CHAPTER 146*
ELECTIONS

      *Cited. 192 C. 399.

Table of Contents

Sec. 9-164. Regular and special municipal elections.
Sec. 9-164a. Transitional terms of office.
Sec. 9-164b. Deferred terms.
Sec. 9-164c. Change of municipal election date.
Sec. 9-164d. Notification to secretary.
Sec. 9-164e. Proposed action to be submitted to municipal attorney.
Sec. 9-164f. Election of registrars unaffected.
Secs. 9-165 to 9-167. Biennial town elections: Change to from annual elections, unexpired terms; term and method of rotation of board members.
Sec. 9-167a. Minority representation.
Sec. 9-168. Place of holding elections.
Sec. 9-168a. Polling places for voting districts whose lines differ from the district lines as constituted in a municipal election year and for voting districts with less than one thousand five hundred electors who vote for officers that no other electors of town vote for. Combined voting districts and polling places.
Sec. 9-168b. Designation of polling places in adjacent voting districts.
Sec. 9-168c. Accessibility of polling places to physically disabled voters.
Sec. 9-168d. Accessibility of polling places to physically disabled voters. Certification. Waiver of requirements.
Sec. 9-168e. Parking spaces at polling places for handicapped and infirm elderly persons.
Sec. 9-169. Voting districts.
Sec. 9-169a. Split voting districts.
Sec. 9-169b. Effective date of changes in voting districts.
Sec. 9-169c. At-large election of members of legislative bodies of certain towns.
Sec. 9-169d. Voting districts crossing legislative district lines, permitted for municipal elections.
Sec. 9-169e. Voting districts in special elections held to fill vacancy in district or municipal office.
Sec. 9-169f. Reapportionment required for certain municipal legislative bodies.
Sec. 9-169g. Town clerks required to submit voting district maps to Secretary of the State. Use of maps by General Assembly.
Sec. 9-170. Eligibility to vote at town elections.
Sec. 9-171. Eligibility to vote at city elections.
Sec. 9-172. Eligibility to vote at state elections.
Sec. 9-172a. Revised registry list defined for purposes of special elections.
Sec. 9-172b. Supplementary list and registration deadline for special election or referendum.
Sec. 9-173. Plurality required for election.
Sec. 9-174. Hours of voting. Voting by electors in line at eight o'clock p.m.
Sec. 9-175. Presidential and vice presidential electors. Write-in candidates and ballots.
Sec. 9-176. Meeting of presidential electors.
Sec. 9-177. Compensation of presidential electors.
Sec. 9-178. Senator in Congress.
Sec. 9-179. Representative in Congress.
Sec. 9-180. Representative at large.
Sec. 9-181. State officers.
Sec. 9-182. Sheriffs.
Sec. 9-183. Justices of the peace.
Sec. 9-183a. Number of justices of the peace, exceptions.
Sec. 9-183b. (Formerly Sec. 9-252). Nomination of justices of the peace by parties qualifying as major parties based on enrollment. Terms. Primaries.
Sec. 9-183c. Nomination of justices of the peace by parties qualifying as major parties based solely on gubernatorial vote. Terms. Primaries.
Sec. 9-184. Vacancy in office of justice of the peace when justice nominated by a major party.
Secs. 9-184a and 9-184b.
Sec. 9-184c. Appointment as justices of the peace of electors who are not members of major parties. Terms. Vacancies.
Sec. 9-185. Municipal officers.
Sec. 9-186. Electoral status of municipal officers and justices of the peace.
Sec. 9-187. Terms.
Sec. 9-187a. Date term to begin.
Sec. 9-188. First selectman and selectmen. Election procedure. Dual candidacy prohibited. Minority representation; restricted voting. Tie vote.
Sec. 9-189. Town clerks, treasurers and tax collectors.
Sec. 9-189a. Four-year terms for town clerks, registrars and treasurers.
Sec. 9-190. Registrars of voters.
Sec. 9-190a. Election of registrars at state elections.
Sec. 9-191. Election of registrars for each voting district.
Sec. 9-192. Deputy registrar. Registrar vacancy. Assistant registrars. Special assistant registrars.
Sec. 9-192a. Committee to establish programs and procedures for training, examining and certifying registrars, deputies and assistants. Training program for poll workers.
Sec. 9-192b. Designation of registrar, deputy or an assistant to receive instruction.
Sec. 9-193. Registrar's oath.
Sec. 9-194. Compensation of registrars, deputies and assistants.
Sec. 9-195. Compensation of registrars and town clerks for duties as to enrollment.
Secs. 9-196 and 9-197. Assessors. Minority representation for assessors in towns holding annual elections.
Sec. 9-198. Determination of number, method of election or appointment, term and compensation of assessors.
Sec. 9-199. Boards of assessment appeals. Alternate and additional members.
Sec. 9-200. Constables.
Sec. 9-201. Election of five-member boards of police commissioners.
Sec. 9-202. Board of finance.
Sec. 9-203. Number and term of members of boards of education.
Sec. 9-204. Minority representation on board of education.
Sec. 9-204a. Nomination and voting for full number of board members to be elected authorized.
Sec. 9-204b. Optional alternative system for towns with four-year terms for board of education.
Sec. 9-205. Election of board of education when number of members revised.
Sec. 9-206. Election of board of education in towns adopting biennial elections. Alternate rotation of terms and length of terms permitted.
Sec. 9-206a. Optional number of members and terms of boards of education.
Sec. 9-207. Library directors.
Sec. 9-208. Election of library directors on change from annual to biennial election.
Sec. 9-209. Certificate filed with secretary when planning or zoning members to be elected.
Sec. 9-210. Incompatible town offices.
Sec. 9-211. United States senator; vacancy.
Sec. 9-211a. Fifty or more vacancies in the office of senator in Congress among the states. Connecticut vacancy. Governor's power to appoint.
Sec. 9-212. Representative in Congress.
Sec. 9-213. Secretary, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General.
Sec. 9-214. State representative.
Sec. 9-215. Member or member-elect of the General Assembly.
Sec. 9-216. Nomination by petition.
Sec. 9-217. List of candidates.
Sec. 9-218. Judge of probate.
Sec. 9-219. Justice of the peace.
Sec. 9-220. Town office.
Sec. 9-221. Municipal office vacancy election provisions inapplicable in certain circumstances.
Sec. 9-222. Filling of vacancy in office of first selectman or selectman. Petition for special election.
Sec. 9-223. Notice of vacancy in municipal office.
Sec. 9-224. Special election on same day as regular election.
Sec. 9-224a. No election if only one candidate in special election to fill vacancy.
Sec. 9-224b. Registration as write-in candidate in special election to fill vacancy.
Sec. 9-225. State elections.
Sec. 9-226. Municipal elections.
Sec. 9-227. Record of warning of municipal election.
Sec. 9-228. Municipal elections.
Sec. 9-229. Appointment, instruction and certification of moderators.
Sec. 9-229a. Election or primary day polling place observers. Appointment. Duties. Training program. Regulations. Additional election officials. Code of ethics for polling place observers.
Sec. 9-230. Authority of registrars and moderators to prevent or suppress disorder.
Sec. 9-231. Oath of election officials.
Sec. 9-232. Challengers. Challenges not to be indiscriminate and under oath.
Sec. 9-232a. Remedy for denial of voting rights.
Sec. 9-232b. Penalty for false statement.
Sec. 9-232c. Moderator to keep memorandum of challenge; form.
Sec. 9-232d. Request for challenged ballot.
Sec. 9-232e. Casting of challenged ballot, procedure.
Sec. 9-232f. Preservation and counting of challenged ballots.
Sec. 9-232g.
Sec. 9-232h.
Sec. 9-232i. Definition.
Sec. 9-232j. Provisional ballot packets for elections for federal office.
Sec. 9-232k. Secretary of the State to prescribe and provide provisional ballots.
Sec. 9-232l. Applications for provisional ballots.
Sec. 9-232m. Casting of provisional ballots.
Sec. 9-232n. Determination of eligibility of provisional ballot applicants to vote. Report. Corrected return.
Sec. 9-232o. Counting of provisional ballots.
Sec. 9-233. Voting tabulator tenders.
Sec. 9-234. Presence of registrars. Checkers.
Sec. 9-235. Unofficial checkers.
Sec. 9-235a. Temporary absence of election officials.
Sec. 9-235b. Runners.
Sec. 9-235c. Voluntary service by election, primary or referendum officials.
Sec. 9-235d. Citizens sixteen or seventeen years of age authorized to serve as election or primary officials. Requirements.
Sec. 9-236. Activities prohibited in and near polling place; distance markers; entry restricted; exceptions.
Sec. 9-236a. Spare voting machine or ballot box for educational use of students.
Sec. 9-236b. Voter's Bill of Rights. Sample ballots. Voters in line when polls scheduled to close permitted to vote. Voting instructions and information.
Sec. 9-237. Display of national and state flags.
Sec. 9-237a. Telephones at polling places.

PART I
GENERAL

      Sec. 9-164. Regular and special municipal elections. (a) Notwithstanding any contrary provision of law, there shall be held in each municipality, biennially, a municipal election on the first Monday of May or the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, of the odd-numbered years, whichever date the legislative body of such municipality determines, provided, if no action is taken by the legislative body to so designate the date of such election, such election shall be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November of the odd-numbered years. In any municipality where the term of any elected official would expire prior to the next regular election held under the provisions of this section, the term of such official shall be extended to the date of such election.

      (b) Upon the occurrence of a vacancy in a municipal office or upon the creation of a new office to be filled prior to the next regular election, a special municipal election may be convened either by the board of selectmen of the municipality or upon application of twenty electors of the municipality filed with the municipal clerk. The date of such election shall be determined by the board of selectmen of the municipality, and notice of such date shall be filed with the municipal clerk. In determining the date of such election, the board of selectmen shall allow the time specified for holding primaries for municipal office in section 9-423 and the time specified for the selection of party-endorsed candidates for municipal office in section 9-391. On application of twenty electors of the municipality, the date of such election, as determined by the board of selectmen, shall be not later than the one hundred fiftieth day following the filing of such application. Except as otherwise provided by general statute, the provisions of the general statutes pertaining to elections and primaries shall apply to special municipal elections. No such election may be held unless the municipal clerk first files notice of the office or offices to be filled at such election with the town chairman of the town committee of each major and minor party within the municipality and with the secretary of the state at least three weeks in advance of the final time specified for the selection of party-endorsed candidates for municipal office in section 9-391. The municipal clerk shall forthwith warn such election in the same manner as the warning of municipal elections pursuant to section 9-226.

      (c) Notwithstanding any provision of subsection (b) of this section to the contrary, any town which by charter provides that a vacancy in its legislative body shall be filled by a special election held no later than forty-five days after the effective date of the vacancy shall hold such election not later than forty-five days after the occurrence of the vacancy. No such election may be held unless the municipal clerk forthwith upon the occurrence of the vacancy files notice of the office to be filled at the election with the town chairman of the town committee of each major and minor party within the municipality and with the Secretary of the State. Nominations by political parties for such office shall be made as the rules of such parties which are filed with the town clerk provide, in accordance with section 9-390. Such nominations may be made and certified at any time after the vacancy occurs but not later than the thirty-sixth day before the day of the election. No such nomination shall be effective until the presiding officer and secretary of the town committee certify the nomination to the town clerk. No primary shall be held for the nomination of any political party to fill any vacancy in such office and the party-endorsed candidate so certified shall be deemed the nominee of such party. Nominations may also be made by petition in the manner provided in sections 9-379 and 9-453a to 9-453p, inclusive, which petitions shall be submitted to the town clerk of the town in which the signers reside not later than the thirty-sixth day before the day of the election and filed in the office of the Secretary of the State not later than two days thereafter. The municipal clerk shall forthwith warn such election in the same manner as the warning of municipal elections pursuant to section 9-226.

      (1949 Rev., S. 491, 492; 1953, 1955, S. 646d; November, 1955, S. N111; 1957, P.A. 518, S. 39; 1963, P.A. 393, S. 7; 1967, P.A. 675, S. 1; P.A. 75-206, S. 2, 7; P.A. 77-245, S. 3; P.A. 84-319, S. 25, 49; P.A. 87-382, S. 18, 55; P.A. 93-202, S. 1.)

      History: 1963 act provided for issuance of warning for special election by town clerk rather than selectmen; 1967 act provided for municipal elections biennially on the first Monday of May or the Tuesday after the first Monday in November in odd-numbered years as designated by the legislative body and in event such action not taken, election to be held in November and further provided where, under the act, term of an elected official would expire before the election, term extended to date of election, effective June 1, 1968; P.A. 75-206 changed day for holding special town election from not earlier than "ninetieth" to "one hundred fifth" day following day town clerk issues warning thereof, where appearing; P.A. 77-245 changed "town" to "municipal" clerk where appearing; P.A. 84-319 changed calendar re special municipal elections to conform with changes made by 1983 legislation; P.A. 87-382 changed deadline for filing by clerk to be in advance of "final" time specified for selection of party-endorsed candidates for municipal office and required clerk to warn such election "forthwith" instead of "within the time provided for" pursuant to 9-226; P.A. 93-202 added Subsec. (c) re calendar and procedures for special election to fill vacancy in legislative body of any town which by charter provides that such vacancy shall be filled by special election held within 45 days after vacancy.

      Cited. 143 C. 679. Cited. 192 C. 399.

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      Sec. 9-164a. Transitional terms of office. Notwithstanding any contrary provision of law, in any municipality in which the date of the municipal election has been changed under section 9-164 and in which the terms of office of one or more elected municipal officers had not, or will have not, expired at the time of the holding of the first municipal election in accordance with such changed date under said section, the legislative body of such municipality shall, prior to July 25, 1969, provide for a reasonable method of transition for such offices which may include reasonable extension of such terms and provision for interim terms. Except as provided in sections 9-164b to 9-164f, inclusive, 9-187 and 9-187a, in the absence of such action by such legislative body, the terms of any such officers which do not terminate within three months after such first or a subsequent municipal election held under said section 9-164 shall be extended to the municipal election next held after the expiration of such terms, or to such date, within seventy days after such election, on which the terms of municipal officers generally begin in such municipality, at which election successors shall be elected for the terms provided for by law or for such other transitional terms as are necessary to provide the rotation required by law. The clerk of the municipality, in preparing the list provided for under section 9-254, shall set forth such terms or transitional terms therein.

      (1969, P.A. 570, S. 1.)

      Cited. 192 C. 399.

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      Sec. 9-164b. Deferred terms. As to any board or commission with a rotating membership, some of the members of which, prior to the change to a uniform municipal election date under section 9-164, were elected for terms beginning approximately one year after the date of their election, the legislative body may provide for such conforming changes in the beginning date of the terms of office as are designed to continue the rotation with regard to such office as it existed prior to such change, and in the absence of such action by such legislative body, the beginning date of the terms of such office shall be so changed by the clerk of the municipality in preparing the list provided for under section 9-254. With respect to any board or commission with a rotating membership established under sections 8-1, 8-4a, 8-5 and 8-19, the authority empowered to prescribe the term of office of the members of such board or commission, if it is authorized under said sections to provide for an odd-numbered year term, may further provide for deferred terms by prescribing which terms are to begin approximately one year from the date on which the terms of municipal officers generally begin in such municipality.

      (1969, P.A. 570, S. 4; 1971, P.A. 715.)

      History: 1971 act added authorization with respect to board or commission with rotating membership for deferred terms to be prescribed by authority so empowered, where it is authorized to provide for an odd-numbered year term.

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      Sec. 9-164c. Change of municipal election date. After January 1, 1970, any municipality may by charter, or by vote of the legislative body approved at a referendum of the electors to be held within thirty days thereafter, change the date of its municipal election by designating the alternate date specified in section 9-164 as the date of the municipal election, provided (1) no such charter provision adopted, nor such vote of such legislative body so approved, within six months prior to any municipal election may be effective with respect thereto, and (2) in changing from the November municipal election date specified in section 9-164 to the May municipal election date therein specified, the terms of incumbent municipal elected officials shall be diminished to conform to such change but for a period of not more than nine months and (3) in changing from the May municipal election date specified in section 9-164 to the November date therein specified, the terms of incumbent municipal elected officials shall be extended to conform to such change but for a period of not more than nine months.

      (1969, P.A. 570, S. 5.)

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      Sec. 9-164d. Notification to secretary. The clerk of a municipality shall forthwith notify the Secretary of the State in writing of any change in the date of the municipal election of such municipality or in terms of elected officials thereof, the date such action was taken, the effective date thereof, the manner in which or the authority by which it was taken, and reference to the law under which it was taken.

      (1969, P.A. 570, S. 6.)

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      Sec. 9-164e. Proposed action to be submitted to municipal attorney. Before any action is taken under sections 9-164a to 9-164f, inclusive, 9-187 and 9-187a, such proposed action shall be submitted by the legislative body to the municipal attorney of the municipality taking such action for approval as to conforming to law.

      (1969, P.A. 570, S. 7.)

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      Sec. 9-164f. Election of registrars unaffected. Nothing in sections 9-164a to 9-164e, inclusive, 9-187 and 9-187a, shall affect the election of registrars of voters.

      (1969, P.A. 570, S. 9; P.A. 74-109, S. 2, 11.)

      History: P.A. 74-109 deleted justices of the peace, effective upon adoption of an amendment (Senate Joint Resolution No. 22 of the 1973 session) to the Constitution of Connecticut.

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      Secs. 9-165 to 9-167. Biennial town elections: Change to from annual elections, unexpired terms; term and method of rotation of board members. Sections 9-165 to 9-167, inclusive, are repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 497-499; 1953, S. 647d-649d; 1959, P.A. 630, S. 3; P.A. 76-173, S. 12.)

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      Sec. 9-167a. Minority representation. (a)(1) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection, the maximum number of members of any board, commission, legislative body, committee or similar body of the state or any political subdivision thereof, whether elective or appointive, who may be members of the same political party, shall be as specified in the following table:

COLUMN I
Total Membership
COLUMN II
Maximum from One Party
32
43
54
64
75
85
96
More than 9Two-thirds of
total membership

      (2) The provisions of this section shall not apply (A) to any such board, commission, committee or body whose members are elected wholly or partially on the basis of a geographical division of the state or political subdivision, (B) to a legislative body of a municipality (i) having a town meeting as its legislative body or (ii) for which the charter or a special act, on January 1, 1987, provided otherwise or (C) to the city council of an unconsolidated city within a town and the town council of such town if the town has a town council and a representative town meeting, the town charter provides for some form of minority representation in the election of members of the representative town meeting, and the city has a city council and a body having the attributes of a town meeting or (D) to the board of directors and other officers of any district, as defined in section 7-324, having annual receipts from all sources not in excess of two hundred fifty thousand dollars.

      (b) Prior to any election for or appointment to any such body, the municipal clerk, in cases of elections, and the appointing authority, in cases of appointments, shall determine the maximum number of members of any political party who may be elected or appointed to such body at such election or appointment. Such maximum number shall be determined for each political party in the following manner: From the number of members of one political party who are members of such body at the time of the election or appointment, subtract the number of members of such political party whose terms expire prior to the commencement of the terms for which such election or appointment is being held or made and subtract the balance thus arrived at from the appropriate number specified in column II of subsection (a) of this section.

      (c) In the case of any election to any such body the winner or winners shall be determined as under existing law with the following exception: The municipal clerk shall prepare a list of the candidates ranked from top to bottom according to the number of votes each receives; when the number of members of any one political party who would be elected without regard to this section exceeds the maximum number as determined under subsection (b) of this section, only the candidates of such political party with the highest number of votes up to the limit of such maximum shall be elected, and the names of the remaining candidates of such political party shall be stricken from the list. The next highest ranking candidates shall be elected up to the number of places to be filled at such election.

      (d) If an unexpired portion of a term is to be filled at the same time as a full term, the unexpired term shall be deemed to be filled before the full term for purposes of applying this section. At such time as the minority representation provisions of this section become applicable to any board, commission, committee or body, any vacancy thereafter occurring which is to be filled by appointment shall be filled by the appointment of a member of the same political party as that of the vacating member.

      (e) Nothing in this section shall be construed to repeal, modify or prohibit enactment of any general or special act or charter which provides for a greater degree of minority representation than is provided by this section.

      (f) Nothing in this section shall deprive any person who is a member of any such body on July 1, 1960, of the right to remain as a member until the expiration of his term.

      (g) For the purposes of this section, a person shall be deemed to be a member of the political party on whose enrollment list his name appears on the date of his appointment to, or of his nomination as a candidate for election to, any office specified in subsection (a) of this section, provided any person who has applied for erasure or transfer of his name from an enrollment list shall be considered a member of the party from whose list he has so applied for erasure or transfer for a period of three months from the date of the filing of such application and provided further any person whose candidacy for election to an office is solely as the candidate of a party other than the party with which he is enrolled shall be deemed to be a member of the party of which he is such candidate.

      (1959, P.A. 665; 1963, P.A. 592; P.A. 76-173, S. 1; P.A. 77-245, S. 4; P.A. 85-333, S. 1, 2; P.A. 86-400, S. 1, 2; P.A. 87-498, S. 1, 2; P.A. 89-370, S. 14, 15; P.A. 97-154, S. 8, 27.)

      History: 1963 act added new Subsec. (g) setting forth how membership in a political party is determined for purposes of the section; P.A. 76-173 in Subsec. (d) deleted reference to vacancies to be filled by election, in Subsec. (e) added nothing to "prohibit enactment of" to repeal or modify, and added "charter" to general or special act providing for greater degree of minority representation; P.A. 77-245 changed "town" to "municipal" clerk where appearing; P.A. 85-333 applied section to municipal legislative bodies, except for a municipality having a town meeting as the legislative body, effective January 1, 1986, and applicable to elections held on or after that date; P.A. 86-400 restructured Subsec. (a) to place exceptions in a separate subdivision and added exception for town and city councils in unconsolidated cities within towns under stated circumstances; P.A. 87-498 added, in Subsec. (a)(2), "or (ii) for which the charter or a special act, on January 1, 1987, provided otherwise"; P.A. 89-370 exempted board of directors and other officers of any district, as defined in Sec. 7-324, having annual receipts from all sources not in excess of $250,000 from provisions of section; P.A. 97-154 amended Subsec. (g) by changing period during which applicant for erasure or transfer shall be considered a party member, from six months to three months from application filing date, effective July 1, 1997.

      See Sec. 9-183b re nomination procedure for justices of the peace.

      See Sec. 9-188 re application of minority representation requirements with respect to selectmen's election.

      See Sec. 9-190 re minority major party's registrar of voters.

      See Sec. 9-199 re election of town assessors and board of tax review.

      See Sec. 9-200 re election of constables.

      See Sec. 9-204 re minority representation on board of education.


      This section not applicable to New Haven aldermanic election of 1967 as this was a sui generis election, a creature of the United States district court, not subject to ordinary state election law procedure. 298 F.S. 871.

      Statute applies to board of tax review of city of Hartford. 154 C. 237. Second taxing district of city of Norwalk held to be a political subdivision of the state and subject to the provisions of this section. 155 C. 256. Definition of "political subdivision" discussed. Id. Applicability of this statute to a November, 1967, election of the board of aldermen of New Haven held under the direction of the United States District court for the district of Connecticut raised by a complaint of candidates in a case brought pursuant to section 9-328. Held the New Haven aldermanic election of November, 1967, is solely a creature of the United States district court and what candidates were elected is that court's prerogative to determine, especially as it has retained jurisdiction to decide this question. 156 C. 253. Cited. 168 C. 160. Minority representation statute not applicable to local legislative bodies. 175 C. 545. Cited. 182 C. 111. Cited. 190 C. 39. Cited. 205 C. 495. Cited. 225 C. 378.

      The effect of subsec. (d) is that an appointment of a member of the same political party as that of the vacating member need not be made unless not to make it would cause the maximum number of members on the board permitted to any one party under the statute to be exceeded. 25 CS 444. Applies to board of selectmen of city of New London. The one man one vote rule does not apply to election of purely administrative body such as board of selectmen. 28 CS 403. Cited. 30 CS 74. Elected nonenrollee considered party member in light of minority representation rule. Id.

