or adjacent to the street line or the customer's property line, and such other valves or fittings as the water company, as defined in section 16-1, may require at or between the water main and the curb stop, but excluding the curb box, and (2) "service pipe" means the curb box and the pipe from the curb stop to the place of consumption.

      (b) In the case of a water company having annual revenues of twenty thousand dollars or more, all replacements and repairs of service connections shall be by the company at its own expense.

      (P.A. 03-175, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 16-262v. Water company infrastructure projects: Definitions. For purposes of this section:

      (1) "Eligible projects" means those water company plant projects not previously included in the water company's rate base in its most recent general rate case and that are intended to improve or protect the quality and reliability of service to customers, including (A) renewal or replacement of existing infrastructure, including mains, valves, services, meters and hydrants that have either reached the end of their useful life, are worn out, are in deteriorated condition, are or will be contributing to unacceptable levels of unaccounted for water, or are negatively impacting water quality or reliability of service if not replaced; (B) main cleaning and relining projects; (C) relocation of facilities as a result of government actions, the capital costs of which are not otherwise eligible for reimbursement; and (D) purchase of leak detection equipment or installation of production meters, and pressure reducing valves.

      (2) "Department" means the Department of Public Utility Control.

      (3) "Infrastructure assessment report" means a report filed by a water company with the department that identifies water system infrastructure needs and the company's criteria for determining the priority for eligible projects related to infrastructure.

      (4) "Pretax return" means the revenue necessary, after deduction of depreciation and property taxes, to produce net operating income equal to the water company's weighted cost of capital as approved by the department in the company's most recent general rate case multiplied by the new original cost of eligible projects.

      (5) "Reconciliation adjustment" means the difference between revenues actually collected through the water infrastructure and conservation adjustment and the amount allowed under the WICA for that period for the eligible projects. The amount of revenues overcollected or undercollected through the adjustment will be recovered or refunded, as appropriate, as a reconciliation adjustment over a one-year period commencing on April first.

      (6) "Water company" means a water company, as defined in section 16-1, that has filed for approval an individual infrastructure assessment report to support a request for a WICA adjustment.

      (7) "Water Infrastructure and Conservation Adjustment (WICA)" means an adjustment applied as a charge or credit to a water company customers' rates to recover the WICA costs of eligible projects.

      (8) "WICA costs" means the depreciation and property tax expenses and associated return on completed eligible projects.

      (9) "WICA revenues" means the revenues provided through a water infrastructure and conservation adjustment for eligible projects.

      (P.A. 07-139, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 07-139 effective June 19, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-262w. Water company rate adjustment mechanisms. (a) The Department of Public Utility Control may authorize a water company to use a rate adjustment mechanism, such as a water infrastructure and conservation adjustment (WICA), for eligible projects completed and in service for the benefit of the customers. A water company may only charge customers such an adjustment to the extent allowed by the department based on a water company's infrastructure assessment report, as approved by the department and upon semiannual filings by the company which reflect plant additions consistent with such report. The department, in consultation with the Office of Consumer Counsel, shall conduct the proceeding in accordance with the provisions of section 16-18a.

      (b) On or before ninety days after June 19, 2007, the department shall initiate a generic docket on what shall be included in a water company's infrastructure assessment report and annual reconciliation reports and the criteria for determining priority of eligible projects. The department shall provide public notice with a deadline for interested parties to submit recommendations on the report contents and criteria. The department may hold a hearing on the generic docket but shall issue a decision on the docket not later than one hundred eighty days after the deadline for interested parties to submit their recommendations on the report contents and criteria.

      (c) The water company shall file their individual infrastructure assessment report with the department and such report shall identify the water system infrastructure needs and a water company's criteria for determining priority for eligible projects related to infrastructure. The department shall address such criteria in its docket initiated pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. Criteria may include, but shall not be limited to, (1) age, material or condition of the facilities; (2) extent and frequency of main breaks or interruption of service; (3) adequacy of pressure; (4) head loss; (5) availability of fire flows; and (6) the potential of such projects to improve system integrity and reliability.

      (d) The department shall approve a water company's individual infrastructure assessment report upon determining that the company has demonstrated through generally accepted engineering practices (1) the infrastructure projects considered for renewal or replacement are eligible projects; (2) such projects will benefit customers by improving water quality, system integrity or service reliability; (3) they adhere to the criteria established for determining priority for infrastructure projects; and (4) there is a sufficient level of investment in infrastructure. The department may hold a hearing to solicit input on a water company's individual infrastructure assessment report provided a decision on the assessment is made not later than one hundred eighty days after filing. Any such report not approved, rejected or modified by the department within such one-hundred-eighty-day period shall be deemed to have been approved.