      Subsec. (d):

      Applies only to vacancies occurring in bodies that have already achieved maximum majority representation under Subsec. (a) of the statute and then only when the vacating member is of the minority party. 190 C. 39.

      Cited. 37 CS 844.


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      Sec. 9-168. Place of holding elections. In any town not divided into voting districts, the place of holding elections may be determined by the legislative body of such town. In towns divided into voting districts the place of holding elections shall be determined as provided in section 9-169 or any special act, whichever applies. Except as provided in section 9-169a, state elections shall be held at the usual place or places of holding elections in the town or the voting districts thereof, as the case may be, unless the registrars of voters, in writing, have designated to the clerk of such town, at least thirty-one days before any such state election, a different place or places for holding such election. Unless otherwise provided by special act, the place of holding city or borough elections shall be determined by the legislative body of such city or borough. Any provision of any charter or special act to the contrary notwithstanding, the place or places of holding an election shall be determined at least thirty-one days prior to such election, and such place or places shall not be changed within the period of thirty-one days prior to such election except that, if the municipal clerk and registrars of voters of a municipality unanimously find that any such polling place within such municipality has been rendered unusable within such period, they shall forthwith designate another polling place to be used in place of the one so rendered unusable and shall give adequate notice that such polling place has been so changed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 529; 1953, S. 650d; 1961, P.A. 398, S. 1; 1963, P.A. 323, S. 1; P.A. 73-657, S. 3, 13; P.A. 81-472, S. 120, 159.)

      History: 1961 act imposed thirty-one-day limitation for changing the place of an election; 1963 act provided that legislative body of the town determine the place of holding elections rather than town meeting and gave registrars of voters rather than selectmen power to change voting places; P.A. 73-657 added exception for provisions of Sec. 9-169a with reference to "split voting districts"; P.A. 81-472 made technical changes.

      Cited. 192 C. 399.

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      Sec. 9-168a. Polling places for voting districts whose lines differ from the district lines as constituted in a municipal election year and for voting districts with less than one thousand five hundred electors who vote for officers that no other electors of town vote for. Combined voting districts and polling places. (a) Any provision of the general statutes to the contrary notwithstanding, in any municipality in which, at any election, or primary, as a result of the assembly, senatorial or congressional district lines in effect, there is a voting district or a part of a voting district which differs geographically from the district lines as constituted in a municipal election year, the registrars of voters may either provide a suitable polling place therein or may, in lieu thereof, with the approval of the legislative body of the municipality, provide separate voting machines in the polling place of another voting district in said municipality for use by such electors. The registrars of voters shall determine which polling place officials are necessary for such separate machines and shall provide the procedure to ensure that the electors use the proper voting machine, which procedure may include the registrars of voters prescribing and providing receipts.

      (b) Any provision of the general statutes to the contrary notwithstanding, in any municipality in which, at any election or primary, as a result of the assembly, senatorial or congressional district lines in effect, there is a voting district with less than one thousand five hundred electors who vote for a combination of officers that no other electors of the town vote for, the registrars of voters may either provide a suitable polling place therein or may, in lieu thereof, provide separate voting machines in the polling place of another voting district in said municipality for use by such electors. If the registrars of voters provide separate voting machines in the polling place of another voting district, they shall determine which polling place officials are necessary for the district containing less than one thousand five hundred electors and shall provide the procedure to ensure that the electors use the proper voting machines, which procedure may include the registrars of voters prescribing and providing receipts.

      (c) In any election or primary where electors in more than one voting district vote in the same building and vote for all the same officers, and the law does not require separate returns, the registrars of voters may combine the voting districts and polling places into one voting district and polling place, with or without integrating the voting districts on the check lists used at the election or primary. The registrars of voters shall file a statement of their action with the town clerk before the election or primary and the town clerk shall label the polling place return form to show which districts are combined on such return.

      (P.A. 73-554; P.A. 75-113; 75-540; P.A. 77-173; P.A. 79-219; P.A. 92-1, S. 3, 8.)

      History: P.A. 75-113 changed number from less than "fifty" to less than "five hundred" electors where special provisions for assignment of polling places apply; P.A. 75-540 deleted qualification characterizing voting district as one or part of one in which offices to be filled are not all and the same offices to be filled in any other part of municipality; P.A. 77-173 deleted reference to number of electors entirely and added qualification that voting district or part which differs geographically from district lines as constituted in municipal election year comes within provisions of section; P.A. 79-219 added approval of legislative body of municipality required in order that a separate voting machine in polling place of another voting district be provided; P.A. 92-1 designated existing section as Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (a) by applying it to primaries and adding sentence re officials and procedures for separate machines in the polling places, added Subsec. (b) re procedures for districts with less than one thousand five hundred electors voting for combination of officers that no other electors of the town vote for, and added Subsec. (c) re procedures for election or primary where electors in more than one district vote in same building and for same officers.

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      Sec. 9-168b. Designation of polling places in adjacent voting districts. When in the written opinion of the registrars of any municipality, the lack of an existing convenient or suitable polling place within the lines of a particular voting district necessitates the designation of a polling place in an adjacent district, such registrars may designate a convenient and suitable polling place in a voting district adjacent thereto, located as near as possible to the boundaries of the voting district for which designated. A separate location from the existing polling place for such adjacent district shall be designated, except that a separate room within such existing polling place may be designated. Such written opinion and designation shall be filed with the municipal clerk not later than ninety days before a regular election, or primary. Within ten days after such filing, the municipal clerk shall cause notice of such filing to be published in the newspaper having the greatest circulation in the town. Such designation shall remain in effect for future elections and primaries, until the registrars file a document with the municipal clerk stating that the designation of such polling place in an adjacent district is no longer necessary.

      (P.A. 74-154, S. 1, 2; P.A. 75-93; P.A. 77-231, S. 1, 2; 77-245, S. 5; P.A. 83-391, S. 13, 24; P.A. 04-113, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 75-93 deleted requirement that lack of existing suitable polling place be "resulting from assembly, senatorial or congressional district lines in effect in any election or primary"; P.A. 77-231 added "convenient" to "suitable polling place" where appearing, provided that a separate location from existing polling place for adjacent district must be designated and deleted reference to Sec. 9-168a as an exception to this section; P.A. 77-245 changed "town" to "municipal" clerk where appearing; P.A. 83-391 authorized use of a separate room in an existing polling place as polling place for an adjacent district; P.A. 04-113 deleted requirement that legislative body approve designation of separate room within existing polling place in adjacent district and added provision re duration of designation under section, effective July 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 9-168c. Accessibility of polling places to physically disabled voters. Section 9-168c is repealed.

      (P.A. 75-280; P.A. 78-117, S. 2.)

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      Sec. 9-168d. Accessibility of polling places to physically disabled voters. Certification. Waiver of requirements. (a) On or before July 1, 1980, each polling place shall be made accessible to and usable by physically disabled persons by complying with the following standards of accessibility: (1) Doors, entrances, and exits used to gain access to or egress from the polling place shall have a minimum width of thirty-one inches; (2) temporary ramps shall be made available or curb cuts provided where necessary for accessibility to the entrance; (3) any stairs necessarily used to enter the polling place shall have a temporary handrail and ramp; (4) in the polling place, no barrier shall impede the path of the physically disabled to the voting booth.

      (b) The registrars of voters in each town, or the legislative body of the town, shall select as polling places only those sites which meet the standards of accessibility required under the State Building Code, as revised pursuant to section 29-269, if applicable, or this section. The registrars of voters in each town shall file with the Secretary of the State either: (1) A certification, as prescribed by the Secretary of the State, that states that each polling place selected complies with the provisions set forth in this subsection, or (2) an application for waiver, as described in subsection (c) of this section.

      (c) The registrars or such legislative body may select a site not meeting such standards if no available site within the voting district or town can reasonably be made accessible if an application for waiver is filed with the Secretary of the State and approved by the Office of Protection and Advocacy for Persons with Disabilities. An application for waiver shall be filed at least sixty days prior to the date on which the primary or election will be held. The Secretary of the State shall, within seven days after receipt of any such application, refer the application to said office of protection and advocacy. Said office shall, within thirty days, review the application and inform the Secretary of the State of its approval or disapproval. The Secretary of the State shall notify the applicant for waiver of such approval or disapproval within seven days after the secretary is so informed.

      (P.A. 78-117, S. 1; P.A. 83-587, S. 10, 96; P.A. 84-319, S. 26, 49; P.A. 88-356, S. 1; 88-364, S. 12, 123; P.A. 89-144, S. 2; P.A. 06-137, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 83-587 made a technical amendment to Subsec. (b), substituting reference to Sec. 29-269 for reference to Sec. 19-395a; P.A. 84-319 amended section to require approval of waiver application by office of protection and advocacy for handicapped and developmentally disabled persons; P.A. 88-356 and 88-364 amended Subsec. (b) to delete reference to "article 21" of the state building code; P.A. 89-144 amended Subsec. (c) by substituting the office of protection and advocacy for persons with disabilities for the office of protection and advocacy for handicapped and developmentally disabled persons; P.A. 06-137 amended Subsec. (b) to add requirement re filing of certification or waiver application with Secretary of the State, effective January 1, 2007.

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      Sec. 9-168e. Parking spaces at polling places for handicapped and infirm elderly persons. If space is available at a polling place, the registrars of voters or legislative body of the town in which the polling place is located shall designate two or more parking spaces for motor vehicles (1) which display the special parking identification card or bear the special set of number plates provided for in section 14-253a or (2) which are operated by infirm persons who are sixty-five years of age or older and who do not qualify for such a card.

      (P.A. 87-286.)

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      Sec. 9-169. Voting districts. The legislative body of any town, consolidated town and city or consolidated town and borough may divide and, from time to time, redivide such municipality into voting districts. The registrars of voters of any municipality taking such action shall provide a suitable polling place in each district but, if the registrars fail to agree as to the location of any polling place or places, the legislative body shall determine the location thereof. Polling places to be used in an election shall be determined at least thirty-one days before such election, and such polling places shall not be changed within said period of thirty-one days except that, if the municipal clerk and registrars of voters of a municipality unanimously find that any such polling place within such municipality has been rendered unusable within such period, they shall forthwith designate another polling place to be used in place of the one so rendered unusable and shall give adequate notice that such polling place has been so changed. The registrars of voters shall keep separate lists of the electors residing in each district and shall appoint for each district a moderator in accordance with the provisions of section 9-229 and such other election officials as are required by law, and shall designate one of the moderators so appointed or any other elector of such town to be the head moderator for the purpose of declaring the results of elections in the whole municipality. The registrars may also designate a deputy head moderator to assist the head moderator in the performance of his duties provided the deputy head moderator and the head moderator shall not be enrolled in the same major party, as defined in subdivision (5) of section 9-372. The selectmen, town clerk, registrars of voters and all other officers of the municipality shall perform the duties required of them by law with respect to elections in each voting district established in accordance with this section. Voting district lines shall not be drawn by a municipality so as to conflict with the lines of congressional districts, senate districts or assembly districts as established by law, except (1) as provided in section 9-169d and (2) that as to municipal elections, any part of a split voting district containing less than two hundred electors may be combined with another voting district adjacent thereto from which all and the same officers are elected at such municipal election. Any change in the boundaries of voting districts made within ninety days prior to any election or primary shall not apply with respect to such election or primary. The provisions of this section shall prevail over any contrary provision of any charter or special act.

      (1953, S. 651d; 1961, P.A. 398, S. 2; 1963, P.A. 323, S. 2; 1967, P.A. 557, S. 1; 831, S. 4; 1971, P.A. 836, S. 1; P.A. 73-657, S. 1, 13; P.A. 74-197, S. 2; P.A. 85-592, S. 10; P.A. 86-2.)

      History: 1961 act imposed 31-day limitation for determining location of polling places and added provisions which provide that voting district boundary changes made within 90 days prior to an election or primary would not apply to such election or primary, and that the provisions of section shall prevail over any contrary provision of any charter or special act; 1963 act required registrars rather than legislative body to provide polling places, with legislative body to resolve any failure of registrars to agree; 1967 acts added "or assembly districts" to structure that district lines not be drawn so as to conflict with lines of senatorial districts and required registrars to provide a single polling place rather than polling places; 1971 act changed designation of first district moderator as head moderator to the effect that any elector in the town may be designated head moderator; P.A. 73-657 added congressional districts to senate districts and assembly districts lines but added proviso as to municipal elections, that any part of split voting district of less than two hundred electors may be combined with an adjacent voting district from which all and the same officers are elected; P.A. 74-197 added exception for use in municipal elections and primaries that voting districts may cross the congressional, senatorial and assembly district lines but not municipal political subdivision lines and that no special state election may be held on same day as regular municipal election, cross-referencing Sec. 9-169d; P.A. 85-592 authorized registrars to designate a deputy head moderator; P.A. 86-2 added requirement that head moderator and deputy head moderator not be members of same major political party.

      See Sec. 9-240 re provision of suitable rooms for elections and voting machine booths.

      Council not authorized to change number or boundaries of wards fixed by charter. 140 C. 517. Cited. 192 C. 399.

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      Sec. 9-169a. Split voting districts. For the purposes of this section and section 9-169, "split voting district" means a voting district which was divided by statute or otherwise divided by law pursuant to article 26 of the amendments to the Constitution of Connecticut or an order of a court of competent jurisdiction between two or more congressional, senatorial or assembly districts within a town so that a part of such split voting district was allocated to one congressional, senatorial or assembly district and the other part or parts thereof were allocated to another or other congressional, senatorial or assembly districts. Such part of a split voting district so allocated to a congressional, senatorial or assembly district shall be a separate voting district and shall have its own separate enrollment list, registry list, list of unaffiliated electors if required under section 9-55, and polling place, and shall for all other administrative purposes be treated as a separate voting district. In a municipality which elects no town, city or borough officers from political subdivisions at a municipal election, this section shall apply to all elections unless and until the voting districts are changed under the provisions of section 9-169. In a municipality which elects one or more town, city or borough officers from political subdivisions at a municipal election, such municipality, for municipal elections and for town committee primaries in which the town committee members are selected from political subdivisions other than assembly or senatorial districts, may continue to use the voting districts as they existed prior to such redistricting or as they are established under section 9-169d, unless and until such voting districts are changed in accordance with the provisions of section 9-169 and, in such a municipality, except as provided in section 9-169e, this section shall apply only with respect to (1) any primary or election for representative in Congress, state senator or state representative in a congressional, senatorial or assembly district which contains a part of a split voting district, (2) any primary for town committee members in which such town committee members are elected at large or in which such a senatorial or assembly district is the political subdivision from which such town committee members are elected and (3) any primary or election for a town, city or borough office in which such a senatorial or assembly district is the political subdivision from which such municipal office is elected. This section shall not preclude any town from changing the boundaries of voting districts as provided in section 9-169 and shall not apply to any town which has changed or changes the boundaries of its voting districts pursuant to said section so as to eliminate any split voting districts.

      (1967, P.A. 557, S. 22; P.A. 73-657, S. 2, 13; P.A. 74-197, S. 3; Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-3, S. 1, 5; P.A. 87-509, S. 8, 24; P.A. 92-1, S. 4, 8.)

      History: P.A. 73-657 redefined "split voting district" as one divided by statutes pursuant to article three, section one of Connecticut Constitution, or by order of court of competent jurisdiction between two or more congressional, senatorial or assembly districts and further provided for application of section as to elections held before change in voting district effectuated under Sec. 9-169; P.A. 74-197 inserted reference to new Sec. 9-169d which provided for voting districts crossing those district lines where used in municipal elections and primaries; Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-3 amended definition of "split voting district" to replace "section 6 of article third" of state constitution with "article 16" of the amendments to the constitution of Connecticut, changed date references to reflect decennial redistricting and added exception re Sec. 9-169e; P.A. 87-509 required part of split voting district allocated to congressional, senatorial or assembly district to have its own separate list of unaffiliated electors if required under Sec. 9-55; P.A. 92-1 deleted references to voting districts used prior to and in the November 1982 state election and updated the reference to the reapportionment amendment to the constitution.

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      Sec. 9-169b. Effective date of changes in voting districts. Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 9-168b and 9-169, any change or changes in voting districts made in any municipality in accordance with the provisions of section 9-169, to conform, or facilitate conforming, to any plan of districting for the General Assembly or for the congressional districts, adopted by the General Assembly or determined by any reapportionment commission, appointed in accordance with the provisions of article 26 of the amendments to the Constitution of Connecticut, or ordered by a court of competent jurisdiction, or to conform, or facilitate conforming, to any order entered by a court of competent jurisdiction relating to a plan of districting for the General Assembly or for the congressional districts, adopted by the legislative body of the municipality shall be deemed effective as of the date of adoption, except as provided in section 9-169e.

      (1972, P.A. 220, S. 3; Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-3, S. 2, 5; P.A. 92-1, S. 5, 8.)

      History: Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-3 deleted obsolete references to 1972 changes, applied provisions to districting plans for congressional districts and specified that changes are effective as of adoption date except as provided in Sec. 9-169e, replacing provision whereby changes were effective "upon passage" by municipality's legislative body; P.A. 92-1 updated the reference to the apportionment amendment to the constitution and made a technical change.

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      Sec. 9-169c. At-large election of members of legislative bodies of certain towns. Notwithstanding the provisions of any charter or special act to the contrary, in any town in which members of its legislative body are elected on the basis of assembly districts and where as a result of redistricting one or more of such assembly districts are shared with another town, such members may be elected on an at-large basis without reference to such assembly districts or other political subdivisions, unless and until such town changes its charter.

      (P.A. 73-657, S. 4, 13.)

      Cited. 205 C. 495.

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      Sec. 9-169d. Voting districts crossing legislative district lines, permitted for municipal elections. The legislative body of any town, consolidated town and city or consolidated town and borough which elects municipal officers from political subdivisions may establish, in accordance with the provisions of section 9-169, for use in municipal elections and primaries, voting districts which cross congressional, senatorial or assembly district lines, but which do not cross municipal political subdivision lines, provided no special state election may be held on the same day as a regular municipal election in such municipalities.

      (P.A. 74-197, S. 1.)

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      Sec. 9-169e. Voting districts in special elections held to fill vacancy in district or municipal office. Notwithstanding any other provision of the general statutes, any special act or home rule charter, any special election held to fill a vacancy in a district office or in a municipal office in a political subdivision, including the municipal office of state senator or state representative, shall be held in the district or political subdivision which was represented by the person who vacated such office, and the voting districts used for purposes of such special election, including the nomination of candidates to run in such election, shall conform to the boundaries of such district or political subdivision.

      (Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-3, S. 3, 5.)

      See part III (Secs. 9-211 to 9-224, inclusive) re procedure for filling vacancies in specific offices.

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      Sec. 9-169f. Reapportionment required for certain municipal legislative bodies. Not later than June first in the year after the first regular General Assembly election following a reapportionment of the General Assembly, each municipal legislative body whose members are elected wholly or partially on the basis of a geographical division of the municipality shall adopt a reapportionment plan for such legislative body. Any such municipal reapportionment plan (1) shall be based on population data for the municipality from the most recent decennial census of the United States and (2) may provide for geographical divisions which use the same borders as General Assembly districts in the municipality.

      (P.A. 89-283.)

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      Sec. 9-169g. Town clerks required to submit voting district maps to Secretary of the State. Use of maps by General Assembly. (a) The town clerk of any municipality (1) which is divided between two or more assembly districts, two or more senatorial districts or two or more congressional districts, or (2) which is not divided between any such districts but is divided into two or more voting districts for General Assembly or congressional elections, shall submit to the Secretary of the State a street map of the municipality which indicates the boundary lines of the voting districts established by the municipality in accordance with sections 9-169, 9-169a and 9-169d. The town clerk shall submit such map to the secretary in a printed or electronic format prescribed by the secretary (A) not later than thirty days after any such division first takes effect, and (B) not later than thirty days after any change in any such division takes effect.

      (b) The Secretary of the State shall make such maps available to the General Assembly, for use by the General Assembly in carrying out its responsibilities under (1) Article XXVI of the Amendments to the Constitution of Connecticut, or any subsequent corresponding state constitutional provision, with regard to the redistricting of assembly, senatorial and congressional districts, and (2) Public Law 94-171, concerning the establishment of a plan identifying the geographic areas for which specific tabulations of population are desired in the decennial census of the United States.

      (P.A. 97-116, S. 1, 2; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7, S. 114.)

      History: P.A. 97-116 effective July 1, 1997; Sept. Sp. Sess. P.A. 09-7 amended Subsec. (a)(2) by deleting provision re July 1997 dates and by specifying that submission of map shall be in printed or electronic format prescribed by Secretary, effective October 5, 2009.

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      Sec. 9-170. Eligibility to vote at town elections. At any regular or special town election any person may vote who is registered as an elector on the revised registry list of the town last completed and he shall vote only in the district in which he is so registered, provided any person may vote whose name is restored to the list under the provisions of section 9-42 or whose name is added on the last week day before a regular election under the provisions of section 9-17. Each person so registered shall be permitted to vote unless he is not a bona fide resident of the town and political subdivision holding the election or has been convicted of a disfranchising crime. Any person offering to vote and being challenged as to his identity or residence shall, before he votes, prove his identity with the person on whose name he offers to vote or his bona fide residence in the town and political subdivision holding the election, as the case may be, by the testimony, under oath, of at least one other elector or by such other evidence acceptable to the moderator.

      (1949 Rev., S. 496; 1953, S. 652d; P.A. 75-348, S. 7, 11; P.A. 97-154, S. 16, 27.)

      History: P.A. 75-348 inserted "is not a bona fide resident of such town" for less definitive wording and added "or by such other evidence acceptable to the moderator"; P.A. 97-154 substituted "the town and political subdivision holding the election" for "such town", effective July 1, 1997.

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      Sec. 9-171. Eligibility to vote at city elections. In all cities, unless otherwise provided by law, any person entitled to vote at city elections who is registered on the revised registry list last completed, and any person having a legal right to vote at such elections whose name is entered on a copy of such list before voting, may vote therein in the district for which such registry list is made; provided those persons may vote whose names are restored to the list under the provisions of section 9-42 or whose names are added on the last week day before a regular election under the provisions of section 9-17. Each person so registered shall be permitted to vote, unless he has lost his right by removal from such city since he has registered or by conviction of a disfranchising crime. Any person offering so to vote, and being challenged as to his identity or residence, shall, before he votes, prove his identity with the person on whose name he offers to vote or his bona fide residence in such city, as the case may be, by the testimony, under oath, of at least one other elector or by such other evidence acceptable to the moderator. The names of those voting shall be checked on such copy of such list, and such copy so checked shall be kept on file in the office of the town clerk, as in the case of state elections.

      (1949 Rev., S. 532, 1065; 1953, S. 653d; 1963, P.A. 318, S. 1; P.A. 75-348, S. 8, 11.)

      History: 1963 act provided for filing of check list in office of town clerk rather than city clerk; P.A. 75-348 substituted "since he has registered" for "after completion of such registry list", substituted "bona fide" for "continued" residence, deleting "since the completion of such list", and added "or by such other evidence acceptable to the moderator".

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      Sec. 9-172. Eligibility to vote at state elections. At any regular or special state election any person may vote who was registered on the last-completed revised registry list of the town in which he offers to vote, and he shall vote in the district in which he was so registered; provided those persons may vote whose names are restored to the list under the provisions of section 9-42 or whose names are added on the last weekday before a regular election under the provisions of section 9-17. Each person so registered shall be permitted to vote if he is a bona fide resident of the town and political subdivision holding the election and has not lost his right by conviction of a disfranchising crime. Any person offering so to vote and being challenged as to his identity or residence shall, before he votes, prove his identity with the person on whose name he offers to vote or his bona fide residence in the town and political subdivision holding the election, as the case may be, by the testimony, under oath, of at least one other elector or by such other evidence as is acceptable to the moderator.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1065; 1953, S. 654d; P.A. 75-348, S. 9, 11; P.A. 79-189, S. 7, 9; P.A. 80-483, S. 32, 186; P.A. 97-154, S. 17, 27.)

      History: P.A. 75-348 substituted "is not a bona fide resident of such town" for less specific language and inserted "unless he has lost his right" before "by conviction of a disenfranchising crime", further added "or by such other evidence acceptable to the moderator"; P.A. 79-189 rephrased conditions for permission to vote; P.A. 80-483 made technical changes; P.A. 97-172 substituted "the town and political subdivision holding the election" for "such town", effective July 1, 1997.

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      Sec. 9-172a. Revised registry list defined for purposes of special elections. For purposes of special elections, the term "revised registry list last completed", as used in sections 9-170, 9-171 and 9-172, means the registry list last completed for the last regular election held in the municipality or political subdivision holding the special election, together with the supplementary or updated list of persons in such municipality or political subdivision who acquired voting privileges since the completion of such list compiled under section 9-172b.

      (1967, P.A. 207, S. 1; P.A. 99-276, S. 5, 15.)

      History: P.A. 99-276 added references to "or updated" list, effective January 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 9-172b. Supplementary list and registration deadline for special election or referendum. (a) In each municipality or political subdivision in which a special election or referendum is to be held, the registrars of voters shall prepare a supplementary or updated list of the names and addresses of those persons who acquired voting privileges after the completion of the revised registry list and prior to the day of such special election or referendum. In each such municipality or political subdivision, not later than the day before such special election or referendum, such registrars shall cause to be completed and printed and deposited in the town clerk's office such list arranged as provided in section 9-35 and certified by them to be correct, and shall retain a sufficient number of copies to be used by them at such election or referendum for the purpose of checking the names of those who vote, provided the names of any persons who acquired such voting privileges within thirty days before such special election or referendum may be inserted on such printed list in writing.

      (b) In the case of a special election or referendum, no person admitted as an elector on the day of the special election or referendum shall be entitled to vote in that election.

      (1967, P.A. 207, S. 2; P.A. 79-363, S. 23, 38; P.A. 80-483, S. 33, 186; P.A. 83-162; P.A. 99-276, S. 6, 15.)

      History: P.A. 79-363 deleted reference to inclusion of voters who acquired voting privileges under Secs. 9-31e, 9-41 and 9-41a on supplementary list; P.A. 80-483 made technical change; P.A. 83-162 made existing provisions applicable to referenda and added Subsec. (b) re electors admitted on day of special election or referendum; P.A. 99-276 amended Subsec. (a) by adding reference to "or updated" list, effective January 1, 2000.

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      Sec. 9-173. Plurality required for election. In the election for Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General, the person receiving the greatest number of votes for each of said offices, respectively, shall be declared elected. If no person has a plurality of the votes for any of said offices, the General Assembly shall choose such officer. In the election for senator in Congress, the person receiving the greatest number of votes for such office shall be declared elected; but, if no person has a plurality of the votes for said office, the Governor may make a temporary appointment of a senator in Congress to serve for the ensuing two years unless the General Assembly directs a special election for a senator in Congress, to be held during said period, to fill the vacancy occasioned by such failure to elect. In all elections of representatives in Congress, state senators, state representatives and judges of probate, the person having the greatest number of votes shall be declared elected. Unless otherwise provided by law, in all municipal elections a plurality of the votes cast shall be sufficient to elect.

      (1949 Rev., S. 514, 1084, 1088, 1089, 1098, 1102; 1953, S. 656d; 1967, P.A. 557, S. 2; P.A. 00-99, S. 25, 154.)

      History: 1967 act added "state representative" to list of offices for which the candidate having greatest number of votes shall be declared elected, deleted provision in case of state representatives for moderator to declare elected person having greatest number of votes and if town is entitled to two representatives, the two top vote getters to be declared elected; P.A. 00-99 deleted reference to sheriffs, effective December 1, 2000.

      As applied to office of selectman. 75 C. 460. Cited. 135 C. 150.

      Without a bipartisan restriction, a plurality of votes cast elects. 10 CS 258.


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      Sec. 9-174. Hours of voting. Voting by electors in line at eight o'clock p.m. Notwithstanding the provisions of any general statute, special act or municipal charter to the contrary, at any regular election, or at any special election held to fill a vacancy in a state, district or municipal office, the polls shall remain open for voting from six o'clock a.m. until eight o'clock p.m. No elector shall be permitted to cast his vote after the hour prescribed for the closing of the polls in any election unless such elector is in line at eight o'clock p.m. An election official or a police official of the municipality, who is designated by the moderator, shall be placed at the end of the line at eight o'clock p.m. Such official shall not allow any electors who were not in such line at eight o'clock p.m. to enter such line.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1062; 1953, S. 657d; 1967, P.A. 62; P.A. 77-209; P.A. 83-391, S. 14, 24; P.A. 84-12, S. 1, 2; P.A. 88-162, S. 1, 4.)

      History: 1967 act provided for polls to remain open for voting from six a.m. to eight p.m. for all elections; P.A. 77-209 provided for electors who were already in line at eight p.m. to be permitted to vote; P.A. 83-391 amended section to provide that hours for special election shall be noon to eight p.m. unless election held in conjunction with regular election; P.A. 84-12 added proviso concerning special election held on same day as municipal referendum; P.A. 88-162 required polls to open for voting in all special elections at six o'clock a.m., instead of at twelve o'clock noon, effective July 1, 1989.

      Before election, requirement is mandatory if direct proceedings for its enforcement are brought, but after election, it is directory if no substantial harm shown. 20 CS 464.

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PART II
PARTICULAR OFFICERS

      Sec. 9-175. Presidential and vice presidential electors. Write-in candidates and ballots. (a) The electors in the several towns in the state, at the state election in 1964, and quadrennially thereafter, shall elect electors of President and Vice President of the United States, not exceeding in number the whole number of senators and representatives to which the state is then entitled in the Congress of the United States. Voting shall be conducted and the result declared, and the returns thereof made, as is provided in respect to state elections. The Secretary of the State shall, on or before the first Monday of October of the year in which such presidential electors are to be elected, transmit blank forms to the several town clerks for the return of the votes; and the lists and returns of the votes shall be made out, certified and directed according to such forms. When an election is to be held for the choice of presidential electors, if any political party has nominated candidates for President and Vice President of the United States, and presidential electors to vote for such presidential and vice presidential candidates have been nominated by a political convention of such party in this state, or in such other manner as entitles the names of such electors to be placed upon the official ballots to be used in such election, the Secretary of the State and any other official charged with the preparation of official ballots to be used in such election, in lieu of placing the names of such presidential electors on such official ballots, shall place on such official ballots a space with the words "Presidential electors for (here insert the last name of the candidate for President, the word `and' and the last name of the candidate for Vice President)"; and a vote cast therefor shall be counted, and shall be in all respects effective, as a vote for each of the presidential electors representing such candidates for President and Vice President.

      (b) In the case of a write-in candidate for President of the United States, such candidate may register his candidacy with the Secretary of the State by submitting his name and the names of a vice presidential candidate and candidates for the office of elector in a number not exceeding the whole number of electors to which the state is then entitled. Such registration shall be on a form prescribed by the Secretary of the State, which form shall include a statement of consent to being a candidate by each proposed candidate for elector and by the candidate for Vice President. Such registration shall not include a designation of political party. A candidate for President may register at any time after January first of the election year and not later than four o'clock p.m. on the fourteenth day preceding the election at which the offices of presidential elector and vice presidential elector are being contested. If a candidate has so registered, a vote may be cast by write-in ballot for such candidate by writing in the last name of the candidate for President and the last name of the candidate for Vice President or only the last name of the candidate for President; such write-in ballot shall be counted, and shall be in all respects effective, as a vote for each of the presidential electors representing such candidates for President and Vice President. No person nominated for the office of President, Vice President, or presidential elector by a major or minor party or by nominating petition shall register as a write-in candidate for such office under the provisions of this section and any such registration of a write-in candidacy filed by such a person shall be void.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1043, 1103; 1953, S. 658d; 1961, P.A. 374, S. 1; P.A. 77-82, S. 1; P.A. 83-475, S. 17, 43.)

      History: 1961 act made mandatory rather than directory the use of "Presidential electors for ... and ..." rather than listing the electors by name; P.A. 77-82 added new Subsec. (b) re registration of a write-in candidate for president; P.A. 83-475 changed "end of the business day" to four o'clock p.m. and added prohibition against person nominated for office of president, vice president or presidential elector registering for same office as a write-in candidate.

      Subsec. (a):

      Electors placed on ballot by Secretary of the State must be those pledged to vote for the candidates nominated by their national political party. 254 C. 789.


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      Sec. 9-176. Meeting of presidential electors. The presidential electors shall meet at the office of the Secretary of the State at twelve o'clock, noon, on the first Monday after the second Wednesday of the December following their election and, as required by the Constitution and laws of the United States, shall cast their ballots for President and Vice President. Each such elector shall cast his ballots for the candidates under whose names he ran on the official election ballot, as provided in section 9-175. If any such elector is absent or if there is a vacancy in the electoral college for any cause, the electors present shall, before voting for President and Vice President, elect by ballot an elector to fill such vacancy, and the person so chosen shall be a presidential elector, shall perform the duties of such office and shall cast his ballots for the candidates to whom the elector he is replacing was pledged.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1104; 1953, S. 659d; 1961, P.A. 374, S. 2.)

      History: 1961 act required presidential elector or his replacement to vote for candidates under whose names he ran.

      Chosen electors are required to vote for the candidates nominated by their national political party. 254 C. 789.

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      Sec. 9-177. Compensation of presidential electors. Each elector of President and Vice President of the United States shall receive ten dollars a day when attending upon the duties of his appointment, for which the Comptroller, on presentation to him of the certificate of the chairman of such electors, shall draw an order on the Treasurer.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3596.)

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      Sec. 9-178. Senator in Congress. A senator in Congress shall be elected by the electors of the several towns, as provided by the Constitution of the United States, in any year occurring next before the expiration of the term of a senator in Congress, and in any other year when the Governor issues writs of election to fill a vacancy in the office of senator in Congress.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1097; 1953, S. 660d.)

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      Sec. 9-179. Representative in Congress. At each state election the electors of the several towns in each congressional district in this state shall elect a representative in the Congress of the United States for such district to represent this state in said Congress.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1099; 1953, S. 662d.)

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      Sec. 9-180. Representative at large. Section 9-180 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1101; 1953, S. 661d; April, 1964, P.A. 2, S. 6.)

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      Sec. 9-181. State officers. At the state election to be held in 1966, and quadrennially thereafter, there shall be elected a Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General to hold their respective offices from the Wednesday following the first Monday of the January next succeeding their election until the Wednesday following the first Monday of the fifth January succeeding their election and until their successors are qualified. When any political party has nominated candidates for the offices of Governor and Lieutenant Governor, their names shall be so placed upon the ballot in any such election that any elector will cast a single vote for both candidates.

      (1953, S. 663d; 1963, P.A. 401, S. 1.)

      History: 1963 act added provision for placing names of candidates for governor and lieutenant governor on ballot so that elector casts a single vote for both candidates.

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      Sec. 9-182. Sheriffs. Section 9-182 is repealed, effective December 1, 2000.

      (1949 Rev., S. 449; 1953, S. 664d; P.A. 00-99, S. 153, 154.)

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      Sec. 9-183. Justices of the peace. Section 9-183 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7545, 7546; 1953, S. 665d; 1967, P.A. 831, S. 5; P. A. 73-666, S. 1, 3; P.A. 74-11, S. 2, 4; 74-109, S. 10, 11.)

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      Sec. 9-183a. Number of justices of the peace, exceptions. (a) The number of justices of the peace for each town shall be equal to one-third the number of jurors to which such town is by law entitled, except in the town of Waterbury the number shall be sixty-nine, in the town of Trumbull the number shall be thirty, in the town of Meriden the number shall be thirty-six, and in the town of Litchfield the number shall be fifteen; provided any town, by ordinance, may provide for the selection of a lesser number of justices of the peace for such town as herein provided, which shall be not less than fifteen.

      (b) Notwithstanding any provision of any special act or charter to the contrary:

      (1) In 1994, the number of justices of the peace for any town which selects a number of justices of the peace under a special act or charter, which is fewer than one-third the number of jurors to which the town is by law entitled, shall be one and one-half times the number authorized for the town on May 1, 1994, but not less than fifteen;

      (2) In 1996, the number of justices of the peace for any such town shall be one and one-half times the number authorized for the town on May 1, 1994, but not less than fifteen, unless the town amends such special act or charter or adopts an ordinance under subdivision (3) of this subsection;

      (3) Any town which selects a number of justices of the peace under a special act or charter, which is fewer than one-third the number of jurors to which the town is by law entitled, may amend such special act or charter under chapter 99 or may adopt an ordinance superseding such special act or charter provision, to provide for a number of justices of the peace to be selected in 1996, and quadrennially thereafter, which shall be not less than fifteen nor more than one-third the number of jurors to which the town is by law entitled, or may repeal the special act or charter provision.

      (c) Notwithstanding any provision of any ordinance to the contrary:

      (1) In 1994, the number of justices of the peace for any town which selects a number of justices of the peace under an ordinance, which is fewer than one-third the number of jurors to which the town is by law entitled, shall be one and one-half times the number authorized for the town on May 1, 1994, but not less than fifteen;

      (2) In 1996, the number of justices of the peace for any such town shall be one and one-half times the number authorized for the town on May 1, 1994, but not less than fifteen, unless the town amends such ordinance under subdivision (3) of this subsection;

      (3) Any town which selects a number of justices of the peace under an ordinance, which is fewer than one-third the number of jurors to which the town is by law entitled, may amend such ordinance to provide for a number of justices of the peace to be selected in 1996, and quadrennially thereafter, which shall be not less than fifteen nor more than one-third the number of jurors to which the town is by law entitled, or may repeal the ordinance provision.

      (d) Upon the adoption, amendment or repeal of any ordinance under this section, the clerk of such town shall send a certified copy thereof to the Secretary of the State.

      (P.A. 74-109, S. 1, 11; P.A. 94-230, S. 1, 10; P.A. 96-120, S. 1, 3; P.A. 04-142, S. 10; P.A. 06-137, S. 14.)

      History: P.A. 94-230 designated first sentence of existing section as Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (a) to increase number of justices of the peace from 46 to 69 in Waterbury, from 7 to 15 in Trumbull, from 15 to 23 in Meriden and from 5 to 15 in Litchfield and to require a minimum of 15 justices of the peace in towns establishing a number of justices of the peace by ordinance, added Subsec. (b) re number of justices of the peace in towns establishing a number of justices of the peace under special act or charter, added Subsec. (c) re number of justices of the peace in towns establishing a number of justices of the peace by ordinance, designated second sentence of existing section as Subsec. (d) and inserted "amendment" and "under this section" in Subsec. (d), effective June 11, 1994; P.A. 96-120 added new Subsec. (b)(2) re the number of justices of the peace in 1996, and renumbered former Subdiv. (2) as Subdiv. (3) and new Subsec. (c)(2) re the number of justices of the peace in 1996 and renumbered former Subdiv. (2) as Subdiv. (3), effective May 24, 1996; P.A. 04-142 amended Subsec. (a) by increasing the number of justices of the peace in Meriden from 23 to 36, effective May 17, 2004; P.A. 06-137 amended Subsec. (a) to increase the number of justices of the peace for the town of Trumbull from 15 to 30, effective June 6, 2006.

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      Sec. 9-183b. (Formerly Sec. 9-252). Nomination of justices of the peace by parties qualifying as major parties based on enrollment. Terms. Primaries. In 1994, 1996, and quadrennially thereafter, two-thirds of the total number of justices of the peace in each town shall be selected in accordance with the provisions of this section. Such percentage shall be rounded down to the nearest whole number of justices of the peace. The political parties which are major parties, as defined in subparagraph (B) of subdivision (5) of section 9-372, shall each be entitled to nominate an equal number of the total number of justices of the peace to be selected in each town under this section, provided in towns where the number of justices of the peace to be nominated under this section is not divisible by the number of political parties entitled to nominate justices of the peace under this section, the registrars of voters shall determine by lot which of said parties may nominate one more justice of the peace than may be nominated by the other party or parties. Such nomination by such parties shall qualify the nominees to serve as justices of the peace. Such nomination shall be made within the time limits prescribed in section 9-391 for endorsing candidates for nomination for municipal offices to be voted upon at a state election, for a term of two years to begin the first Monday of January in 1995, for any such nomination made in 1994, and for a term of four years to begin the first Monday of January in the year succeeding any such nomination made in 1996, or thereafter. Primaries for justices of the peace shall be by slate and shall be held on the same day as primaries for municipal offices to be voted upon at a state election.

      (1949 Rev., 1201; March, 1950, S. 261b; 1953, S. 729d; 1957, P.A. 128, S. 1; P.A. 74-11, S. 3, 4; 74-109, S. 6, 11; P.A. 76-71, S. 1, 3; P.A. 94-230, S. 2, 10; P.A. 00-66, S. 20; P.A. 03-241, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 74-11 deleted provisions pertaining to block voting for justices of the peace, grouped according to political party and the prohibitions against write-in and split-ticket voting and also deleted provision for political party whose candidate for governor was last elected, to nominate one more candidate, added provisions for nomination of one-half numbers of justices of the peace to be elected where total to be elected is even and the nomination of a bare majority where total number is odd; P.A. 74-109 added qualification that political parties having largest and second largest total number of enrolled party members in the state shall be entitled to nominate justices of the peace, further provided for each party to be entitled to nominate half in towns where the total number to be nominated is even and for the registrars to determine by lot which party is entitled to nominate one more justice than the other party, where total number to be nominated is odd, further set limit of age 70 beyond which no person may be nominated or serve, provided that such nominations by the parties qualify the nominees to serve, that the term be for four years to begin the first Monday of January and that primaries shall be by slate and held same day as primaries for municipal offices, to take effect upon adoption of Senate Joint Resolution No. 22 of the 1973 session as an amendment to the constitution of Connecticut; P.A. 76-71 removed the age limitations; P.A. 94-230 required two-thirds of justices of the peace in each town to be selected in accordance with this section, authorized major parties as defined in Sec. 9-372(6)(B) to select equal number of justices of the peace under this section instead of the two parties having the largest party enrollments to each select one-half of number of justices of the peace, and established two-year terms for justices of the peace nominated in 1994, and four-year terms for justices of the peace nominated in 1996, or thereafter, effective June 11, 1994; Sec. 9-252 transferred to Sec. 9-183b in 1995; P.A. 00-66 made a technical change; P.A. 03-241 required nomination of justices of the peace to be made within time limits prescribed "in section 9-391 for endorsing candidates for nomination for municipal offices to be voted upon at a state election", instead of within the time limits prescribed "for municipal offices prior to a state election", eliminated provision requiring primaries for justices of the peace to be by slate "as in the case of convention delegates", and required such primaries to be held on same day as primaries for municipal offices "to be voted upon at a state election", effective January 1, 2004, and applicable to primaries and elections held on or after that date.

      Annotation to former section 9-252:

      Cited. 20 CS 402.


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      Sec. 9-183c. Nomination of justices of the peace by parties qualifying as major parties based solely on gubernatorial vote. Terms. Primaries. In 1994, 1996, and quadrennially thereafter, when there is a political party which is a major party, as defined in subparagraph (A) of subdivision (5) of section 9-372, but is not a major party, as defined in subparagraph (B) of said subdivision (5), a percentage of the number of justices of the peace in each town selected under section 9-184c shall be selected in accordance with the provisions of this section. Such percentage shall be rounded down to the nearest whole number of justices of the peace. Each such party shall be entitled to nominate twenty per cent of the total number of justices of the peace to be selected in each town under section 9-184c. Such nomination by such parties shall qualify the nominees to serve as justices of the peace. Such nomination shall be made within the time limits prescribed in section 9-391 for endorsing candidates for nomination for municipal offices to be voted upon at a state election, for a term of two years to begin the first Monday of January in 1995, for any such nomination made in 1994, and for a term of four years to begin the first Monday of January in the year succeeding any such nomination made in 1996, or thereafter. Primaries for justices of the peace shall be by slate and shall be held on the same day as primaries for municipal offices to be voted upon at a state election.

      (P.A. 94-230, S. 5, 10; P.A. 00-66, S. 21; P.A. 01-26, S. 7; P.A. 03-241, S. 6.)

      History: P.A. 94-230 effective June 11, 1994; P.A. 00-66 made technical changes; P.A. 01-26 made a technical change; P.A. 03-241 required nomination of justices of the peace to be made within time limits prescribed "in section 9-391 for endorsing candidates for nomination for municipal offices to be voted upon at a state election", instead of within the time limits prescribed "for municipal offices prior to a state election", eliminated provision requiring primaries for justices of the peace to be by slate "as in the case of convention delegates", and required such primaries to be held on same day as primaries for municipal offices "to be voted upon at a state election", effective January 1, 2004, and applicable to primaries and elections held on or after that date.

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      Sec. 9-184. Vacancy in office of justice of the peace when justice nominated by a major party. Any vacancy in the office of a justice of the peace selected (1) pursuant to section 9-183b or (2) pursuant to section 9-183c shall be filled by appointment by the town committee of the political party of the vacating justice until the day on which the term of office of such vacating justice would have terminated. The town chairman or the secretary of the appointing town committee shall file with the town clerk a certificate of each such appointment and the town clerk shall record the certificate with the records of the town meeting. The town clerk shall notify the Secretary of the State of any such vacancy.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7547; 1953, S. 666d; P.A. 73-475, S. 1, 3; P.A. 74-109, S. 3, 11; P.A. 80-215, S. 1; P.A. 94-230, S. 3, 10; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 118, 130.)

      History: P.A. 73-475 provided for vacancies to be filled by town committee of the political party of the vacating justice, the chairman or secretary thereof to file with town clerk certificate of each such appointment, to be recorded with the records of the town meeting, effective upon adoption of amendment to the constitution repealing section 5 of article V or the provision therein for elections of justices of the peace; P.A. 74-109 substituted "nomination" for "election", provided for term to end "four years thereafter", further provided for form of justice filling a vacancy to end at time term of vacating justice would have ended, effective upon adoption of Senate Joint Resolution No. 22 of the 1973 session as an amendment to the constitution of Connecticut pursuant to article twelfth of the constitution; P.A. 80-215 provided for town clerk to notify secretary of the state and clerk of the superior court for judicial district in which town is located of any vacancy; P.A. 94-230 deleted prior provision re term of justices of the peace and inserted "selected pursuant to section 9-183b", effective June 11, 1994; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 added reference to selection of justices of the peace pursuant to Sec. 9-183c, effective July 1, 1994.

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      Secs. 9-184a and 9-184b. Reserved for future use.

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      Sec. 9-184c. Appointment as justices of the peace of electors who are not members of major parties. Terms. Vacancies. (a) In 1994, 1996, and quadrennially thereafter, the town clerk of each town shall appoint as justice of the peace a number of electors of the town who are not members of major parties, as defined in section 9-372, which shall not exceed (1) where no justices of the peace are selected under section 9-183c, one-third of the total number of justices of the peace in the town, or (2) where justices of the peace are selected under section 9-183c, one-third of the total number of justices of the peace in the town less the number of justices of the peace in the town selected under section 9-183c. Such percentage shall be rounded up to the nearest whole number of justices of the peace. Any such appointment shall be made upon written application submitted on or after August first and on or before November first, in such year. No person who has enrollment privileges in the town in a political party which selected justices of the peace under section 9-183b or under section 9-183c within the period beginning three months before said August first and ending on the date the person is to be appointed under this section, shall be eligible for such appointment. Not later than August 1, 1996, and quadrennially thereafter, the town clerk shall send a written notice to each incumbent justice of the peace appointed under this section. Such notice shall inform such justices of the peace of the procedures set forth in this section concerning the reappointment of such justices of the peace.