      (e) Notwithstanding the provisions of section 16-19, upon department approval of a water company's individual infrastructure assessment report, the water company may charge the WICA for eligible projects in addition to such water company's existing rate schedule pursuant to subsection (f) of this section and the procedures and customer notification requirements in subsections (g) and (h) of this section.

      (f) The WICA adjustment shall be calculated as a percentage, based on the original cost of completed eligible projects multiplied by the applicable rate of return, plus associated depreciation and property tax expenses related to eligible projects and any reconciliation adjustment calculated pursuant to subsection (j) of this section as a percentage of the retail water revenues approved in its most recent rate filing for the regulated activities of said water company.

      (g) A water company may impose the WICA adjustment for eligible projects as a charge or credit on customers' bills at intervals of not less than six months, commencing on either January first, April first, July first or October first in any year. No proposed WICA charge or credit shall become effective until the Department of Public Utility Control has approved such charges or credits pursuant to an administrative proceeding. The department may receive and consider comments of interested persons and members of the public at such a proceeding, which shall not be considered a contested case for purposes of title 4, this section or any regulation adopted thereunder. Such administrative proceeding shall be completed not later than thirty days after the filing of an application by a water company or within a time period as otherwise established in the generic docket conducted pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. Any approval or denial of the department pursuant to this subsection shall not be deemed an order, authorization or decision of the department for purposes of section 16-35. Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, if the department has not rendered an approval or denial concerning any such application within the established timeframe, the proposed charges or credits shall become effective at the option of the company pending the department's finding with respect to such charges, provided the company will refund its customers any such amounts collected from them in excess of the charges approved by the department in its finding.

      (h) Water companies shall notify customers through a bill insert or other direct communications when the adjustment is first applied and the WICA charge or credit shall appear as a separate item on customers' bills.

      (i) The amount of the WICA applied between general rate case filings shall not exceed seven and one-half per cent of the water company's annual retail water revenues approved in its most recent rate filing, and shall not exceed five per cent of such revenues for any twelve-month period. The amount of the adjustment shall be reset to zero as of the effective date of new base rates approved pursuant to section 16-19 and shall be reset to zero if the company exceeds the allowable rate of return by more than one hundred basis points for any calendar year.

      (j) On or before February twenty-eighth of each year, a water company shall submit to the department an annual reconciliation report for any WICA charges applied to customers' rates through December thirty-first of the previous calendar year. Such reconciliation report shall identify those projects that have been completed, demonstrate that the WICA charges are limited to eligible projects that are in service and used and useful as of the end of the calendar year, and include any other information required as a result of the generic docket conducted pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. The company shall indicate in its report any significant changes in the extent of infrastructure spending, the priorities for determining eligible projects or the criteria established in the infrastructure assessment report. In addition, the reconciliation report shall compare the WICA revenues actually collected to the allowed amount of the adjustment. If upon completion of the review of the annual reconciliation report the department determines that a water company overcollected or undercollected the WICA adjustment, the difference between the revenue and costs for eligible projects will be recovered or refunded, as appropriate, as a reconciliation adjustment over a one-year period commencing on April first. The company shall refund the customers with interest for any overcollection but shall not be eligible for interest for any undercollection.

      (P.A. 07-139, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 07-139 effective June 19, 2007.

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      Sec. 16-262x. Termination of residential utility service. Requirements. (a) A person seeking to terminate electric, gas, telecommunications or water service to a residential dwelling shall provide to the electric distribution, gas, telecommunications or water company, electric supplier or municipal utility providing such service either (1) identification, as defined in section 16-49e, (2) the password previously provided by the customer of record for such service, (3) the customer code provided by the company, supplier or utility, or (4) other reasonable identification method established by the company, supplier or utility sufficient to establish that the person authorizing the termination is the customer of record or the customer's authorized representative. Such company, supplier or utility shall not terminate service if the person does not provide such reasonable identification.

      (b) If a person or entity, other than a customer of record or the customer's authorized representative, seeks to terminate electric, gas, telecommunications or water service to a residential dwelling, the company, supplier or utility shall not terminate service unless, nine or more days prior to the requested termination date, the company, utility or supplier sends a notification letter to the customer of record at the customer's last-known address.

      (c) Notwithstanding the requirements of this section, an electric distribution, gas, telecommunications or water company, electric supplier or municipal utility may terminate service at any time (1) upon request of a state or local fire or police authority, (2) upon determination by the company, supplier or utility that failure to terminate the service may adversely impact safety or the public health, or (3) upon the company's, supplier's or utility's compliance with applicable statutes or Department of Public Utility Control regulations governing termination of service not requested by the customer.

      (P.A. 09-31, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 09-31 effective July 1, 2009.

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