      (b) If, on November first in such year, the number of applications for justice of the peace filed with the town clerk under subsection (a) of this section exceeds the number of justices of the peace allowed under this section, (1) each such applicant who is an incumbent justice of the peace appointed under this section shall be reappointed if there are sufficient openings and (2) the town clerk shall, on or before the fifteenth business day of November, select the remaining applicants to be appointed as justices of the peace by lot in a ceremony which shall be open to the public and held on five days' public notice. At such lottery the town clerk shall determine the order of all such remaining applications for the purpose of filling future vacancies under subsection (d) of this section. If a town clerk receives a number of applications that is less than the number of justices of the peace that he is authorized to appoint under this section in any year, he shall not appoint any additional justices of the peace.

      (c) Justices of the peace appointed in 1994, shall serve a term of two years beginning on the first Monday in 1995, and justices of the peace appointed in 1996 and thereafter shall serve a term of four years beginning on the first Monday in January in the succeeding year.

      (d) Any vacancy in the office of any such justice of the peace shall be filled by appointment by the town clerk of an elector qualifying under subsection (a) of this section in the order determined in the lottery held under said subsection. If no such lottery is held, the vacancy shall not be filled.

      (P.A. 94-230, S. 6, 10; P.A. 96-120, S. 2, 3.)

      History: P.A. 94-230 effective June 11, 1994; P.A. 96-120 amended Subsec. (a) to require town clerks to send quadrennial notices re reappointment procedures to incumbent justices of the peace and amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision requiring reappointment of incumbent justices of the peace if there are sufficient openings, effective May 24, 1996.

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      Sec. 9-185. Municipal officers. Unless otherwise provided by special act or charter, (1) members of boards of assessment appeals, (2) selectmen, (3) town clerks, (4) town treasurers, (5) collectors of taxes, (6) constables, (7) registrars of voters, (8) subject to the provisions of subsection (h) of section 10-223e, members of boards of education, and (9) library directors shall be elected, provided any town may, by ordinance, provide for the appointment, by its chief executive authority, of (A) a constable or constables in lieu of constables to be elected under section 9-200, or (B) a town clerk, town treasurer or collector of taxes in lieu of the election of such officers as provided in section 9-189. Unless otherwise provided by special act or charter, all other town officers shall be appointed as provided by law and, if no other provision for their appointment is made by law, then (i) by the chief executive officer of such municipality, (ii) where the legislative body is a town meeting, by the board of selectmen, or (iii) by such other appointing authority as a town may by ordinance provide, and except that, if a board of finance is established under the provisions of section 7-340, the members thereof shall be elected as provided in section 9-202. Any town may, by a vote of its legislative body, determine the number of its officers and prescribe the mode by which they shall be voted for at subsequent elections.

      (1949 Rev., S. 513; 1951, S. 105b; 1953, S. 667d; P.A. 73-655, S. 1; P.A. 76-173, S. 2; P.A. 77-578, S. 1, 4; P.A. 82-239, S. 4, 7; P.A. 89-184, S. 1, 2; P.A. 95-283, S. 27, 68; P.A. 10-84, S. 3; 10-111, S. 7; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 57.)

      History: P.A. 73-655 provided that town may, by ordinance, prescribe appointment instead of election of constables; P.A. 76-173 added "or charter" to "special act" by which exceptions are authorized, where appearing, substituted "chief executive officer" for "board of selectmen" as authorized to appoint in absence of provision therefor, substituted "by a vote of its legislative body" for "at a town meeting ... pass votes determining" as authority to determine number of officers and prescribe mode by which they are to be voted for in absence of other provision in special act or charter; P.A. 77-578 added to chief executive officer, "or (2) where the legislative body is a town meeting, by the board of selectmen, or (3) or by such other appointing authority a town may by ordinance provide, and"; P.A. 82-239 removed the obsolete reference to the agent of the town deposit fund; P.A. 89-184 inserted new Subdiv. (1) designation, added Subdiv. (2), authorizing any town to provide, by ordinance, for appointment of town clerk, town treasurer or collector of town taxes, and substituted alphabetic designations for former numeric Subdiv. indicators; P.A. 95-283 replaced board of tax review with board of assessment appeals, effective July 6, 1995; P.A. 10-84 made technical changes and deleted provisions re assessors; P.A. 10-111 added new numeric Subdiv. designators, added "subject to the provisions of subsection (g) of section 10-223e," re election of members of boards of education, redesignated existing Subdivs. (1) and (2) as new Subparas. (A) and (B) and redesignated existing Subparas. (A) to (C) as clauses (i) to (iii), effective July 1, 2010; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1 substituted reference to Sec. 10-223e(h) for reference to Sec. 10-223e(g), effective July 1, 2010.

      Immaterial mistakes in description of office of no consequence. 75 C. 16. Members of town school committee are town officers. 103 C. 422. Cited. 136 C. 639. Cited. 162 C. 256.

      Cited. 40 CA 643.


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      Sec. 9-186. Electoral status of municipal officers and justices of the peace. Each elected municipal officer and each justice of the peace shall be an elector of the municipality in which he is elected, or in the case of a justice of the peace, nominated or appointed to office and, if for any reason he ceases to be an elector thereof, he shall thereupon cease to hold office therein and such office shall be deemed vacant.

      (1949 Rev., S. 516; 1953, S. 251d; P.A. 76-173, S. 3; P.A. 80-281, S. 11, 31; P.A. 94-230, S. 8, 10.)

      History: P.A. 76-173 changed "town" to "municipal" or "municipality" where appropriate; P.A. 80-281 added requirement for justice of the peace to be elector of municipality in which nominated; P.A. 94-230 inserted "or appointed", effective June 11, 1994.

      Cited. 162 C. 256.

      Cited. 40 CA 643.

      Court may not, in quo warranto proceeding, determine whether or not the defendant is an elector; selectmen and town clerk have exclusive jurisdiction to make such determination. 19 CS 487. The fact that for one to qualify for election to a town office he must be an elector, is an establishment of a minimum age qualification for municipal elective officials, including mayors, by the state. 31 CS 447.


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      Sec. 9-187. Terms. (a) The terms of office of elective municipal officers, when not otherwise prescribed by law, shall be for two years from the date on which such terms begin as set forth in section 9-187a and until their successors are elected and have qualified. When not otherwise prescribed by law, the terms of those town officers appointed by the board of selectmen shall expire on the termination date of the term of the board of selectmen appointing such officers.

      (b) The terms of office of elected chief executive officers, members of boards of selectmen and the members of the legislative body of any town, city or borough as prescribed by charter or ordinance shall be two years or four years from the date or dates on which such terms begin as set forth in section 9-187a, and until their successors are elected and have qualified. The provisions of this subsection shall not be construed to authorize an ordinance prescribing terms of office to supersede the provisions of a charter concerning such terms of office.

      (c) The term of office of any tax collector appointed pursuant to an ordinance adopted under the provisions of subsection (b) of section 9-189 shall be as provided in such ordinance.

      (1949 Rev., S. 512; 1953, S. 668d; 1969, P.A. 570, S. 2; P.A. 76-296, S. 2; P.A. 95-224, S. 1; P.A. 97-244, S. 3, 13; P.A. 00-225, S. 1, 3; P.A. 01-195, S. 114, 181.)

      History: 1969 act changed to two years terms of elective municipal officers not otherwise prescribed by law, deleted provision that terms run from date of election and referenced new Sec. 9-187a containing details concerning beginning of terms, added "and until their successors are elected and have qualified" and further provided for terms of officers appointed by board of selectmen not otherwise provided for, to parallel the term of such board; P.A. 76-296 added new Subsec. (b) providing for terms of office of elected chief executive officers; P.A. 95-224 applied Subsec. (b) to members of legislative bodies; P.A. 97-244 added Subsec. (c) re the terms of office of any tax collector appointed pursuant to an ordinance, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 00-225 amended Subsec. (b) to provide for terms of members of boards of selectmen and to permit terms to be set by ordinance, effective June 1, 2000; P.A. 01-195 made technical changes in Subsecs. (b) and (c), effective July 11, 2001.

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      Sec. 9-187a. Date term to begin. Except as provided in sections 9-164a to 9-164f, inclusive, the term of each elected municipal official shall begin within seventy days after the municipal election at which such official is elected, on the day within such period prescribed by special act or charter provision, or, in the absence of such special act or charter provision, on the day within such period as is prescribed by action of the legislative body of such municipality, provided (1) in each municipality which holds its municipal election on the first Monday of May in the odd-numbered years, in the absence of such special act or charter provision, or action of the legislative body, such terms shall begin on the first day of July following the municipal election at which such official is elected, and (2) in each municipality which holds its municipal election on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November in the odd-numbered years, with the exception of the term of the town clerk, in the absence of such special act, or charter provision, or action of the legislative body, such term shall begin on the second Tuesday next following the day of the municipal election at which such official is elected, and (3) in each municipality which holds its municipal election on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November in the odd-numbered years, the term of the town clerk shall be two years from the first Monday of January next succeeding his election, unless otherwise provided by charter or special act. Whenever the beginning date of the terms of elected municipal officials is so determined or changed, within the limits hereinabove specified, the authority providing therefor may provide for the conforming diminution or extension of terms of incumbents.

      (1969, P.A. 570, S. 3; P.A. 75-91, S. 1, 2.)

      History: P.A. 75-91 changed start of term of officials elected on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November from the day following the election to "the second Tuesday next" following the day of the municipal election, where not otherwise provided for.

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      Sec. 9-188. First selectman and selectmen. Election procedure. Dual candidacy prohibited. Minority representation; restricted voting. Tie vote. Unless otherwise provided by law each town shall, at its regular municipal election, elect a first selectman, who shall be town agent unless otherwise provided by law, and two other selectmen or, in the case of any town having a population of ten thousand or more, not more than six other selectmen. The selectmen so elected shall constitute the board of selectmen for such town. Unless otherwise provided by special act, charter or ordinance the votes cast, including any valid write-in votes, for an unsuccessful candidate for first selectman shall be counted as votes for him as a member of such board, provided no elector may be a candidate for both the office of first selectman and that of selectman by virtue of nomination by a major or minor party or a nominating petition or registration of write-in candidacy, or any combination thereof. The provisions of section 9-167a shall apply to the election of selectmen, except that when the total membership of such board is five, the maximum number who may be members of the same political party shall be three, and provided that for the purpose of determining minority representation, the total membership of such board shall be deemed to include the first selectman, unless otherwise provided by special act or charter. Unless otherwise provided by special act, charter or ordinance, an elector shall not vote for more candidates for the office of selectman than a political party can elect pursuant to section 9-167a, provided that the number of such candidates that an elector can vote for shall be deemed to include the first selectman. If the electors fail to elect a first selectman at any election by reason of an equality of votes, such election for the office of first selectman and the election for selectmen shall stand adjourned and such adjourned election shall be held as provided in section 9-332. The ballot labels used in such adjourned election shall contain only the names of the candidates for the offices of first selectman and selectman which appeared on the ballot label used in the election at which the tie vote resulted for the office of first selectman.

      (1949 Rev., S. 510, 515; 1949, S. 106b; 1953, 1955, S. 669d; P.A. 75-249; P.A. 76-173, S. 4; 76-363; P.A. 77-99; 77-578, S. 2, 3, 4; P.A. 79-484; P.A. 80-281, S. 12, 31; P.A. 83-475, S. 18, 43; P.A. 84-319, S. 27, 49.)

      History: P.A. 75-249 provided an exception for charter provisions adopted pursuant to chapter 99; P.A. 76-173 deleted reference to charter provisions adopted pursuant to chapter 99 and substituted "law" therefor, added "unless otherwise provided by law" to prescription that each town elect selectmen etc.; P.A. 76-363 deleted provisions concerning voting for either half or bare majorities of number to be elected and also provision that no more than bare majority shall be members of same political party and substituted "the provisions of section 9-167a shall apply to the election of selectmen"; P.A. 77-99 added exception that if total membership is five, maximum number from same party to be three, including the first selectman in counting total membership, unless otherwise provided by special act or charter; P.A. 77-578 added that elector cannot vote for more candidates than a political party can elect pursuant to Sec. 9-167a and provided number is deemed to include the first selectman; P.A. 79-484 changed "law" to "special act, charter or ordinance" in sentence "unless otherwise provided by ..." and provided that votes cast for the unsuccessful candidate for first selectman shall be counted as votes for him as a member of such board; P.A. 80-281 added proviso concerning counting of votes for unsuccessful candidate for first selectman as votes for board membership where he has also received write-in votes as candidate for board member; P.A. 83-475 amended section to permit full voting for board of selectmen at town option; P.A. 84-319 amended section to provide uniformity in statutes re adjourned elections and write-in votes.

      Annotations to former statutes:

      Whether under Art. 10, Sec. 2, of the constitution, the election of one selectman, only, is lawful. 32 C. 108. The plurality is of the ballots as actually cast, not as originally printed. 60 C. 352. Office of first selectman was created by Rev. St., 1875, Ch. 3, Sec. 2. 46 C. 549; 42 C. 463. History of section and of office of first selectman. 75 C. 460. Application to previous form of ballot. 91 C. 365; 102 C. 589; 104 C. 398; 105 C. 259. Cited. 130 C. 714. Election officials justified in refusing to permit plaintiff to vote for two candidates for first selectman. 135 C. 147. Cited. 143 C. 679. The clearly expressed intent of the legislature was that the principal of minority representation should control the results of special elections as well as those of regular elections. Id.

      Annotations to present section:

      Statute clearly states that unsuccessful candidate for office of first selectman may vie for place on the board. 21 CS 482. Successful candidate for first selectman does not determine political affiliation of majority of board. Id.


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      Sec. 9-189. Town clerks, treasurers and tax collectors. (a) Each town, unless otherwise provided by law, shall, at its regular municipal election elect a town clerk for a term of not less than two years and not more than six years, a town treasurer for the term of two years and a collector of town taxes for a term of not less than two years and not more than six. Each such clerk, treasurer and collector of taxes shall hold office for the term for which he is elected and until his successor is elected and has qualified.

      (b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, the legislative body of a town may, by ordinance adopted by its legislative body or in any town in which the legislative body is a town meeting, by the board of selectmen, authorize appointment of a tax collector. Such ordinance shall include provisions for the appointment procedure and shall specify the term of appointment. If the charter, home rule ordinance or special act of a town provides for the method of appointment of a tax collector, the method shall be changed by charter, charter amendment or home rule amendment.

      (1949 Rev., S. 505; 1953, S. 670d; P.A. 73-414; P.A. 76-173, S. 5; P.A. 95-224, S. 2; P.A. 97-244, S. 4, 13.)

      History: P.A. 73-414 deleted references to "annual" town elections; P.A. 76-173 deleted reference to town election in odd-numbered years and substituted therefor "regular municipal election", deleted references to the beginning of the terms, deleted reference to determination by voters at an annual or special meeting of increased length of term for tax collector and provided for a term of not less than two or more than six years; P.A. 95-224 changed town clerk's term from two years to "not less than two years and not more than six years"; P.A. 97-244 designated existing section as Subsec. (a) and added new Subsec. (b) re adoption of ordinance appointing a tax collector, effective July 1, 1997.

      See Sec. 7-16a re appointed town clerks.

      Cited. 22 CS 125.

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      Sec. 9-189a. Four-year terms for town clerks, registrars and treasurers. Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 9-189 and 9-190a, any town or municipality may, by charter or ordinance, provide that the treasurer or the town clerk of said town or municipality, or the registrars of voters of said town, or any of such officers, shall, at the next succeeding regular election for such office and thereafter, be elected for a term of four years. In such event, such four-year term shall begin on the first Monday of January succeeding an election for treasurer or town clerk, except as provided in section 9-187a, and from the Wednesday following the first Monday of January succeeding an election for registrars of voters, provided, if any such town or municipality holds its town or municipal election on the first Monday of May of the odd-numbered years, the term of such treasurer or town clerk shall begin on the first day of July following the election, except as provided in section 9-187a.

      (1971, P.A. 494; 1972, P.A. 100, S. 1; P.A. 00-225, S. 2, 3; P.A. 01-195, S. 115, 181.)

      History: 1972 act added provision where election is held on first Monday in May of odd-numbered years that term of town clerk begin on first day of July after election except as provided in Sec. 9-187a; P.A. 00-225 extended the four-year term option to treasurers and allowed a charter to specify length of terms, effective June 1, 2000; P.A. 01-195 made technical changes, effective July 11, 2001.

      See Sec. 7-16a re appointed town clerks.

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      Sec. 9-190. Registrars of voters. Any town divided into two voting districts may, by vote of its legislative body, provide for the election of two registrars of voters for each voting district instead of two registrars of voters for the entire town. Each registrar of voters shall reside in the town and district for which he is elected. Any special act to the contrary notwithstanding, in each municipality in which registrars of voters are elected, no elector shall vote for more than one registrar of voters for the voting district in which the elector resides, or, as the case may be, for the municipality at large. The candidate having the highest number of votes and the candidate having the next highest number of votes for the office of registrar of voters, who does not belong to the same political party as the candidate having the highest number, shall be declared elected registrars of voters for the municipality or district, provided, if the candidate for registrar of voters of a major party is not one of the registrars so elected, such candidate of such major party shall also be declared elected registrar of voters. For purposes of this section, a major party shall be one having the largest or next largest total number of enrolled party members in the state, as determined by the latest enrollment records in the office of the Secretary of the State submitted in accordance with the provisions of section 9-65. The term of office of all registrars of voters for voting districts in office on January 7, 1995, shall expire on January 8, 1997, and on November 5, 1996, two registrars shall be elected for each municipality with more than two voting districts which previously elected registrars of voters for voting districts.

      (1949 Rev., S. 509; 1953, 1955, S. 671d; 1959, P.A. 484; 630, S. 4; P.A. 76-173, S. 6; P.A. 95-171, S. 8, 14; P.A. 96-119, S. 6, 14.)

      History: 1959 acts provided for minority representation in the office of registrar and made it mandatory that each major party have a registrar elected; P.A. 76-173 substituted vote of "its legislative body" for "any annual or special town meeting"; P.A. 95-171 added "two" re towns divided into voting districts, added provision re term of office of registrars for voting districts in office on January 7, 1995, and election of registrars in towns with more than two voting districts, effective October 1, 1995, and applicable to elections held on or after that date; P.A. 96-119 replaced "November 6, 1996" with "November 5, 1996," effective May 24, 1996.

      Cited. 78 C. 671. Cited. 136 C. 637.

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      Sec. 9-190a. Election of registrars at state elections. Any provision of any special act to the contrary notwithstanding, the registrars of voters in each municipality which elects registrars of voters shall be elected at the state election to be held in 1964, and biennially thereafter, to hold office for the term of two years from the Wednesday following the first Monday of the January next succeeding their election until the Wednesday following the first Monday of the third January succeeding their election.

      (1959, P.A. 630, S. 1; P.A. 73-616, S. 9.)

      History: P.A. 73-616 made technical corrections.

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      Sec. 9-191. Election of registrars for each voting district. The provisions of section 9-190 to the contrary notwithstanding, each municipality which is divided into two voting districts and which elected registrars of voters for each voting district prior to July 8, 1955, shall continue to elect registrars of voters for each voting district until such time as such municipality, by vote of its legislative body, provides for the election of registrars of voters for the entire municipality instead of registrars of voters for each voting district.

      (1955, S. 672d; P.A. 95-171, S. 13, 14.)

      History: P.A. 95-171 added "two" re municipalities divided into voting districts, effective October 1, 1995, and applicable to elections held on or after that date.

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      Sec. 9-192. Deputy registrar. Registrar vacancy. Assistant registrars. Special assistant registrars. Each registrar of voters immediately after his election shall appoint a deputy registrar of voters to hold office during his pleasure and may, at any time, fill any vacancy in said office. He shall file with the town clerk a certificate of each such appointment and the town clerk shall record the certificate with the records of town meetings. Each deputy registrar of voters shall assist his principal when required, discharge his duties in his absence or inability to act and, in case of the death, removal or resignation of such principal, shall become registrar of voters and appoint a deputy, and shall file with the town clerk a certificate of such appointment, which shall be recorded with the records of town meetings. If a vacancy exists in the office of registrar of voters in consequence of a refusal or failure to accept the office or a failure of the registrar to appoint a deputy registrar, the town committee of the same political party as the registrar of voters who so refused, failed to accept or failed to appoint, or other appointing authority specified in local party rules shall fill such vacancy by the appointment of some suitable person, who shall belong to the same political party as the registrar of voters who so refused, failed to accept or failed to appoint. Each registrar of voters in any town may, as needed, appoint and employ not more than four assistant registrars of voters for each voting district therein, who shall serve at the pleasure of the registrar of voters and assist such registrar in the performance of his duties, and, for purposes of any admission session held pursuant to section 9-19b or subsection (a) of section 9-19c, as many special assistants as are necessary to carry out the duties of such session. Such registrar shall file with the town clerk a certificate of each such appointment, which shall be recorded with the records of the town, and shall appoint such other assistants as are necessary for the performance of duties required by sections 9-12 to 9-45, inclusive, on election day and the six days preceding. Unless otherwise provided by subsection (b) of section 9-19b, in the absence of either registrar of voters, his deputy or any of his assistants, except special assistants, shall have all the powers conferred, and may perform any of the duties imposed, upon such registrar by any of the provisions of the statutes. Each deputy, assistant or special assistant registrar shall be an elector of the municipality in which he is appointed. Each deputy registrar shall also, at the time of his appointment and during the six months immediately preceding his appointment, be an enrolled member of the same party as the registrar who makes such appointment.

      (1949 Rev., S. 993, 994, 996; 1953, 1955, S. 673d; 1969, P.A. 61; P.A. 76-128, S. 6, 11; P.A. 79-143, S. 2; P.A. 84-319, S. 28, 49; P.A. 91-159, S. 2; P.A. 94-203, S. 10, 12; P.A. 04-113, S. 4.)

      History: 1969 act changed from two to four number of assistants who may be appointed and employed for each voting district; P.A. 76-128 provided for appointment of not more than four permanent assistants for each voting district and for as many special assistants as necessary to carry out duties for any admission session and excepted these special assistants from recital of powers of registrars conferred on duties and assistants in absence at either registrar; P.A. 79-143 provided that deputies, assistants, or special assistant registrars shall be electors of municipality in which appointed; P.A. 84-319 amended section to provide for filling of vacancy in office of registrar by town committee, rather than by selectmen and town clerk; P.A. 91-159 added provision allowing person who has served as assistant registrar for at least three years to be elector of any municipality in state; P.A. 94-203 added provision re party enrollment of deputy registrar, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 04-113 substituted "as needed" for "from time to time" and "assistant registrars of voters" for "permanent assistants", provided that assistant registrars shall "serve at the pleasure of the registrars of voters" and eliminated exception to requirement that each deputy, assistant or special assistant registrar be an elector of the municipality in which appointed, effective July 1, 2004.

      Registrar not personally liable for wages of assistant. 78 C. 670. Duties of deputy registrar. 119 C. 666. No vacancy exists upon death, removal or resignation of registrar, and deputy automatically succeeds. 120 C. 562.

      Deputy registrar of voters succeeded to office of registrar upon the resignation of the incumbent; no vacancy occurred. 2 CS 60. Position of deputy registrar of voters in regard to this section discussed. 16 CS 2.


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      Sec. 9-192a. Committee to establish programs and procedures for training, examining and certifying registrars, deputies and assistants. Training program for poll workers. (a) There is created a committee for the purpose of establishing programs and procedures for training, examining and certifying registrars of voters, deputy registrars of voters and permanent assistants, as described in section 9-192. The committee shall consist of six members, one of whom shall be from the office of the Secretary of the State, one of whom shall be from the State Elections Enforcement Commission, and four of whom shall be registrars of voters. The Secretary of the State shall appoint the registrars of voters, in consultation with the Registrars of Voters Association of Connecticut, or its successor organization. The committee members shall serve without pay. The Secretary of the State shall determine the length of the terms of the initial members, in accordance with the following: Two of such members shall serve for a one-year term; two of such members shall serve for a two-year term; and two of such members shall serve for a four-year term. Thereafter, all members shall serve for four-year terms. The committee shall select a chairperson, who shall be one of the registrars who is a member of the committee.

      (b) The committee shall adopt criteria for the training, examination and certification requirements of registrars, deputies and permanent assistants. In the adoption of such criteria, the committee (1) shall consider whether the prescribed training leading to certification may, in part, be satisfied through participation in the required two conferences a year called by the Secretary of the State, pursuant to section 9-6, for purposes of discussing the election laws, procedures or matters related to election laws and procedures, and (2) may recommend programs at one or more institutions of higher education that satisfy such criteria. Any registrar of voters, deputy or permanent assistant may participate in the course of training prescribed by the committee and, upon completing such training and successfully completing any examination or examinations prescribed by the committee, shall be recommended by the committee to the Secretary of the State as a candidate for certification as a certified Connecticut registrar of voters. The Secretary of the State shall certify any such qualified, recommended candidate as a certified Connecticut registrar of voters. The Secretary of the State may rescind any such certificate only upon a finding, by a majority of the committee, of sufficient cause as defined by the criteria adopted pursuant to this subsection. No provision of this subsection shall require any registrar of voters, deputy or permanent assistant to be a certified registrar of voters.

      (c) The committee shall also (1) develop a training program in election procedures for poll workers, and (2) develop an election law and procedures training program and guide for registrars, deputy registrars and assistant registrars. The training program developed under subdivision (2) of this section shall provide for training to be conducted by trained registrars or former registrars hired for such purpose by the Secretary of the State. The committee shall submit such training programs and training guide to the Secretary of the State, who shall approve or modify the programs and guide.

      (P.A. 98-67, S. 6, 10; P.A. 05-235, S. 20; P.A. 06-196, S. 54.)

      History: P.A. 98-67 effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 05-235 divided provisions of existing Subsec. (a) into new Subsecs. (a) and (b), included existing Subsecs. (b) and (c) in new Subsec. (b) and made technical changes therein, and added new Subsec. (c) requiring committee to develop training program in election procedures for poll workers and an election law and procedures training program and guide for registrars, deputies and assistants, effective July 1, 2005; P.A. 06-196 made technical changes in Subsec. (b), effective June 7, 2006.

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      Sec. 9-192b. Designation of registrar, deputy or an assistant to receive instruction. Each registrar of voters shall annually designate either said registrar, the deputy registrar of voters or an assistant registrar of voters to receive at least ten hours of instruction under the elections training program developed under subdivision (2) of subsection (c) of section 9-192a.

      (P.A. 05-235, S. 22.)

      History: P.A. 05-235 effective July 1, 2005.

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      Sec. 9-193. Registrar's oath. Each registrar of voters, deputy registrar and assistant, before entering upon the duties of his office, shall be sworn.

      (1949 Rev., S. 995; 1953, S. 674d.)

      See Sec. 1-25 re forms of oaths.

      No vacancy exists in office between election or succession and taking of oath and filing of certificate. 120 C. 565. Cited. 206 C. 579.

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      Sec. 9-194. Compensation of registrars, deputies and assistants. The registrars of voters, deputy registrars and assistants shall receive for their services such sum as may be allowed by the selectmen, and all expenses incurred in the discharge of their duties shall be audited by the selectmen and paid by the town, but, in no case, shall such compensation be regulated by the number of names registered.

      (1949 Rev., S. 997; 1953, S. 675d.)

      Registrar not personally liable for wages of assistant. 78 C. 670. Cited. 130 C. 477.

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      Sec. 9-195. Compensation of registrars and town clerks for duties as to enrollment. For the performance of the duties relating to the enrollment of electors on enrollment lists, each registrar and deputy registrar actually engaged therein, and each town clerk not upon a salary, shall receive such reasonable compensation and expenses from the town for which the enrollment is made as are approved by the selectmen thereof and, from the city or borough for which the enrollment is made, such sums as are approved by its common council or warden or burgesses or, where town and city governments are consolidated, such sums as are approved by the common council of such city.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1188; 1953, S. 676d.)

      See Sec. 9-55a re compensation of registrars, clerks and other personnel.

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      Secs. 9-196 and 9-197. Assessors. Minority representation for assessors in towns holding annual elections. Sections 9-196 and 9-197 are repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 502, 503, 515; 1951, S. 106b; 1953, S. 677d, 678d; P.A. 76-173, S. 12.)

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      Sec. 9-198. Determination of number, method of election or appointment, term and compensation of assessors. Section 9-198 is repealed, effective October 1, 2010.

      (1949 Rev., S. 504; 1953, S. 679d; P.A. 10-84, S. 5.)

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      Sec. 9-199. Boards of assessment appeals. Alternate and additional members. (a) Unless otherwise provided by law, each town shall elect a board of assessment appeals consisting of three members and shall elect such officers at regular municipal elections for terms of four years. Such members of the board of assessment appeals shall hold office for the term for which they are elected and until their successors are elected and have qualified. When the number of members of the board of assessment appeals to be elected by any town is even, no person shall vote for more than one-half the number, and when the number to be elected is odd, no person shall vote for more than a bare majority of the number, provided the legislative body of any town may provide that the electors of such town vote for the full number of members to be elected thereat, any provision of the special acts to the contrary notwithstanding. The candidates in number sufficient to fill such offices who have the highest number of votes shall be elected. Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect the method of rotation of members of a board of assessment appeals legally in effect on October 1, 1976.

      (b) The legislative body of a municipality or, in the case of a municipality for which the legislative body is a town meeting or a representative town meeting, the board of selectmen may appoint an alternate for each member of the board of assessment appeals. Each alternate member shall be an elector of the municipality. When seated, an alternate member shall have all the powers and duties of a member of the board of assessment appeals.

      (c) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section or of any special act, municipal charter or home rule ordinance, a municipality may, by ordinance, authorize its legislative body to appoint additional members to the board of assessment appeals for any assessment year.

      (1949 Rev., S. 501, 502, 503, 515; 1951, S. 106b; 1953, S. 680d; P.A. 76-173, S. 7; P.A. 95-132, S. 4, 5; 95-283, S. 28, 68; P.A. 00-120, S. 11, 13; P.A. 02-49, S. 4; P.A. 10-84, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 76-173 deleted contrary provisions and provided for election of three assessors and a three-member board of tax review, authorized legislative body to allow electors to vote for full number of assessors or members, further provided that nothing be construed as affecting method of rotation of assessors or members of a board of tax review legally already in effect on October 1, 1976; P.A. 95-132 added Subsec. (b) re appointment of alternate member (Revisor's note: The Revisors editorially changed two references to "the board of tax review" to "the board of assessment appeals" for consistency with Subsecs. (a) and (c) as amended by P.A. 95-283); P.A. 95-283 replaced board of tax review with board of assessment appeals and added Subsec. (b), designated by the Revisors as Subsec. (c), to provide for appointment of additional board members, effective July 6, 1995; P.A. 00-120 amended Subsec. (c) to provide for appointment of additional members for year prior to revaluation, effective May 26, 2000; P.A. 02-49 amended Subsec. (c) to allow municipalities to appoint additional members in any assessment year, deleting provision re appointment in the assessment year in which a revaluation becomes effective, for the assessment year prior to and following such year of revaluation, effective May 9, 2002; P.A. 10-84 amended Subsec. (a) by removing provisions re election of assessors.

      See Sec. 9-167a re minority representation requirements.

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      Sec. 9-200. Constables. Each town shall elect, at its regular municipal election, unless otherwise provided by law and except as provided in section 9-185, not more than seven constables; except that the town of Groton may elect fourteen constables. When the number of constables to be elected by any town is even, no person shall vote for more than one-half the number; when the number to be elected is odd, no person shall vote for more than a bare majority of the number. The candidates in number sufficient to fill the office of constable who have the highest number of votes shall be declared elected.

      (1949 Rev., S. 507, 515; 1953, S. 681d; 1957, P.A. 128, S. 2; 1961, P.A. 15, S. 3; P.A. 73-655, S. 2; P.A. 76-173, S. 8; P.A. 82-239, S. 5, 7.)

      History: 1961 act removed obsolete reference to office of grand juror which was abolished in 1959; P.A. 73-655 added provision referencing amendment to Sec. 9-185 permitting town, by ordinance, to provide for appointment, rather than election of constables; P.A. 76-173 changed "town" to "municipal" election; P.A. 82-239 removed the obsolete reference to the agent of the town deposit fund.

      Constable chosen and sworn and rechosen the next year may act, although not resworn. 1 R. 83. See 5 C. 278. A constable can be chosen only at the time or under the conditions prescribed by statute. 1 R. 136. Town officers, elected for a year, usually hold until the incumbent's place is supplied. 6 C. 438. Where a public duty is imposed, commensurate power is implied. 38 C. 50.

      Cited. 40 CA 643.


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      Sec. 9-201. Election of five-member boards of police commissioners. Any town, at the next regular municipal election following action under section 7-274, shall elect two members of the board of police commissioners to serve for a term of two years and three for four years. At each such election thereafter, a member shall be elected for a term of four years to succeed each member whose term has expired. Each member of such board shall serve for the term for which he is elected and until his successor is elected and has qualified.

      (1949 Rev., S. 657; 1953, S. 682d; P.A. 76-173, S. 9.)

      History: P.A. 76-173 deleted references to annual and biennial elections.

      Cited. 144 C. 27.

      Cited. 19 CS 321.


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      Sec. 9-202. Board of finance. Any town adopting a resolution for which provision is made in section 7-340 shall, at the next regular municipal election elect six electors of such town who shall constitute the board of finance, two of whom shall be elected to serve until the next such election, two to serve until the second such election from such date and two to serve until the third such election from such date. At each such election thereafter, the town shall elect, in the same manner as the town officers are elected, two electors of such town as members of such board of finance to serve for six years. Each member of the board of finance shall serve for the term for which he is elected and until his successor is elected and has qualified.

      (1949 Rev., S. 774; 1953, S. 683d; P.A. 76-173, S. 10.)

      History: P.A. 76-173 deleted references to annual, biennial and special elections and also deleted references to taxpayers.

      Town empowered to create a board of finance exceeded its power in attempting to create a bipartisan one. 10 CS 258.

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      Sec. 9-203. Number and term of members of boards of education. The board of education in each town shall consist of three, six, nine or twelve residents of such town, except as provided in section 9-205. In a town holding annual elections one-third of the members of such board shall be elected annually for the term of three years. Any town may, at any time, by ordinance, make the number of its board of education three, six, nine or twelve, and, at the next election thereafter held in each such town, the terms of all members of the board of education shall terminate and sufficient members shall be elected to fill the entire number of positions on said board as determined by such ordinance. In each such town which holds annual elections, at such next election one-third of the members of such board shall be elected for a term of one year, one-third shall be elected for a term of two years and one-third shall be elected for a term of three years; and at each annual election thereafter held, one-third of the members of such board shall be elected for a term of three years. In each such town which holds biennial elections, at such next election and at each biennial election thereafter held, members of the board of education shall be elected in accordance with the procedure prescribed in section 9-206 for a town which adopts biennial elections. The provisions of this section and section 9-204 shall not be construed to repeal or affect any special act relating to a town which elects the members of its board of education in a different manner or for different terms.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1500; 1953, S. 684d; 1957, P.A. 13, S. 57; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 7; P.A. 78-153, S. 9, 32; P.A. 79-363, S. 24, 38.)

      History: 1961 act added reference to Sec. 9-206 in fifth sentence; P.A. 78-153 deleted sentence specifying when term of office shall begin, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-363 made technical changes.

      Under former statute member of town school committee was not required to be an elector. 114 C. 527. See also 83 C. 560. Cited. 182 C. 253. Cited. 213 C. 216.

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      Sec. 9-204. Minority representation on board of education. (a) Unless otherwise provided by special act or charter provision, including the charter provisions described in subsection (b) of this section, when the number of members to be elected to the board of education for the same term at any election is even, no elector shall vote for more than half that number and when the number of members to be elected to the board of education for the same term at any election is odd, no elector shall vote for more than a bare majority of that number.

      (b) Any charter which (1) provides for the election of the members of a board of education at one town election for the same term, (2) incorporates section 9-167a by reference to determine minority representation for such board of education and (3) makes no reference to the number of candidates for which an elector may vote for such board of education shall be deemed to have set the number of candidates an elector may vote for and the number of candidates who may be endorsed by any political party at the maximum levels specified in the table contained in subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 9-167a.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1500; 1953, S. 685d; P.A. 79-552; P.A. 86-333, S. 29, 32; P.A. 87-534, S. 1, 2.)

      History: P.A. 79-552 added "unless otherwise provided by special act or charter provision"; P.A. 86-333 made minor change in wording; P.A. 87-534 added new Subsec. (b) to describe certain charter provisions which are deemed to have set the number of candidates for which an elector may vote.

      Cited. 182 C. 111. Cited. 213 C. 216.

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      Sec. 9-204a. Nomination and voting for full number of board members to be elected authorized. Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 9-204 and 9-414 and of any special act or town charter, any town may, by charter, or by referendum vote taken at any regular election in such town pursuant to either a vote of its legislative body or a petition signed by at least five per cent of the electors of such town as established by the last-preceding registry list of such town, authorize the nomination by any political party of candidates for election as members of the board of education of such town equal to the number of members of said board to be elected at such election, and authorize the electors of such town to vote for the full number of such members to be elected, provided not more than one-half of the members of said board declared elected to the same term at such election shall be of the same political party if the number to be elected is even and not more than a bare majority thereof shall be members of the same political party if the number to be elected is odd. If the number of candidates, sufficient to fill the offices voted on, receiving the highest number of votes at any such election are of the same political party, those persons sufficient to fill one-half or a bare majority of such offices, as the case may be, who received the highest number of votes among such candidates shall be declared elected and those persons receiving the next highest number of votes who do not belong to such political party, sufficient in number to fill the remaining offices, shall be declared elected.

      (P.A. 73-266, S. 1, 2; P.A. 75-532, S. 1, 2.)

      History: P.A. 75-532 added "to the same term" to provision that "not more than one-half of the members of said board declared elected ... at such election shall be of the same political party".

      Because threshold requirements for statute's applicability were not met, the operative provisions ensuring minority representation never came into play. 182 C. 111. Cited. 213 C. 216.

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      Sec. 9-204b. Optional alternative system for towns with four-year terms for board of education. Notwithstanding the provisions of any general statute to the contrary, in any town which provides for four-year terms for members to be elected to the board of education and whose legislative body adopts the provisions of this section by charter or ordinance, and the number of members to be elected is odd or even, any elector may vote for all of that number and the persons receiving the greatest number of votes shall be elected, except that when the number of members of any one political party who would be elected without regard to section 9-167a exceeds the maximum number as determined by said section, then only the candidates of such political party with the highest number of votes up to the limit of such maximum, shall be elected. The next highest ranking candidates, not from such political party, shall be elected, up to the number of places to be filled in such election. Each political party shall have the right to nominate as many persons as there are vacancies on the board and those names shall be placed upon the ballot.

      (P.A. 83-401, S. 1, 2.)

      Cited. 213 C. 216.

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      Sec. 9-205. Election of board of education when number of members revised. (a) Any town may, at any time, by ordinance, make the number of its board of education five, seven or eight. If any town which holds biennial town elections, by ordinance, makes the number of its board of education five, seven or eight, at the town election next following such action the terms of office of the members of such board then in office shall expire; and, if the number so chosen is five, such town shall elect three members of such board to hold office for two years and two members to hold office for four years each from the date of election, and, at each town election thereafter, shall elect members of such board in place of the members whose terms expire, each for a term of four years from the date of election. If the number of such board members so chosen is seven, such town shall elect four members to hold office for two years and three members to hold office for four years, each from the date of election, and, at each town election thereafter, shall elect members of such board in place of the members whose terms expire, each for a term of four years from the date of election. If the number of such board members so chosen is eight, such town shall elect four members to hold office for two years and four members to hold office for four years, each from the date of election, and, at each town election thereafter, shall elect members of such board in place of the members whose terms expire, each for a term of four years from the date of election.

      (b) The provisions of this section shall be in addition to the provisions of sections 9-203 and 9-204, and any applicable provision of said sections shall apply to this section.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1503; 1953, S. 686d; 1957, P.A. 13, S. 58; P.A. 79-363, S. 25, 38; P.A. 80-483, S. 34, 186; P.A. 89-169, S. 1, 3.)

      History: P.A. 79-363 deleted in Subsecs. (a) and (b) the provisions pertaining to annual town elections and elections in odd and even-numbered years and also the provisions pertaining to towns having made the number of their board of education members either five or seven and subsequently adopting biennial elections; P.A. 80-483 made technical changes; P.A. 89-169 authorized any town, by ordinance, to have eight-member board of education and added provision re terms for such members.

      Cited. 213 C. 216.

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      Sec. 9-206. Election of board of education in towns adopting biennial elections. Alternate rotation of terms and length of terms permitted. (a) In any town having a board of education of three, six, nine or twelve members established in accordance with the general statutes which has adopted biennial elections, at each such election one-third of the members of such board shall be elected for a term of six years. In any town having any such board which adopts biennial elections, at its first biennial election sufficient members of the board of education shall be elected to fill the entire number of positions on said board for terms as follows: One-third shall be elected for a term of two years, one-third shall be elected for a term of four years and one-third shall be elected for a term of six years. At each biennial election thereafter, one-third of the members of such board shall be elected for a term of six years.

      (b) Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes to the contrary, any town having a board of education of three, six, nine or twelve members established in accordance with the general statutes which has adopted biennial elections may, by charter provision or by ordinance, establish a different method of rotation and a different length of the term of office. Such ordinance or charter provision shall take effect at the next regular town election following the effective date of such ordinance or charter provision.

      (1953, S. 687d; P.A. 79-363, S. 26, 38; P.A. 81-257, S. 8, 10.)

      History: P.A. 79-363 made technical changes; P.A. 81-257 added Subsec. (b) authorizing town to change rotation method and term of office for school board members by ordinance or charter revision.

      Cited. 213 C. 216.

      Cited. 18 CS 69.


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      Sec. 9-206a. Optional number of members and terms of boards of education. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 9-203, 9-205 and 9-206, any town may, by charter provision, provide for the election of a board of education consisting of not less than three nor more than twelve electors of such town for terms of two, three, four or six years. Each such town may provide in an ordinance or charter provision for method of rotation. Such ordinance or charter provision shall not take effect until six months after adoption. Members of boards of education shall first be elected in accordance with any such ordinance or charter provision at the next regular town election following the effective date of such ordinance or charter provision.

      (b) No person serving an elected term to a board of education on the effective date of any such ordinance or charter provision shall have his term shortened or terminated by virtue of such ordinance or charter provision.

      (February, 1965, P.A. 628, S. 1, 2.)

      Cited. 213 C. 216.

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      Sec. 9-207. Library directors. Any municipality, after establishing a library under the provisions of sections 11-20 and 11-21, shall at the first regular municipal election after the establishment of such library, elect one-third of the directors to hold office until the next such election, one-third until the second such election and one-third until the third such election, and, at all such elections of such municipality thereafter, one-third of the directors shall be elected to hold office for six years.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1659; 1953, 1955, S. 689d; P.A. 76-173, S. 11.)

      History: P.A. 76-173 deleted references to annual and biennial elections.

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      Sec. 9-208. Election of library directors on change from annual to biennial election. Section 9-208 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1659; 1953, 1955, S. 689d; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 8; P.A. 76-173, S. 12.)

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      Sec. 9-209. Certificate filed with secretary when planning or zoning members to be elected. The town clerk of any town which has provided by ordinance for the election of the members of its planning commission, zoning commission or zoning board of appeals shall file a certificate with the Secretary of the State setting forth the terms of office and the number of members of such commission or board for which each elector may vote.

      (1951, S. 163b; 1953, S. 690d.)

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      Sec. 9-210. Incompatible town offices. No selectman shall hold the office of town clerk, town treasurer or collector of town taxes during the same official year, nor that of judge of probate for the district within which such town is located; no town treasurer shall hold the office of collector of town taxes during the same official year; nor shall any town clerk or selectman be elected a registrar of voters; and no registrar of voters shall hold the office of town clerk. No assessor shall act as a member of the board of assessment appeals. No member of the board of finance of any town shall hold any salaried town office unless otherwise provided by special act. If any registrar of voters is elected to the office of town clerk or selectman and accepts the office, he shall thereupon cease to be a registrar; and, if any town clerk or selectman is elected registrar of voters, the election shall be void; and in either of said cases the selectmen shall forthwith appoint another registrar by a writing signed by them and filed with the town clerk; but the person so appointed shall be a member of the same political party as that to which the person so elected belongs.

      (1949 Rev., S. 773; 1953, S. 691d; 1959, P.A. 130, S. 1; 1961, P.A. 517, S. 9; P.A. 95-283, S. 29, 68.)

      History: 1959 act added prohibition against town treasurer or town clerk holding office of trial justice; 1961 act eliminated same; P.A. 95-283 replaced board of tax review with board of assessment appeals, effective July 6, 1995.

      Selectman may not by his own vote appoint himself collector. 66 C. 294. Selectman may be appointed collector, but cannot remain selectman. Id. What constitutes office within purview of statute. 121 C. 242.

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PART III*
VACANCIES

      *See Sec. 9-169e re voting districts in special elections held to fill vacancies in district or municipal offices.

      Sec. 9-211. United States senator; vacancy. (a) In case of a vacancy in the office of senator in Congress, the Governor, except as otherwise provided by federal or state law, shall, not more than ten days after the occurrence of such vacancy, issue writs of election directed to the town clerks or assistant town clerks ordering an election to be held on the one hundred fiftieth day after the issue of such writs on a day, other than a Saturday or Sunday, to fill such vacancy for the remaining portion of the term vacated, provided (1) except as provided in subdivisions (2) and (3) of this subsection, if such a vacancy occurs between the one hundred twenty-fifth day and the sixty-third day before the day of a regular state or municipal election in November of any year, the Governor shall so issue such writs that order an election to be held on the day of such regular election, (2) except as provided in subdivision (3) of this subsection, if such vacancy occurs after the municipal election in the year preceding the last year of the term of a senator or in the last year of the term of a senator, the Governor shall nominate a person to fill such vacancy and such nomination shall be filed with both the clerk of the Senate and the clerk of the House of Representatives. Approval of such nomination shall require an affirmative vote of two-thirds of the membership of each chamber of the General Assembly, or (3) if such a vacancy occurs in the year of a state election and not more than sixty-two days prior to such election, and the office of senator in Congress for which the vacancy exists will be on the ballot during such election, the Governor shall not issue such writs and no election shall be held under this section. If the position vacated is that of member-elect, the Governor shall so issue writs and an election shall be held as provided in this section.

      (b) The Governor shall cause writs of election issued pursuant to subsection (a) of this section to be conveyed to a state marshal, who shall forthwith transmit an attested copy thereof to such clerks or assistant clerks. Such clerks or assistant clerks, on receiving such writs, shall warn elections to be held on the day appointed therein in the same manner as state elections are warned, which elections shall be organized and conducted as are state elections, and the vote shall be declared, certified, directed, deposited, returned and transmitted in the same manner as at a state election.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1109; 1953, S. 692d; November, 1955, S. N112; P.A. 06-137, S. 9; P.A. 09-170, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 06-137 changed each reference re time period within a state election from 60 days to 150 days, effective June 6, 2006; P.A. 09-170 replaced former provisions re authority of Governor to fill vacancy by appointment with Subsec. (a) re the ordering of an election to fill vacancy and exceptions, and Subsec. (b) re issuance of writs of election, effective June 25, 2009.

      Cited. 41 CS 267.

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      Sec. 9-211a. Fifty or more vacancies in the office of senator in Congress among the states. Connecticut vacancy. Governor's power to appoint. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 9-211, in the event that among the states there are fifty or more vacancies in the office of senator in Congress at any single point in time and one of such vacancies is from Connecticut, the Governor is empowered to fill such vacancy by appointment as herein provided. If such vacancy occurs one hundred fifty or more days prior to a state election, the appointee shall serve until the third day of January following such election, and at such election there shall be elected a senator in Congress to serve for the remaining portion, if any, of the term vacated. If such vacancy occurs within less than one hundred fifty days of a state election and the term vacated does not expire on the third day of January following such election, the appointee shall serve until the third day of January following the next such election but one, and at such next election but one there shall be elected a senator in Congress to serve for the remaining portion, if any, of the term vacated. If such vacancy occurs within less than one hundred fifty days of a state election and the term vacated expires on the third day of January following, the appointee shall serve until such third day of January.

      (P.A. 09-170, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 09-170 effective June 25, 2009.

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      Sec. 9-212. Representative in Congress. (a) In case of a vacancy in the office of representative in Congress from any district, the Governor, except as otherwise provided by law, shall not more than ten days after the occurrence of such vacancy issue writs of election directed to the town clerks or assistant town clerks, in such district, ordering an election to be held on the sixtieth day after the issue of such writs on a day, other than a Saturday or Sunday, to fill such vacancy, provided (1) if such a vacancy occurs between the one hundred twenty-fifth day and the sixty-third day before the day of a regular state or municipal election in November of any year, the Governor shall so issue such writs on the sixtieth day before the day of such regular election, ordering an election to be held on the day of such regular election, (2) if such a vacancy occurs after the sixty-third day before the day of a regular state election but before the regular state election, the Governor shall not issue such writs and no election shall be held under this section, unless the position vacated is that of member-elect, in which case the Governor shall issue such writs and an election shall be held as provided in this section, and (3) if a primary for such office occurs pursuant to subparagraph (C) of subdivision (1) of section 9-450, the Governor shall, within ten days following the filing of a candidacy for nomination by a person other than the party-endorsed candidate, issue new writs of election, in place of those first issued pursuant to this section.

      (b) The Governor shall cause writs of election issued pursuant to subsection (a) of this section to be conveyed to a state marshal, who shall forthwith transmit an attested copy thereof to such clerks or assistant clerks. Such clerks or assistant clerks, on receiving such writs, shall warn elections to be held on the day appointed therein in the same manner as state elections are warned, which elections shall be organized and conducted as are state elections, and the vote shall be declared, certified, directed, deposited, returned and transmitted in the same manner as at a state election.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1101, 1110; 1953, S. 693d; April, 1964, P.A. 2, S. 2; P.A. 93-154, S. 1, 5; P.A. 00-99, S. 26, 154; P.A. 06-137, S. 12.)

      History: 1964 act deleted provisions pertaining to vacancy in office of representative-at-large; P.A. 93-154 prohibited elections from being held on Saturdays or Sundays, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 00-99 replaced reference to sheriff with state marshal, effective December 1, 2000; P.A. 06-137 divided existing provisions into Subsecs. (a) and (b), amended Subsec. (a) by requiring Governor to issue writs of election not more than ten days after vacancy and election to be held on the sixtieth day after issue of writs, and by adding new Subdivs. (1) to (3), inclusive, and amended Subsec. (b) by making conforming changes, effective June 6, 2006.

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      Sec. 9-213. Secretary, Treasurer, Comptroller and Attorney General. (a) If the office of Secretary of the State or Comptroller becomes vacant, the General Assembly, if in session, shall fill it; but, if the vacancy occurs when the General Assembly is not in session or if the General Assembly fails to make an appointment to fill the vacancy, it shall be filled by the Governor.

      (b) Any vacancy in the office of Attorney General shall be filled by appointment by the Governor for the unexpired portion of the term.

      (c) (1) If the office of the Treasurer becomes vacant, the General Assembly, if in session, shall fill the vacancy for the unexpired portion of the term. (2) If the vacancy occurs when the General Assembly is not in session, or if the General Assembly fails to make an appointment to fill the vacancy and the vacancy does not occur in the year in which a state election is to be held for the office of the Treasurer, the Governor shall appoint a person to serve as acting Treasurer until the next regular session of the General Assembly at which time the Governor shall nominate a successor for the office of Treasurer who shall be subject to approval by the General Assembly. (3) If the vacancy occurs when the General Assembly is not in session or if the General Assembly fails to make an appointment to fill the vacancy and the vacancy occurs in the year in which a state election is to be held for the office of the Treasurer, the Deputy Treasurer shall fill the vacancy for the unexpired portion of the term.

      (1949 Rev., S. 211, 1090; 1953, S. 694d; P.A. 00-43, S. 14, 19.)

      History: P.A. 00-43 divided the section into Subsecs. (a) and (b) and added Subsec. (c) re vacancies in the office of the Treasurer, effective May 3, 2000.

      Former statute cited. 87 C. 553.

      Cited. 41 CS 267.


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      Sec. 9-214. State representative. Section 9-214 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1086; 1953, S. 695d; 1957, P.A. 119, S. 2; 1959, P.A. 475, S. 1; 1963, P.A. 17, S. 84; 1967, P.A. 557, S. 3.)

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      Sec. 9-215. Member or member-elect of the General Assembly. (a) When any member or member-elect of the General Assembly resigns, the member or member-elect shall resign by notifying the Secretary of the State of the member's or member-elect's decision, and if any member or member-elect of the General Assembly dies, the town clerk from the town in which the member or member-elect resides shall notify the Secretary of the State of such death.

      (b) When any such vacancy occurs, except as provided in this section, the Governor shall, within ten days after its occurrence, issue writs of election, directed to the town clerks or assistant town clerks in the several towns in the district in which the vacancy exists, ordering an election to be held therein on the forty-sixth day after the issue of such writs to fill such vacancy, and cause them to be conveyed to such town clerks or assistant town clerks. No such election shall be held on a Saturday or Sunday. If such a vacancy occurs between the one hundred twenty-fifth day and the forty-ninth day before the day of a regular state or municipal election in November of any year, the Governor shall so issue such writs on the forty-sixth day before the day of such regular election, ordering an election to be held on the day of such regular election. If such a vacancy occurs after the forty-ninth day before the day of a regular state election but before the Wednesday following the first Monday of January of the next-succeeding year, the Governor shall not issue such writs and no election shall be held under this section, unless the position vacated is that of member-elect, in which case the Governor shall issue such writs and an election shall be held as provided in this section.

      (c) Such clerks or assistant clerks, on receiving such writs, but not earlier than the date of issuance of such writs, shall warn elections to be held on the day appointed therein, in the same manner as state elections are warned, which elections shall be organized and conducted in the same manner as a state election. The vote shall be declared, certified, directed, deposited, returned and transmitted in the same manner as at a state election. The registry lists used at such elections shall be the last-completed lists, as provided in sections 9-172a and 9-172b.

      (d) (1) If such vacancy exists in a senatorial or assembly district composed of a single town or part of a single town, such nominations by political parties shall be made as the rules of such parties provide, in accordance with section 9-390, and filed with the town clerk; except that (A) if such rules provide for selection by delegates and the vacancy exists in a senatorial or assembly district composed of a single town, the delegates to the convention held for the nomination of a candidate for the office of state senator or state representative in such town at the last state election shall be the delegates for the purpose of selecting a candidate to fill such vacancy; (B) if such rules provide for the selection by delegates and the vacancy exists in a senatorial or assembly district composed of part of a single town, the delegates to the convention held for the nomination of a candidate for the office of state senator or state representative in such district at the last state election shall be the delegates for the purpose of selecting a candidate to fill such vacancy; and (C) if such rules provide for direct primaries under section 9-390, the nomination shall be made by the town committee of such party in the case of a vacancy in a senatorial or assembly district composed of a single town and, in a senatorial or assembly district composed of part of a single town, by the members of the town committee from such political subdivision or senatorial or assembly district. (2) If such vacancy is a district office, as defined in section 9-372, the delegates to the senatorial or assembly convention for the last state election shall be the delegates for the purpose of selecting a candidate to fill such vacancy. If a vacancy occurs in the delegation from any town, political subdivision or district, such vacancy may be filled by the town committee of the town in which the delegate resided. Nominations by political parties pursuant to this section may be made and certified at any time after the resignation or death of the member or member-elect of the General Assembly and not later than the thirty-sixth day before the day of the election. No such nomination shall be effective until the presiding officer and secretary of any district convention have certified the nomination to the Secretary of the State or, in the case of a vacancy in a senatorial or assembly district composed of a single town or part thereof, until the presiding officer and secretary of the town committee or single town convention have certified the nomination to the town clerk.

      (e) No primary shall be held for the nomination of any political party to fill any vacancy in the office of state senator or state representative and the party-endorsed candidate so selected shall be deemed, for the purposes of chapter 153, the person certified by the Secretary of the State under section 9-444 as the nominee of such party.

      (f) When the vacancy is filled, the successor to the office shall appear before the Secretary of the State and be sworn to the faithful performance of duties in accordance with section 1-25.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1091; 1953, S. 696d; 1957, P.A. 119, S. 3; 1959, P.A. 475, S. 2; 1963, P.A. 17, S. 85; 1967, P.A. 557, S. 4; P.A. 77-240, S. 1; P.A. 80-215, S. 2; P.A. 81-447, S. 21; P.A. 82-426, S. 4, 14; P.A. 84-319, S. 29, 49; P.A. 87-382, S. 19, 55; P.A. 93-154, S. 2, 5; P.A. 00-66, S. 22.)

      History: 1959 act provided for notification of the secretary of the state in the case of death or resignation of state senator or senator-elect, also provided for swearing-in of successor; 1963 act changed internal references from former primary act to its restatement; 1967 act changed wording throughout section so that it applied to vacancies in the general assembly as a whole instead of the state senate; P.A. 77-240 changed day on which election to be held to fill a vacancy from the thirtieth to the fortieth day after issue of writs; P.A. 80-215 changed day from fortieth to forty-sixth day, deleted sheriff of county from section pertaining to transmittal of writs, provided that nominations by political parties may be made at any time after resignation or death and prior to the tenth day after publication of warning of election but shall not be effective until certified by appropriate officials to the secretary of the state or the town clerk; P.A. 81-447 added requirement that governor issue writs of election to fill vacancy within 10 days after the occurrence of the vacancy if it occurs 56 or more days prior to the first Wednesday after the first Monday in May in an even-numbered year; P.A. 82-426 amended section to provide that governor is to issue writs of election within 10 days after occurrence of a vacancy ordering election to be held on the forty-sixth day after issuance except that if the vacancy occurs between the one hundred twenty-fifth day and the forty-ninth day before the day of a regular November state or municipal election the writs are to be issued 46 days before the regular election and if the vacancy occurs after the forty-ninth day before such regular election and before the Wednesday following the first Monday in January of the next year no election shall be held unless the position vacated is that of member elect; P.A. 84-319 amended section to change deadline for nominations by parties for special elections from within 10 days of publication of warning to "not later than the thirty-sixth day before the day" of the election; P.A. 87-382 provided that nominations by political parties may be certified during same period that nominations may be made; P.A. 93-154 prohibited elections from being held on Saturdays or Sundays, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 00-66 divided section into Subsecs. and made technical changes.

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      Sec. 9-216. Nomination by petition. Nominations may also be made by petition in vacancy elections for the offices of state senator and state representative in the manner provided in sections 9-379 and 9-453a to 9-453p, inclusive, which petitions shall be submitted to the town clerk of the town in which the signers reside not later than eight days after the issue of such writs as provided in section 9-215 and filed in the office of the Secretary of the State not later than two days thereafter.

      (1957, P.A. 119, S. 4; 1963, P.A. 17, S. 86; 1967, P.A. 557, S. 5; 1971, P.A. 806, S. 24; P.A. 77-240, S. 2; P.A. 78-153, S. 24, 32; P.A. 80-215, S. 3.)

      History: 1963 act changed internal references from former primary act to its restatement; 1967 act deleted reference to publication of the warning, provided for filing with the secretary of the state statement signed by town clerk not later than 17 days after issuance of writs attesting that a circulator of nominating petition page is elector and eligible to vote for all candidates listed; 1971 act made technical changes; P.A. 77-240 changed time within which petitions to be filed with the secretary of the state from 7 to 2 days and time for filing of town clerk's attestation from 17 days to 5 days; P.A. 78-153 changed interval within which petitions to be submitted to town clerk from 10 to 8 days, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-215 deleted requirement for attestation by town clerk.

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      Sec. 9-217. List of candidates. Notwithstanding the requirement of twenty-eight days' notice to the Secretary of the State under sections 9-434 and 9-461, the clerk of the municipality in which such election is to be held shall file with the Secretary of the State a list of the candidates of each party for such office by the thirty-second day before such special election.

      (1957, P.A. 119, S. 5; 518, S. 36; 1963, P.A. 17, S. 87; 1969, P.A. 694, S. 9; P.A. 80-215, S. 4.)

      History: 1963 act changed internal reference from prior primary act to its restatement; 1969 act changed sentence referring to "vacancy in the municipal office of representative" from any town to read "vacancy in the municipal office of state representative" and in sentence referring to "any convention for the district office of state senator" added "or state representative"; P.A. 80-215 deleted references to filling vacancy in municipal office of state representative or state senator and also to filing by officials of convention for district office of state senator or state representative and added requirement that clerk of municipality in which election to be held file a list of candidates of each party by the thirty-second day before special election with the secretary of the state.

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      Sec. 9-218. Judge of probate. When there is no election of judge of probate in any district by reason of two or more having an equal and the highest number of votes, or when a new probate district is created and no provision made for the election of a judge thereof, or whenever it is shown to the Governor that a vacancy is about to exist in said office by reason of the resignation of the incumbent to take effect at a future time or by reason of constitutional limitation, or when there is a vacancy in said office, the Governor shall issue writs of election directed to the town clerk or clerks or assistant town clerk or clerks within such district, ordering an election to be held on a day named therein, other than a Saturday or Sunday, to fill such vacancy or impending vacancy, and transmit the same to a state marshal. Such state marshal shall forthwith transmit them to such clerk or clerks, who, on receiving the same, shall warn elections to be held on the day appointed in such writs, in the same manner as state elections are warned. Such elections shall be organized and conducted, and the vote shall be declared and returns made, certified, directed, deposited and transmitted, in the same manner as at a state election. The Secretary of the State, Treasurer and Comptroller shall, within thirty days after any such election, count and declare the votes so returned, and notice shall be given to the person declared elected, in the same manner as is provided in the election of judges of probate at state elections. The Secretary of the State shall enter the returns in tabular form in books kept by him for that purpose and present a copy of the same, with the name of, and the total number of votes received by, each of the candidates for said office, to the Governor within ten days thereafter.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1092; 1953, S. 697d; P.A. 84-319, S. 30, 49; P.A. 93-154, S. 3, 5; P.A. 00-99, S. 27, 154.)

      History: P.A. 84-319 amended section to conform provisions of statutes re filing of statement of vote; P.A. 93-154 prohibited elections from being held on Saturdays or Sundays, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 00-99 changed references to sheriff to state marshal, effective December 1, 2000.

      Cited. 16 CS 36.

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      Sec. 9-219. Justice of the peace. Section 9-219 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7549; 1953, S. 698d; P.A. 73-475, S. 2, 3.)

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      Sec. 9-220. Town office. If any town office in any town is vacant from any cause, such town, if such office is elective, shall, except as otherwise provided by law, fill the vacancy at the next town election or at a special election called for such purpose in accordance with the provisions of section 9-164, but, until such vacancy is so filled, it shall be filled by the selectmen. The selectmen shall fill all vacancies in offices to which they have the power of appointment.

      (1949 Rev., S. 517; 1953, S. 699d; 1957, P.A. 605, S. 1.)

      Removal means removal from the town. 19 C. 334. Town, filling vacancy, must do so for entire unexpired term. 89 C. 561. Section imposes no duty to call special election to fill vacancy in town office. 130 C. 710.

      Selectmen may not appoint members of the police commission between time of establishment and next election. 19 CS 321. Cited. 22 CS 130.


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      Sec. 9-221. Municipal office vacancy election provisions inapplicable in certain circumstances. (a) When under the provisions of any general statute, special act or charter, it is required that a vacancy in any municipal office be filled at the next municipal election, such provisions shall not apply to any incumbent appointed to fill such vacancy when the unexpired portion of the term for which he was appointed terminates on July first of the year in which such municipal election is to be held or within one hundred days following such next municipal election, and such incumbent appointee shall serve for the unexpired portion of such term.

      (b) When under the provisions of any general statute, special act or charter, it is required that a vacancy in any municipal office be filled at the next municipal election, such provisions shall not apply to any such vacancy which occurs after the deadline for the nomination of candidates specified in section 9-452 and any such vacancy thereafter occurring may be filled until such election, by the official or officials authorized to fill such vacancy, by the appointment of a qualified person to serve until such election and shall forthwith be filled after such election by the official or officials so authorized who are serving after such election by the appointment of a qualified person, provided the period of thirty days set forth in section 7-107 shall not begin with respect to such vacancy until the day after the day of such election and provided, if any portion of the term in which such vacancy occurred remains unexpired after the second municipal election to be held in such municipality after the time of its occurrence, it shall be filled at such second municipal election, except as herein provided.

      (c) When under the provisions of any general statute, special act or charter, it is required that a vacancy in any municipal office be filled at the next municipal election, and such a vacancy occurs after the day before the time specified in section 9-391 for the parties to endorse candidates to run in a primary for nomination to an office and prior to the deadline for the nomination of candidates specified in section 9-452, nomination of a candidate for such vacancy may be made only by a major or minor party, as defined in section 9-372, entitled to a place on the ballot with respect to such office under section 9-379 and shall be made by the appointment of a nominee by the town committee of any such party in such municipality, which nomination shall be certified to the clerk of such municipality by the chairman and secretary of such town committee not later than four o'clock p.m. of the fifth day following the deadline for the nomination of candidates specified in section 9-452, except that when such date is a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday, such certification shall be made not later than four o'clock p.m. of the next succeeding business day. The municipal clerk shall include the name of any such nominee in the list of candidates of each party for the municipal offices to be filled at such election in accordance with section 9-461. Upon the occurrence of any such vacancy, such municipal clerk shall forthwith notify in writing the chairman or secretary of the town committee of any such party in such municipality of its occurrence.

      (1957, P.A. 605, S. 2; September, 1957, P.A. 1, S. 2; 1963, P.A. 17, S. 88; February, 1965, P.A. 106; 1969, P.A. 59, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 806, S. 25; P.A. 75-206, S. 3, 7; P.A. 84-319, S. 31, 49.)

      History: 1963 act changed internal references from prior primary act to its restatement; 1965 act changed reference to 21 days prior to election to 28 days and "twenty-first" to "twenty-eighth" where appearing; 1969 act added to "under the provisions of any general statute" the words "special act or charter" where appearing; 1971 act made technical changes; P.A. 75-206 changed reference to vacancies occurring between "eighty-fifth" to "ninety-ninth" where appearing, added qualification to nomination of candidate that it be made only by a "major or minor" party "as defined in section 9-372" and deleted reference to Secs. 9-453a to 9-453p, inclusive; P.A. 84-319 divided section into Subsecs., and amended provisions to relate time period for vacancy elections to the time period for party endorsements at regular elections and the deadline for nomination of candidates by minor parties.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cited. 41 CS 267.


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      Sec. 9-222. Filling of vacancy in office of first selectman or selectman. Petition for special election. When a vacancy occurs in the office of first selectman or in the office of selectman it shall be filled within thirty days after the day of its occurrence by the remaining members of the board of selectmen. Said remaining members may appoint one of themselves to fill a vacancy in the office of first selectman, if they so desire, and shall then fill the ensuing vacancy in the office of selectman as herein provided. If such a vacancy in the office of first selectman or of selectman is not so filled within thirty days after the day of its occurrence, the town clerk shall, within ten days thereafter, notify the elective town officers enrolled in the same political party as the first selectman or selectman, as the case may be, who vacated the office, or all elective town officers, if such first selectman or selectman who vacated the office was not enrolled with a political party, and it shall be filled by such elective town officers within sixty days after its occurrence. Any person so appointed shall serve for the portion of the term remaining unexpired or until a special election called as hereinafter provided upon petition of a number of electors of such town equal to five per cent of the names on the last-completed registry list thereof, but not fewer than fifty such electors. Such petition shall be filed no later than fifteen days after the appointment by the remaining selectmen or such elective town officers, as the case may be. Such a special election shall forthwith be called by the town clerk upon the filing of such a petition with him and shall be held in accordance with the provisions of sections 9-164, 9-450 and 9-459. The term "town officers", as used in this section, shall not include state representatives or town officers who serve on town boards whose members are not all elected at one town election for the same term.

      (1957, P.A. 605, S. 3; 1963, P.A. 17, S. 89; P.A. 74-109, S. 4, 11; P.A. 75-424; P.A. 77-69; P.A. 78-153, S. 25, 32.)

      History: 1963 act changed internal references from prior primary act to its restatement; P.A. 74-109 deleted "justices of the peace" from definition of "town officers as used in this section", effective upon adoption of Senate Joint Resolution No. 22 of 1973 session of the general assembly as an amendment to the constitution of Connecticut; P.A. 75-424 provided that where remaining members of board of selectmen fail to fill vacancy therein within 30 days town clerk to notify appropriate elective officials who shall fill vacancy within 60 days after its occurrence; P.A. 77-69 provided that any petition for a special election to fill vacancy be filed no later than 15 days after appointment by elective town officials; P.A. 78-153 modified the 1977 amendment to read "fifteen days after the appointment by the remaining selectmen or such elective town officers, as the case may be", effective January 1, 1979.

      Cited. 41 CS 267.

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      Sec. 9-223. Notice of vacancy in municipal office. The clerk of any town, the mayor of any city or the warden of any borough in which a vacancy occurs in any elective office shall notify the Secretary of the State of such vacancy within five days thereafter; and, in the case of a vacancy in the office of town clerk, the first selectman of such town or, in the case of a vacancy in the office of mayor of a city or of warden of a borough, the clerk of such city or the clerk of such borough, as the case may be, shall so notify the Secretary of the State of such vacancy. The officer required to give such notice shall, within five days after any such vacancy has been filled, notify the Secretary of the State of the name and address of the person chosen to fill the vacancy, the time and method of its filling and the law under which it was filled.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1093; 1953, S. 700d; 1963, P.A. 250.)

      History: 1963 act provided for notice to secretary of the state re filling vacancies in municipal offices.

      Cited. 19 CS 321.

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      Sec. 9-224. Special election on same day as regular election. If any special election is called to fill a vacancy in any office on the same day as a regular election, the names of the candidates for such office shall be placed on the same voting machine as the names of the candidates to be voted for at such regular election, and except as otherwise specifically provided by statute, the provisions of the statutes governing regular elections shall apply to such special election.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1094; 1953, S. 701d; P.A. 83-391, S. 22, 24.)

      History: P.A. 83-391 added words "except as otherwise specifically provided by statute".

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      Sec. 9-224a. No election if only one candidate in special election to fill vacancy. At any special election called to fill a vacancy in a state, district, or municipal office if there appears on the ballot the name of only one candidate, and no person has registered as a write-in candidate as provided in section 9-224b, the special election shall not be held. In the case of a municipal office, the sole candidate shall be declared elected by the municipal clerk and, in the case of a state or district office, by the Secretary of the State.

      (P.A. 81-447, S. 19, 23.)

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      Sec. 9-224b. Registration as write-in candidate in special election to fill vacancy. (a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, in order to be a valid write-in candidate in a special election called to fill a vacancy in a state, district or municipal office, a person shall register with the Secretary of the State not earlier than ninety days before such election and not later than the end of the business day on the fourteenth day preceding such election.

      (b) In order to be a valid write-in candidate in a special election called to fill a vacancy in the municipal office of town meeting member in any town having a representative town meeting which has seventy-five or more members, a person shall register with the town clerk of such town not earlier than ninety days preceding such election and not later than the last business day preceding the election.

      (c) Any such registration shall include a statement of the office sought by such person and a statement of consent to being a write-in candidate by such person. Such registration shall not include a designation of a political party.

      (P.A. 81-447, S. 20; P.A. 87-382, S. 51, 55.)

      History: P.A. 87-382 divided section in to Subsecs. and added Subsec. (b) re vacancy in municipal office of town meeting member in towns having a representative town meeting which has at least 75 members.

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PART IV
WARNING OF ELECTIONS

      Sec. 9-225. State elections. The town clerk or assistant town clerk of each town shall warn the electors therein to meet on the Tuesday following the first Monday in November in the even-numbered years, at six o'clock a.m., which warning shall be given by publication in a newspaper having a general circulation in such town not more than fifteen nor less than five days previous to holding such election. The clerk in each town shall, in the warning for such election, give notice of the time and the location of the polling place in the town, and in towns divided into voting districts, of the time and the location of the polling place in each district, at which such election will be held. The town clerk shall record each such warning.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1053; 1953, S. 702d; 1963, P.A. 393, S. 8; February, 1965, P.A. 275, S. 4; 1967, P.A. 119, S. 1; 352, S. 1.)

      History: 1963 act substituted publication in a newspaper for posting notice on town signposts and omitted method of computing 5-day notice period, for which see Sec. 9-2; 1965 act added "not more than ten nor less than" to the 5 days previous to election for publication in a newspaper, deleted "except as otherwise provided by law" and also provision for true and attested copy of warning to be left with town clerk by person who served same and provided for town clerk to record such warning; 1967 acts changed not more than 10 days to 15 days and made minor changes in wording.

      Cited. 139 C. 211.

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      Sec. 9-226. Municipal elections. The warning of each municipal election shall specify the objects for which such election is to be held. Notice of a town election shall be given by the town clerk or assistant town clerk, by publishing a warning in a newspaper published in such town or having a general circulation therein, such publication to be not more than fifteen, nor less than five days previous to holding the election. The town clerk in each town shall, in the warning for such election, give notice of the time and the location of the polling place in the town and, in towns divided into voting districts, of the time and the location of the polling place in each district. The town clerk shall record each such warning. Notice of an election of a city or borough shall be given by publishing a warning in a newspaper published within the limits of such city or borough, or having a general circulation therein, not more than fifteen nor less than five days previous to holding the election, which warning shall include notice of the time and the location of the polling place in such city or borough and, in cities and boroughs divided into voting districts, of the time and the location of the polling place in each district.

      (1949 Rev., S. 493; 1953, S. 703d; 1963, P.A. 393, S. 9; February, 1965, P.A. 275, S. 5; 1967, P.A. 119, S. 2; 352, S. 2.)

      History: 1963 act substituted publication in a newspaper for posting notice of an election on the signposts and deleted method of computation of the 5-day period, for which see Sec. 9-2; 1965 act added to prescription of timing for newspaper publication "not more than ten nor less than" before the words "five days previous to holding the election" where appearing; 1967 acts added assistant town clerk as authorized to give notice of town election, provided for warning to give notice of the time and the location of the polling place, or in case town or city or borough divided into voting districts, time and polling place location in each district, and changed 10 day limitation to 15 days, where appearing.

      Both warning and notice are requisite for legal meeting. 4 D 62; 5 C. 391; 37 C. 392; 44 C. 157; 52 C. 483; 58 C. 488; 60 C. 165; 121 U.S. 121. Warning is to be affirmatively thereof. 25 C. 555; see 121 U.S. 121. The hour of meeting presumed to be a proper hour. 13 C. 227. The notice should fairly state the purpose of meeting. Id.; 15 C. 327; 36 C. 83; 53 C. 577; 58 C. 488. The town may act within the limits of the warning. 55 C. 245. The warning needs no address, but addressed "to the inhabitants" is valid. 32 C. 47. Clerk's certificate imports verity only as to matters of lawful consideration. 44 C. 158; 51 C. 22. Five days before the meeting means five days before the day of meeting; the town is not estopped by erroneous record of town clerk, as against one acting under it. Id. Notice published in newspaper four days before meeting insufficient. 83 C. 331. As to necessity of recording warning, see 121 U.S. 121. Recorded return of notice of warning, best evidence of contents of warning. 97 C. 633. Unnecessary for warning to state number of grand jurors to be elected. 111 C. 341.

      Cited. 36 CS 74.


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      Sec. 9-227. Record of warning of municipal election. Section 9-227 is repealed.

      (1949 Rev., S. 494; 1953, S. 704d; 1963, P.A. 393, S. 10.)

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PART V
CONDUCT OF ELECTIONS

      Sec. 9-228. Municipal elections. All municipal elections shall be held and conducted, as far as may be, in the same manner as state elections, unless otherwise provided by law.

      (1949 Rev., S. 495, 531; 1953, S. 705d.)

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      Sec. 9-229. Appointment, instruction and certification of moderators. (a) The registrars of voters in the several towns and, in towns where there are different registrars for different voting districts, the registrars of voters in such districts shall appoint the moderators of regular and special state and municipal elections in their respective towns or districts. For the purpose of providing a reserve group of persons who may serve as moderators, the registrars shall designate alternate moderators from among those persons chosen as official checkers, or machine tenders, in the following minimum numbers: In towns with one or more but not exceeding three voting districts, one alternate moderator; in towns with four or more but not exceeding eight voting districts, two alternate moderators; in towns with more than eight voting districts, a number of alternate moderators equal to one-fourth of the number of voting districts rounded off to the nearest multiple of four. In case the registrars fail to agree in the choice of a moderator or alternate moderator, the choice shall be determined between such registrars by lot. In the case of a primary, the registrar, as defined in section 9-372, shall so appoint such moderators and alternate moderators. Moderators and alternate moderators shall be appointed at least twenty days before the election or primary. The registrars shall submit a list of the names of such moderators and alternate moderators to the municipal clerk, which list shall be made available for public inspection by such clerk. Each person appointed to serve as moderator or alternate moderator shall be certified by the Secretary of the State in accordance with the provisions of subsection (c) of this section, except as provided in subsection (d) of this section or section 9-436.

      (b) The Secretary of the State shall (1) request registrars of voters to volunteer to serve as instructors for moderators and alternate moderators, (2) select registrars from among such volunteers to serve as such instructors, (3) establish a curriculum for instructional sessions for moderators and alternate moderators, (4) establish the number of such instructional sessions, provided at least one such instructional session shall be held in each congressional district in each calendar year, (5) train the instructors for such sessions, and (6) certify moderators and alternate moderators. The curriculum for such instructional sessions shall include, without limitation, procedures for counting and recording absentee ballots, "hands on" training in the use of voting machines, and the duties of a moderator in the conduct of a primary and election. The secretary may employ assistants on a temporary basis within existing budgetary resources for the purpose of implementing the provisions of this section. Such assistants shall not be subject to the provisions of chapter 67. The instructors shall conduct instructional sessions for moderators and alternate moderators in accordance with their training by the Secretary of the State and the curriculum for such sessions. Any elector may attend one or more of such instructional sessions. Each instructor shall provide the Secretary of the State with the name and address of each person who completes such a session.

      (c) The secretary shall conduct certification sessions for moderators and alternate moderators each year at times and places to be determined by said secretary, provided at least eight such sessions shall be held each calendar year and at least one such session shall be conducted prior to every primary. The secretary shall certify each person who successfully completes an instructional session conducted in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section and an examination administered by the secretary, as eligible to serve as moderator or alternate moderator at any election or primary held during the time such certification is effective. Any such certification made on or after October 1, 1993, shall be effective for four years from the date of such certification. Only those persons who attend and are thereby certified at such session shall be eligible to serve as moderators on election or primary day, except as provided in subsection (d) of this section or section 9-436.

      (d) If the person designated as moderator is unable to serve for any reason, a certified alternate moderator shall serve as moderator. If such certified alternate moderator is not called upon to serve as moderator, he shall serve in another capacity as an election official on election or primary day. If any town or voting district lacks a moderator due to the death, disability or withdrawal of a certified moderator or alternate moderator, or due to the disqualification of a moderator for any reason, including failure to attend an instructional session as required by this section, the registrars of voters shall appoint a new moderator for such town or voting district in the manner provided in this section. Such new moderator shall attend an instructional session and a certification session conducted in accordance with the provisions of this section. If all such sessions have been conducted at the time of appointment of the new moderator, the new moderator shall receive instruction from the registrars who appointed the new moderator.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1057; 1953, S. 706d; P.A. 81-467, S. 3, 8; P.A. 82-426, S. 5, 14; P.A. 85-274; P.A. 87-472, S. 11; P.A. 93-384, S. 2; P.A. 95-185, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 81-467 required appointment and instruction of alternate moderators, required instruction of moderators and added provisions re certification of moderators and alternates; P.A. 82-426 extended provisions of section to moderators at primaries; P.A. 85-274 amended section to require "successful" completion of instructional session and an examination and to allow electors to attend one or more of such instructional sessions; P.A. 87-472 added provisions re five-year certifications for qualifying moderators and alternate moderators; P.A. 93-384 changed duration of terms for moderators and alternate moderators from three or five years to four years; P.A. 95-185 divided section into Subsecs., changed the conductor of instructional sessions from the Secretary of the State to registrars who volunteer as instructors, established the secretary's and registrars' duties re moderator instruction, and the curriculum for such sessions, required eight certification sessions annually and made technical changes.

      See Sec. 9-249 re instruction of election officials in use of voting machine.

      Moderator not liable for decision made in good faith. 76 C. 678; 82 C. 324.

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      Sec. 9-229a. Election or primary day polling place observers. Appointment. Duties. Training program. Regulations. Additional election officials. Code of ethics for polling place observers. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes, the Secretary of the State, upon receipt of a written request from a certified candidate in any election or primary that is received by the Secretary of the State not later than thirty days prior to such primary or election, and after consultation with the registrars of voters, shall appoint election or primary day polling place observers as requested who shall be electors of the state, including without limitation an observer who accompanies and observes the election or primary moderator. Such polling place observers shall record the names and other identifying information of individuals involved in any irregularities or violations and report this information to the Secretary of the State or the Secretary's designee who shall forward all such information to the State Elections Enforcement Commission and all candidates whose names appear on the ballot. During any such primary or election, observers shall immediately report any irregularities or violations of law and the names and other identifying information of any electors who are not allowed to vote to the Secretary of the State, or the Secretary's designee, who shall inform the relevant registrar of voters and the moderator and require immediate and appropriate corrective action.

      (b) The Secretary of the State shall establish suitable duties, responsibilities and a curriculum, training program and certification process for such polling place observers. Such training program and certification process shall include, without limitation, procedures for counting and recording absentee ballots, the use of voting machines, voting when a name does not appear on a voting list and the duties of a moderator in the conduct of a primary and election. Once certified, the Secretary shall assign each polling place observer to a specific polling place or polling places. Once assigned, the polling place observer shall have the ability to enter and leave the assigned polling places at any time during election or primary day. If at any such time an observer becomes disruptive to the orderly process of voting, the moderator shall have the ability to remove such observers from the polling place. No candidate or member of the immediate family of a candidate shall be appointed as a polling place observer for a polling place on which such candidate may appear on the ballot.

      (c) Any observer who wilfully, knowingly or recklessly interferes with the orderly process of voting shall be subject to the provisions of section 9-366.

      (d) The Secretary may adopt regulations, pursuant to chapter 54, to administer the program established pursuant to this section.

      (e) Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes, the registrars of voters of each municipality may appoint additional election officials on the day of, or on any day after, an election or primary, if, in the opinion of both registrars of voters, additional election officials are needed because (1) an election official appointed prior to the day of the election or primary is unable to serve as an election official for any reason, (2) it is necessary to accommodate the public convenience of the electors in any voting district, or (3) it is necessary to improve the administration of the election or primary. The registrars of voters shall file a written opinion with the municipal clerk indicating the reasons for the appointment of any such additional election officials.

      (f) Not later than September 1, 2007, the Secretary of the State shall establish a code of ethics for polling place observers, registrars of voters and poll workers. Such code of ethics shall be conspicuously posted in each polling place and in the office of the registrars of voters.

      (g) The Secretary of the State may establish a training program for instruction on such code of ethics and a training program concerning accessibility of polling places by persons with disabilities.

      (P.A. 07-194, S. 9.)

      History: P.A. 07-194 effective July 5, 2007.

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      Sec. 9-230. Authority of registrars and moderators to prevent or suppress disorder. The registrars of voters may request the head of the police department of the municipality, or, if none, a constable serving such municipality, to provide police protection at any polling place of any regular or special state or municipal election where they may anticipate disorder. The moderator of such election may, when any disorder arises in such election and the offender refuses to submit to the moderator's lawful authority, order any officer with power of arrest to take the offender into custody and, if necessary, to remove the offender from such election until the offender conforms to order or, if need be, until such election is closed, and thereupon such officer may command all necessary assistance. Any person refusing to assist when commanded shall be liable to the same penalties as for refusing to assist constables in the execution of their duties, but no person commanded to assist shall be deprived of such person's right to vote at such election, nor shall the offender be so deprived any longer than the offender refuses to conform to order.

      (1949 Rev., S. 521, 1114; 1953, S. 707d; 1971, P.A. 317; P.A. 00-99, S. 135, 154.)

      History: 1971 act provided registrars may request police protection at any polling place where disorder anticipated; P.A. 00-99 deleted reference to sheriffs and made technical changes, effective December 1, 2000.

      The enforcement of this provision requires no issue of process. 65 C. 30. Cited. 135 C. 153.

      Cited. 19 CS 252.


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      Sec. 9-231. Oath of election officials. All election officials shall be sworn to the faithful performance of their duties, and the several moderators and registrars may administer such oaths.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1051; 1953, S. 708d.)

      See Sec. 1-25 re forms of oaths.

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      Sec. 9-232. Challengers. Challenges not to be indiscriminate and under oath. (a) Each registrar may appoint one or more challengers in his town or district, one of whom may be present at the offering of any vote; and any such challenger or any elector may challenge the right of any person offering to vote, on the ground of want of identity with the person on whose name the vote is offered, or disfranchisement or lack of bona fide residence, and the moderator shall decide upon the right of the person so challenged to vote.

      (b) Challenges shall not be made indiscriminately and may only be made if the challenger knows, suspects or reasonably believes such a person not to be qualified and entitled to vote. Any challenge by an elector and the statement of the person challenged shall be under oath, administered by the moderator.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1060; 1953, S. 709d; P.A. 75-348, S. 1, 11.)

      History: P.A. 75-348 added new Subsec. (b) re grounds for challenges and required oath.

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      Sec. 9-232a. Remedy for denial of voting rights. Any elector qualified to vote and offering to vote at any election, who is denied the right to vote because his name has been checked off on the check list in use at his polling place, but who claims that he has not in fact voted or offered himself to vote either in person or by absentee ballot, shall be permitted to vote upon signing and furnishing to the moderator a statement, under penalties of false statement, that he is an elector qualified to vote in that election and has neither offered himself to vote nor voted in person or by absentee ballot at said election. Such statement shall be in form substantially as follows:

To the Moderator of .... (Polling Place)

      I, .... (Name), of .... (Street Address), of the (City) (Town) (Borough) of .... do hereby state, under the penalties of false statement, that (1) I am an elector in said municipality, (2) I am qualified to vote in the (State) (City) (Town) (Borough) (Special) election being held in said municipality on this date and (3) I have not prior to this time offered myself to vote or voted either in person or by absentee ballot at said election.

      .... a.m., p.m. (exact time of day)

      Dated at ...., Connecticut, this .... day of ...., 20...

      .... (Signature)
.... (Address)


      Received at .... (Time) (a.m.) (p.m.) on this .... day of ...., 20.., by, .... (Signature) Moderator of .... (Polling Place)

      (February, 1965, P.A. 255, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 73.)

      History: 1971 act changed penalty of "perjury" to "false statement" where appearing; (Revisor's note: In 2001 the references in this section to the date "19.." were changed editorially by the Revisors to "20.." to reflect the new millennium).

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      Sec. 9-232b. Penalty for false statement. Any person wilfully making a false statement in a statement which he signs and furnishes to a moderator of an election under section 9-232a shall be guilty of false statement, as provided in section 9-8, and shall be subject to the penalties provided for false statement.

      (February, 1965, P.A. 255, S. 3; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 74; 1972, P.A. 294, S. 5.)

      History: 1971 act substituted "false statement" for "perjury"; 1972 act deleted reference to primary.

      See Sec. 9-439b re penalty for false statement in statement to moderator under Sec. 9-439a.

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      Sec. 9-232c. Moderator to keep memorandum of challenge; form. The moderator shall keep an accurate memorandum of the challenge which shall include (1) the name of the challenged voter; (2) his registry list address; (3) the reason for the challenge; (4) the name and address of the challenger; (5) pertinent facts concerning the challenge; and (6) the result of the moderator's decision. The challenged voter shall also sign such memorandum and it shall be assigned the same number as the challenged ballot.

      (P.A. 75-348, S. 4, 11.)

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      Sec. 9-232d. Request for challenged ballot. If the moderator's decision pursuant to section 9-232 is not favorable to the challenged voter, such person may request a challenged ballot by submitting an application to the moderator, such application shall include as part thereof an affidavit that such person possesses all the qualifications for voting and is entitled to vote at the election.

      (P.A. 75-348, S. 2, 11.)

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      Sec. 9-232e. Casting of challenged ballot, procedure. Any person requesting a challenged ballot and entitled thereto shall announce his or her name to the official checkers. The registrars of voters or the assistant registrar of voters, as the case may be, shall write, in red ink, before the elector's name on the registry list the initials "CB". The challenged ballot shall be a regular ballot. After the voter has so announced his or her name, the moderator shall deliver to such voter a regular ballot together with a serially-numbered envelope marked "Challenged Ballot". The challenged voter shall forthwith mark the ballot in the presence of the moderator in such manner that the moderator shall not know how the ballot is marked. The challenged voter shall then fold the ballot in the presence of the moderator so as to conceal the markings and deposit and seal it in the serially-numbered envelope. The challenged voter shall then deliver such envelope to the moderator. The moderator shall retain all such envelopes in an envelope provided by the registrars of voters that shall be sealed immediately following the close of the polls. Such envelope shall be delivered to the head moderator who shall file the envelope with the municipal clerk. The municipal clerk shall retain such envelope until the time when such envelope may be destroyed.

      (P.A. 75-348, S. 3, 11; P.A. 76-329, S. 1; P.A. 77-202, S. 3, 4; P.A. 91-286, S. 4; P.A. 07-194, S. 17.)

      History: P.A. 76-329 deleted provision for depositing challenged ballot in locked ballot box and substituted "deliver such envelope to the moderator" with further provision that moderator retain "all such envelopes in an envelope which he shall seal immediately following the close of the polls"; P.A. 77-202 modified that to include that the latter envelope be provided by the secretary of the state; P.A. 91-286 amended section to require that envelope containing serially-numbered envelopes be prescribed by secretary of the state and provided by municipal clerk instead of provided by secretary; P.A. 07-194 made technical changes, added requirement to use red ink to mark "CB" before elector's name and provided for delivery of sealed envelope to head moderator who shall file envelope with municipal clerk for retention.

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      Sec. 9-232f. Preservation and counting of challenged ballots. The town clerk shall preserve such ballots in the sealed envelopes for a period of one hundred eighty days after the election. However, in the case of a contested election, either party to such action may request the court to order that the sealed envelopes containing challenged ballots be delivered to the board of admissions by the town clerk together with any memorandum or remarks which were attached to the election returns or required to be so attached. If so ordered, the board of admissions shall then convene and consider each challenged ballot and rule as to which ballots shall be counted. The results thereof shall be added to the vote totals. Federal offices shall not be counted on a challenged ballot that was issued to a person who was also issued a provisional ballot.

      (P.A. 75-348, S. 5, 11; P.A. 76-329, S. 2; P.A. 87-382, S. 20, 55; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 99.)

      History: P.A. 76-329 substituted "sealed envelopes" for "locked ballot box" and "ballot box" where appearing; P.A. 87-382 substituted "one hundred eighty days" for "six months"; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 prohibited federal offices from being counted on challenged ballot issued to person who was also issued provisional ballot, effective January 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 9-232g. Transferred to Chapter 145, Sec. 9-159p.

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      Sec. 9-232h. Reserved for future use.

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      Sec. 9-232i. Definition. As used in this section and sections 9-23r and 9-232l, "election for federal office" means an election for electors of President and Vice-President, an election or primary for United States Senator and an election or primary for Representative in Congress.

      (June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 83.)

      History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 effective January 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 9-232j. Provisional ballot packets for elections for federal office. The moderator of the election in each voting district shall appear at the office of the town clerk not later than eight o'clock p.m. of the day before an election for federal office. At such time, the town clerk shall provide a provisional ballot packet to such moderator or moderators. Each packet shall include: (1) The appropriate number of provisional ballots for federal office provided by the Secretary of the State, which shall be equal to not less than one per cent of the number of electors who are eligible to vote in the voting district served by the moderator, or such other number as the municipal clerk and the registrars agree is sufficient to protect electors' voting rights, (2) the appropriate number of serially-numbered envelopes prescribed by the Secretary, (3) a provisional ballot inventory form, (4) a provisional ballot depository envelope, and (5) other necessary forms prescribed by the Secretary.

      (June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 84.)

      History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 effective January 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 9-232k. Secretary of the State to prescribe and provide provisional ballots. The Secretary of the State shall prescribe and provide to town clerks the provisional ballot which shall be a ballot of candidates for federal office. The Secretary may prescribe that the provisional ballot be the overseas ballot prepared under section 9-158i.

      (June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 85.)

      History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 effective January 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 9-232l. Applications for provisional ballots. (a) An individual may apply for and be issued a provisional ballot if (1) the individual appears at the polling place and declares that such individual is an elector in the town in which the individual desires to vote and that the individual is eligible to vote in the primary or election for federal office in the polling place, but the name of the individual does not appear on the official registry list for such polling place, and (2) the registrars determine that such name cannot be restored under section 9-42 or transferred from another polling place under section 9-35.

      (b) If the moderator decides that an elector, whose name appears on the registry list and who has been challenged pursuant to sections 9-232 to 9-232f, inclusive, is not eligible to vote in the primary or election for federal office, such elector may apply for and cast a provisional ballot upon the execution of a written affirmation by the elector at the polling place affirming that the elector is qualified to vote in the election or primary for federal office in the polling place and has neither offered himself to vote nor voted in person or by absentee ballot at said election or primary for federal office at the polling place.

      (c) Such application for provisional ballot shall be prescribed by the Secretary of the State, executed before an election official and include a written affirmation, under penalty of false statement in absentee balloting pursuant to section 9-359a, which shall be in the form substantially as follows:

      AFFIRMATION: I, the undersigned, do hereby state, under penalties of false statement, that:

      1. I am an elector in the town indicated.

      2. I am eligible to vote in the election or primary indicated for federal office today in the town and polling place indicated.

      3.a. My name does not appear on the official list of eligible voters for the polling place indicated, and the polling place officials called the registrars of voters and were told that my name did not appear on the active registry list for this town for at least one of the four years previous or on one of the preliminary active registry lists for this year; or

      b. The moderator decided that I am not eligible to vote for federal office in the town indicated for the reason of disfranchisement, lack of identity, lack of bona fide residence or failure to present the prescribed identification required for new electors after January 1, 2003, indicated.

      4. My residence address is located in the voting district that this polling place serves.

      5. I have not voted and I will not vote otherwise than by this ballot in person or by absentee ballot at this election or primary for federal office.

      6. I apply for a provisional ballot for federal office.

      (June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 86.)

      History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 effective January 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 9-232m. Casting of provisional ballots. Upon receipt of an application for provisional ballot, the moderator shall provide the applicant with a provisional ballot and a serially-numbered envelope and shall make a record of such issuance on the provisional ballot inventory form. The applicant shall forthwith mark the ballot in the presence of a polling place official in such manner that the official shall not know how the ballot is marked. The applicant shall then fold the ballot in the presence of the polling place official so as to conceal the markings and deposit and seal it in the serially-numbered envelope in the manner prescribed by the Secretary of the State. The polling place official shall provide such documentation to the elector so the elector may later verify whether the elector's provisional ballot was counted, and shall deposit the provisional ballot and envelope in the provisional ballot depository envelope. The elector shall then immediately leave the room. The registrars of voters shall provide a free access system restricted to the elector who cast the ballot to verify if the provisional ballot was counted, and if the ballot was not counted, the reason that the ballot was not counted.

      (June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 87.)

      History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 effective January 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 9-232n. Determination of eligibility of provisional ballot applicants to vote. Report. Corrected return. Immediately after the close of the polls, the moderator shall seal the provisional ballot depository envelope and deliver such envelope to the registrars of voters of the town. The registrars of voters shall forthwith verify the information contained with each provisional ballot. If the registrars of voters determine that the applicant is eligible to vote, they shall note their decision on the outer envelope of the ballot and open and count the provisional ballot in accordance with the provisions of sections 9-232i to 9-232o, inclusive, and procedures prescribed by the Secretary of the State. If the registrars of voters are unable to determine that the applicant is eligible to vote or determine that the applicant is not eligible to vote, the applicant's provisional ballot sealed envelope shall be marked "rejected", along with the reason for such rejection, and signed by the registrars of voters. The registrars of voters shall verify and count all provisional ballots in their town not later than six days after the election or primary. The registrars of voters shall forthwith prepare and sign in duplicate a report showing the number of provisional ballots received from electors, the number rejected and the number counted, and showing the additional votes counted for each candidate for federal office on the provisional ballots. The registrars of voters shall file one report with the town clerk and shall seal one in the depository envelope with the provisional ballots and file such depository envelope with the town clerk. The depository envelope shall be preserved by the town clerk for the period of time required to preserve counted absentee ballots for federal elections. The head moderator shall forthwith file a corrected return for federal offices with the town clerk and the Secretary showing (1) the final votes after any recanvass, pursuant to sections 9-311 to 9-311b, inclusive, the votes on provisional ballots and the totals, and (2) the number of provisional ballots received from electors, the number rejected and the number counted, as reported by the registrars of voters.

      (June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 88; P.A. 04-74, S. 2.)

      History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 effective January 1, 2004; P.A. 04-74 changed references to sections applicable to the opening and counting of provisional ballots, effective May 10, 2004.

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      Sec. 9-232o. Counting of provisional ballots. Except as otherwise provided by the general statutes, section 9-23r and sections 9-232i to 9-232o, inclusive, the provisions of the general statutes concerning procedures relating to counting absentee ballots shall apply as nearly as may be, in the manner prescribed by the Secretary of the State, to counting the provisional ballots under sections 9-232i to 9-232o, inclusive.

      (June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 89.)

      History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 effective January 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 9-233. Voting tabulator tenders. Prior to each election, the registrars of voters of each town shall appoint, for each voting tabulator to be used at such election, at least one and not more than two electors of such town as a voting tabulator tender, unless the registrars of voters have established two shifts for election officials under the provisions of section 9-258a, in which case the registrars shall appoint at least one and not more than two electors to be voting tabulator tenders, for each voting tabulator, for each shift.

      (1953, S. 710d; 1969, P.A. 500, S. 2; P.A. 83-391, S. 15, 24; P.A. 07-194, S. 18.)

      History: 1969 act provided for appointment of voting machine tenders by registrars for each shift established; P.A. 83-391 permitted registrars to appoint one or two voting machine tenders per machine, rather than one as previously; P.A. 07-194 made technical changes and replaced "voting machine tender" with "voting tabulator tender".

      See Sec. 9-249 re instruction of election officials in use of voting machine.

      See Sec. 9-267 re removal of voting machine tenders for incompetence.


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      Sec. 9-234. Presence of registrars. Checkers. Each registrar shall be present during the taking of the vote at any regular or special state or municipal election in his town or district. The assistants in their respective districts shall, when requested by either registrar, be present at the taking of any such vote and discharge the duties of registrars. Each registrar shall appoint some suitable person to check the list in each district, unless the municipality has established two shifts for election officials under the provisions of section 9-258a, in which case each such registrar shall appoint one such person for each district for each shift. Each such person, who is so appointed checker, shall check the name of each elector thereon when he offers his vote, and no voting machine tender shall permit any vote to be cast upon the voting machine until the name has been so checked.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1069; 1953, S. 711d; 1969, P.A. 500, S. 3.)

      History: 1969 act provided for appointment of checkers for each established shift.

      See Sec. 9-267 re removal of checkers for incompetence.

      Registry list is evidence of domicile and the checking thereof of fact of voting; overruling 21 C. 101. 67 C. 459.

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      Sec. 9-235. Unofficial checkers. (a) At least forty-eight hours prior to each election to be held in a municipality, each registrar of voters in such municipality may appoint for each line of electors in each voting district therein, to serve as unofficial checkers, not more than four electors enrolled in the party with which the registrar is enrolled, provided a registrar may establish two or more shifts for unofficial checkers, in which case such registrar may appoint not more than four such unofficial checkers for each line of electors in each district for each shift. The persons so appointed shall be designees of the town chairman of the party with which such registrar is enrolled, provided such town chairman shall submit the names of such designees in writing to such registrar at least forty-eight hours before the election. A registrar of voters shall, at the request of the town chairman of the party with which such registrar is enrolled, change such appointments of designees of such town chairman, at any time before the closing of the polls on the day of an election.

      (b) Except for rows of candidates entitled to unofficial checkers under subsection (a) of this section, each group of three or more electors whose names appear in one single row on the voting machine ballot label in a voting district, may designate not more than two electors of the town in which the voting district is located, to serve as unofficial checkers on behalf of the candidates whose names appear in such row. Such candidates shall submit a list of the names of such designees to the registrars of voters at least forty-eight hours prior to the election. The registrars shall verify that each such designee is an elector of the town and shall appoint not more than two such designees to serve each such row of candidates. The registrars shall, at the request of such a group of three or more electors, change such designations at any time before the closing of the polls on the day of an election.

      (c) If such designation is not so made with respect to unofficial checkers for any voting district at an election, such registrar may appoint for such district not more than four electors of his own choice to serve as unofficial checkers, provided a registrar may establish two or more shifts for unofficial checkers, in which case such registrar may appoint not more than four such unofficial checkers for each line of electors in each district for each shift, such appointment to be made at least twenty-four hours before the election, provided any candidates entitled to unofficial checkers under subsection (b) of this section are deemed to have waived their rights under this section if names of designees are not filed in a timely manner.

      (d) No candidate for an office in an election may be an unofficial checker at such election. In municipalities divided into two voting districts in which registrars are elected for each district, such appointments may be made by the registrars in each district. Such unofficial checkers may remain within the polling place for the purpose of checking their own copy of the registry list to indicate the names of electors who have voted, and may enter and leave the restricted area surrounding the polling place during the hours of election or referendum for the purpose of taking such information outside said area or may communicate such information from the polling place by means of telephones provided by the party for which such checkers were appointed. If any such unofficial checker interferes with the orderly process of voting or attempts to influence any elector, he shall be evicted by the moderator. An unofficial checker appointed pursuant to this section may receive compensation from the municipality in which the election is held.

      (e) At least forty-eight hours before the opening of the polls at a referendum, the registrars of voters may jointly appoint for each voting district not more than eight electors of the town to serve as unofficial checkers, provided the registrars notify (1) each committee and person on whose behalf a political committee statement of organization or a certificate of exemption has been filed for the referendum with the town clerk in accordance with chapter 155 and (2) each other group known to be for and each other group known to be against the referendum issue, of the right of such committee, person or group to submit designees to the registrars of voters. Any person for or against a referendum question may request consideration for such appointment by notifying the registrars of voters at least forty-eight hours before the opening of the polls at the referendum, indicating his position on the referendum question. The registrars may appoint designees of one side alone if the other side chooses not to submit designees. A list of the names of persons who request such appointment and persons, groups or committees who are notified pursuant to this subsection shall be maintained by the registrars as a public record. If there are no requests or submissions for such appointments, the registrars shall not appoint any such unofficial checkers.

      (f) No election or referendum official shall perform the functions of an unofficial checker pursuant to this section.

      (1957, P.A. 494, S. 1; 1963, P.A. 498; 1969, P.A. 500, S. 4; 1971, P.A. 97, S. 1; P.A. 75-271; 75-488, S. 1, 3; P.A. 83-391, S. 16, 24; P.A. 87-471, S. 1; P.A. 88-173, S. 1; P.A. 93-384, S. 14; P.A. 95-171, S. 9, 14.)

      History: 1963 act changed time limit for appointing party checkers from 24 to 48 hours prior to election and increased number from two to four and authorized party chairmen to designate whom they wished to have serve; 1969 act provided for appointment of party checkers for each established shift; 1971 act provided for use of telephones provided by the party for use of party checkers; P.A. 75-271 changed term "party" to "unofficial" checkers, provided for unofficial checkers for groups having three or more names on single row on the ballot label and provided that no unofficial checkers receive compensation from the municipality in which election was held, for performing this function; P.A. 75-488 added references to checkers for each "line" of electors; P.A. 83-391 amended section to permit compensation of unofficial checkers and added Subsec. (e) prohibiting election officials from performing the functions of unofficial checkers; P.A. 87-471 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to authorize changes in appointments or designations of unofficial checkers; P.A. 88-173 amended Subsecs. (a) and (c) to allow a registrar to establish two or more shifts for unofficial checkers where previously two shifts for election officials under the provisions of Sec. 9-258a were permitted; P.A. 93-384 inserted "of designees of such town chairman" in last sentence of Subsec. (a), inserted new Subsec. (e) authorizing registrars to appoint unofficial checkers at a referendum and relettered former Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (f), adding reference to referendum officials; P.A. 95-171 amended Subsec. (d) by adding "two" re municipalities divided into voting districts, effective January 8, 1997.

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      Sec. 9-235a. Temporary absence of election officials. The provisions of this title requiring the attendance of election officials at the polls during the hours of voting at any election shall not be construed to prevent the absence of any such official for periods of not more than thirty minutes during such hours, provided such official shall first notify the moderator of his intention to be absent, and the moderator shall designate another election official of the same party as the absent official to act for him during his absence. If the moderator intends to be absent for any such period, he shall designate another election official to act for him during his absence. The provisions of this title requiring the attendance of election officials at the polls during the hours of voting at any election shall not be construed to prevent the appointment of (1) such election officials, except for moderators, to serve in two shifts as provided for in section 9-258a, upon vote of the legislative body, or (2) unofficial checkers to serve in two or more shifts as provided in section 9-235.

      (1959, P.A. 534; 1963, P.A. 318, S. 2; 1969, P.A. 500, S. 5; P.A. 88-173, S. 2.)

      History: 1963 act provided that moderator may designate another election official to act for him during his temporary absence; 1969 act provided that this section not be construed to prevent appointments to a second shift provided for in Sec. 9-258a; P.A. 88-173 added Subdiv. (2) re unofficial checkers.

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      Sec. 9-235b. Runners. At any election or primary, any person may serve as a runner solely to enter and leave a polling place and the restricted area surrounding the polling place for the purpose of taking outside the polling place and said area, information identifying electors who have cast ballots at such election or primary. Each runner shall be subject to the control of the moderator. No candidate in such election or primary may perform the functions of a runner pursuant to this section. Nothing in this section shall limit the responsibilities of an unofficial checker. If a runner interferes with the orderly process of voting, causes a disturbance or makes unreasonable noise, he shall be evicted by the moderator.

      (P.A. 87-471, S. 2.)

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      Sec. 9-235c. Voluntary service by election, primary or referendum officials. Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes to the contrary or of any special act, charter or ordinance, any election, primary or referendum official may serve on a voluntary basis without compensation, if such official and the registrars of voters or, in the case of a primary, the registrar of voters of the party conducting the primary, mutually agree.

      (P.A. 92-1, S. 2, 8.)

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      Sec. 9-235d. Citizens sixteen or seventeen years of age authorized to serve as election or primary officials. Requirements. (a) Notwithstanding any provision of sections 9-233, 9-235 and 9-258 to the contrary, a United States citizen who is sixteen or seventeen years of age and a bona fide resident of a town may be (1) appointed as a challenger or unofficial checker in an election, or (2) appointed as a checker, translator or voting machine tender in an election after (A) attending poll worker training, and (B) receiving the written permission of a parent, guardian or the principal of the school that the citizen attends if the citizen is a secondary school student and the citizen is to be appointed to work on a day when such school is in session.

      (b) Notwithstanding any provision of section 9-436 or 9-436a to the contrary, a United States citizen who is sixteen or seventeen years of age and a bona fide resident of a town or political subdivision holding a primary may be (1) appointed as a challenger or candidate checker in the primary, or (2) appointed as a checker, translator or voting machine tender in a primary after (A) attending poll worker training, and (B) receiving the written permission of a parent, guardian or the principal of the school that the citizen attends if the citizen is a secondary school student and the citizen is to be appointed to work on a day when such school is in session.

      (P.A. 93-384, S. 9; P.A. 97-67, S. 8, 9; P.A. 03-108, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 97-67 divided section into Subsecs., authorized appointments of unofficial and candidate checkers as checkers in subsequent elections and primaries, respectively, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 03-108 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to insert Subdiv. (1) designator, delete prior experience requirement for challengers and unofficial or candidate checkers, and insert Subdiv. (2) re appointment as a checker, translator or voting machine tender, effective July 1, 2003.

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      Sec. 9-236. Activities prohibited in and near polling place; distance markers; entry restricted; exceptions. (a) On the day of any primary, referendum or election, no person shall solicit on behalf of or in opposition to the candidacy of another or himself or on behalf of or in opposition to any question being submitted at the election or referendum, or loiter or peddle or offer any advertising matter, ballot or circular to another person within a radius of seventy-five feet of any outside entrance in use as an entry to any polling place or in any corridor, passageway or other approach leading from any such outside entrance to such polling place or in any room opening upon any such corridor, passageway or approach, except as provided in section 9-294. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to prohibit (1) parent-teacher associations or parent-teacher organizations from holding bake sales or other fund-raising activities on the day of any primary, referendum or election in any school used as a polling place, provided such sales or activities shall not be held in the room in which the election booths are located, (2) the registrars of voters from directing the officials at a primary, referendum or election to distribute, within the restricted area, adhesive labels on which are imprinted the words "I Voted Today", or (3) the registrars of voters in a primary, election or referendum from jointly permitting nonpartisan activities to be conducted in a room other than the room in which the election booths are located. The registrars may jointly impose such conditions and limitations on such nonpartisan activity as deemed necessary to ensure the orderly process of voting. The moderator shall evict any person who in any way interferes with the orderly process of voting.

      (b) (1) The selectmen shall provide suitable markers to indicate the seventy-five-foot distance from such entrance. Such markers shall consist of a board resting on an iron rod, which board shall be not less than twelve inches square and painted a bright color and shall bear the figures and letters "75 feet" and the following words: "On the day of any primary, referendum or election no person shall solicit in behalf of or in opposition to another or himself or peddle or offer any ballot, advertising matter or circular to another person or loiter within a radius of seventy-five feet of any outside entrance in use as an entry to any polling place or in any corridor, passageway or other approach leading from any such outside entrance to such polling place or in any room opening upon any such corridor, passageway or approach."

      (2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subdivision (1) of this subsection, the selectmen may provide the markers required by the provisions of this subsection in effect prior to October 1, 1983, except that in the case of a referendum which is not held in conjunction with an election or a primary, the selectmen shall provide the markers required by subdivision (1) of this subsection.

      (3) The moderator and the moderator's assistants shall meet at least twenty minutes before the opening of a primary, referendum or an election in the voting district, and shall cause to be placed by a police officer or constable, or such other primary or election official as they select, a suitable number of distance markers. Such moderator or any police officer or constable shall prohibit loitering and peddling of tickets within that distance.

      (c) No person except those permitted or exempt under this section or section 9-236a and primary or election officials and party checkers appointed under section 9-235 shall be allowed within any polling place except for the purpose of casting his vote. Representatives of the news media shall be allowed to enter, remain within and leave any polling place or restricted area surrounding any polling place to observe the election, provided any such representative who in any way interferes with the orderly process of voting shall be evicted by the moderator. A number of students in grades four to twelve, inclusive, not to exceed four at any one time in any one polling place, may enter any polling place between twelve o'clock noon and three o'clock p.m. for the purpose of observing the activities taking place in the polling place, provided there is proper parental or teacher supervision present, and provided further, any such student who in any way interferes with the orderly process of voting shall be evicted by the moderator. An elector may be accompanied into any polling place by one or more children who are fifteen years of age or younger and supervised by the elector if the elector is the parent or legal guardian of such children. Any person who violates any provision of this section or, while the polls are open for voting, removes or injures any such distance marker, shall be fined not more than fifty dollars or imprisoned not more than three months, or both.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1068; 1953, 1955, June, 1955, S. 712d; November, 1955, S. N113; 1957, P.A. 494, S. 2; 1969, P.A. 65; 799; P.A. 73-410, S. 1, 2; P.A. 78-153, S. 29, 32; P.A. 79-370; P.A. 81-434, S. 1; P.A. 83-147; P.A. 87-251, S. 1; P.A. 89-286, S. 1, 3; P.A. 93-384, S. 1; P.A. 94-203, S. 8, 12; P.A. 97-154, S. 1, 27; P.A. 10-32, S. 23.)

      History: 1969 acts provided for admission of representatives of news media to any polling place at discretion of moderator and provided that parent-teacher associations or organizations may hold bake sales or other fund raising activities on an election or primary day in a school used as a polling place provided that the activity not take place in room where election booths are located; P.A. 73-410 expanded rights of representatives of news media to remain within and to leave polling places to observe the election, further provided for eviction of such representatives by moderator if in any way they interfere with voting; P.A. 78-153 prohibited placement of advertising matter related directly or indirectly to election or primary on municipally-owned property, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-370 provided for admission of no more than four, at any one time, junior or senior high school students to a polling place between hours of noon and three p.m. for purpose of observation and also provided for eviction in case of interference; P.A. 81-434 eliminated a prohibition against placing political advertising matter on municipally-owned property on the day of a primary or election; P.A. 83-147 applied the provisions of this section to referenda and allowed selectmen to use markers required by this section prior to October 1, 1983, in certain circumstances; P.A. 87-251 allowed children 10 years of age or younger to accompany an elector into a polling place; P.A. 89-286 allowed students in grades four to twelve, inclusive, instead of junior and senior high school students only, to enter polling place "between twelve o'clock noon and three o'clock p.m." instead of "during the hours of twelve o'clock noon and three o'clock p.m." and, when allowed by registrars of voters, for purposes of Sec. 9-236a; P.A. 93-384 authorized distribution of "I Voted Today" labels in restricted area; P.A. 94-203 inserted "or in opposition to" and moved a reference to Sec. 9-236a, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 97-154 divided section into Subsecs., amended Subsec. (a) by inserting Subdiv. numbers and adding Subdiv. (3) re nonpartisan activities in a room other than the room in which election booths are located, and amended Subsec. (c) to increase maximum age of children who may accompany an elector into polling place from 10 years to 15 years, and to add proviso that such elector be the parent or legal guardian of such children, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 10-32 made technical changes, effective May 10, 2010.

      Cited. 129 C. 503.

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      Sec. 9-236a. Spare voting machine or ballot box for educational use of students. Any town, on its own initiative or upon a request by the Secretary of the State, and with the approval of the legislative body of the town or, in the case of a town in which the legislative body is a town meeting, the board of selectmen, may require a spare voting machine or ballot box to be provided inside any polling place or in a room adjacent to the polling place, for the educational use of students from kindergarten to grade twelve, inclusive. Upon such approval, the registrars shall establish procedures for the use of the machine or ballot box, including but not limited to: (1) Location and preparation of the machine or ballot box, (2) duties of machine or ballot box tenders and (3) canvassing the returns. Any such machine shall be in addition to the demonstrator or spare voting machine required by section 9-260. Ballots completed by students under this section shall be unofficial, and polling place officials shall not be required to handle or count such ballots. Each student who will be using such machine or ballot box inside a polling place or a room adjacent to the polling place shall be accompanied by an adult. The supervisor of such students for the purposes of this section shall submit the names of all adults who will be working with such students to the registrars at least forty-eight hours before the election.

      (P.A. 89-286, S. 2, 3; P.A. 94-203, S. 9, 12.)

      History: P.A. 94-203 authorized town to provide educational purpose voting mechanisms on its own initiative or upon a request by the secretary of the state, authorized the use of ballot boxes, reduced the minimum grade level for participation from fourth grade to kindergarten and added provisions re supervision, effective July 1, 1994.

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      Sec. 9-236b. Voter's Bill of Rights. Sample ballots. Voters in line when polls scheduled to close permitted to vote. Voting instructions and information. (a) The Secretary of the State shall provide each municipality with sufficient quantities of a poster size copy, at least eighteen by twenty-four inches, of a Voter's Bill of Rights, which shall be posted conspicuously at each polling place. The text of the Voter's Bill of Rights shall be:

"VOTER'S BILL OF RIGHTS

      Every registered voter in this state has the right to:

      (1) Inspect a sample ballot before voting;

      (2) Receive instructions concerning how to operate voting equipment, on sample voting equipment before voting;

      (3) Cast a ballot if the voter is in line when the polls are closing;

      (4) Ask for and receive assistance in voting, including assistance in languages other than English where required by federal or state law;

      (5) Vote free from coercion or intimidation by election officials or any other person;

      (6) Cast a ballot using voting equipment that accurately counts all votes;

      (7) Vote by provisional ballot if the individual registered to vote and the individual's name is not on the voter list;

      (8) Be informed of the process for restoring the individual's right to vote if the individual was incarcerated for a felony conviction; and

      (9) Vote independently and in privacy at a polling place, regardless of physical disability.

If any of your rights have been violated, you have the right to file an official complaint with the State Elections Enforcement Commission at .... (toll-free telephone number) or the United States Department of Justice at .... (toll-free telephone number). In addition, before leaving the polling place you may notify the moderator of the violation."

      (b) In any municipality or voting district where federal or state law requires ballots to be made available in a language or languages other than English, the Voter's Bill of Rights shall also be made available in such language or languages.

      (c) Sample ballots shall be made available at all polling places, and any voter shall be permitted to inspect a sample ballot before voting.

      (d) Any voter standing in line at a polling place at the time when polls are scheduled to close shall be permitted to vote.

      (e) For use at elections for federal office, the Secretary of the State shall prescribe and the municipal clerk shall provide for all polling places in the municipality: (1) Instructions on how to cast a provisional ballot, (2) instructions for mail-in registrants and first-time voters who register to vote by mail on or after January 1, 2003, (3) general information concerning voting rights under federal and Connecticut laws, including information on the right of an individual to cast a provisional ballot and instructions on how to contact the appropriate officials if these rights are alleged to have been violated, and (4) general information on federal and state laws concerning prohibitions on acts of fraud and misrepresentation.

      (P.A. 02-83, S. 8; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 100; P.A. 04-32, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 02-83 effective June 3, 2002; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 added Subsec. (e) re polling place voting instructions and information for use at elections for federal office, effective January 1, 2004; P.A. 04-32 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdivs. (7) to (9), inclusive, re rights to vote by provisional ballot, be informed of process for restoring right to vote if individual incarcerated for felony conviction, and vote independently and in privacy, and by adding provisions re actions that voter may take if rights have been violated, effective July 1, 2004.

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      Sec. 9-237. Display of national and state flags. A United States flag, at least three feet by five feet in size, shall be displayed, and a Connecticut state flag of the same size may be displayed, on the wall inside each polling place during the hours of voting on the day of any regular or special state election. No other international, national or United Nations flag shall be displayed in such polling place.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1131; 1953, 1955, S. 713d.)

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      Sec. 9-237a. Telephones at polling places. The registrars of voters shall provide a telephone for each polling place for the use of the election officials to aid in clarifying the status of electors whose right to vote is questioned, if a telephone is not available and readily accessible for such purpose.

      (1969, P.A. 108.)

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