CHAPTER 952
PENAL CODE: OFFENSES

Table of Contents

Sec. 53a-29. Probation and conditional discharge: Criteria; periods.
Sec. 53a-30. Conditions of probation and conditional discharge.
Sec. 53a-38. Calculation of terms of imprisonment.
Sec. 53a-39. Reduction of sentence or discharge of defendant by sentencing court or judge. Statement by victim.
Sec. 53a-40e. Standing criminal restraining order.
Sec. 53a-44a. Surcharge on fine for criminal trespass or criminal mischief on public land.
Sec. 53a-46a. Imposition of sentence for capital felony. Hearing. Special verdict. Mitigating and aggravating factors. Factors barring death sentence.
Sec. 53a-46b. Review of death sentence.
Sec. 53a-49. Criminal attempt: Sufficiency of conduct; renunciation as defense.
Sec. 53a-54a. Murder.
Sec. 53a-54b. Capital felony.
Sec. 53a-55a. Manslaughter in the first degree with a firearm: Class B felony: Five years not suspendable.
Sec. 53a-59. Assault in the first degree: Class B felony: Nonsuspendable sentences.
Sec. 53a-70. Sexual assault in the first degree: Class B or A felony.
Sec. 53a-92. Kidnapping in the first degree: Class A felony.
Sec. 53a-97. Custodial interference in the first degree: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-98. Custodial interference in the second degree: Class A misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-100. Definitions.
Sec. 53a-101. Burglary in the first degree: Class B felony.
Sec. 53a-103. Burglary in the third degree: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-107. Criminal trespass in the first degree: Class A misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-108. Criminal trespass in the second degree: Class B misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-109. Criminal trespass in the third degree: Class C misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-115. Criminal mischief in the first degree: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-116. Criminal mischief in the second degree: Class A misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-117. Criminal mischief in the third degree: Class B misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-117a. Criminal mischief in the fourth degree: Class C misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-119. Larceny defined.
Sec. 53a-134. Robbery in the first degree: Class B felony.
Sec. 53a-167a. Interfering with an officer: Class A misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-167b. Failure to assist a peace officer, special policeman or firefighter: Class A misdemeanor.
Sec. 53a-167c. Assault of public safety or emergency medical personnel.
Sec. 53a-174b. Conveyance or use of electronic wireless communication device in correctional institution.
Sec. 53a-216. Criminal use of firearm or electronic defense weapon: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-217. Criminal possession of a firearm or electronic defense weapon: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-217c. Criminal possession of a pistol or revolver: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-223. (Formerly Sec. 53a-110b). Criminal violation of a protective order: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-223b. Criminal violation of a restraining order: Class D felony.
Sec. 53a-290. "Vendor fraud" defined.

PART II
SENTENCES AND SENTENCING PROCEDURE

      Sec. 53a-29. Probation and conditional discharge: Criteria; periods. (a) The court may sentence a person to a period of probation upon conviction of any crime, other than a class A felony, if it is of the opinion that: (1) Present or extended institutional confinement of the defendant is not necessary for the protection of the public; (2) the defendant is in need of guidance, training or assistance which, in his case, can be effectively administered through probation supervision; and (3) such disposition is not inconsistent with the ends of justice.

      (b) The court may impose a sentence of conditional discharge for an offense, other than a class A felony, if it is of the opinion that: (1) Present or extended institutional confinement of the defendant is not necessary for the protection of the public; and (2) probation supervision is not appropriate.

      (c) When the court imposes a sentence of conditional discharge the defendant shall be released with respect to the conviction for which the sentence is imposed but shall be subject, during the period of such conditional discharge, to such conditions as the court may determine. The court shall impose the period of conditional discharge authorized by subsection (d) of this section and shall specify, in accordance with section 53a-30, the conditions to be complied with. When a person is sentenced to a period of probation the court shall impose the period authorized by subsection (d) of this section and may impose any conditions authorized by section 53a-30. When a person is sentenced to a period of probation, he shall pay to the court a fee of two hundred dollars and shall be placed under the supervision of the Court Support Services Division.

      (d) The period of probation or conditional discharge, unless terminated sooner as provided in section 53a-32 or 53a-33, shall be as follows: (1) For a felony, except as provided in subsection (e) of this section, not more than five years; (2) for a class A misdemeanor, not more than three years; (3) for a class B misdemeanor, not more than two years; (4) for a class C misdemeanor, not more than one year; and (5) for an unclassified misdemeanor, not more than one year if the authorized sentence of imprisonment is three months or less, or not more than two years if the authorized sentence of imprisonment is in excess of three months, or where the defendant is charged with failure to provide subsistence for dependents, a determinate or indeterminate period.

      (e) The period of probation, unless terminated sooner as provided in section 53a-32, shall be not less than ten years or more than thirty-five years for conviction of a violation of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21 or section 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-70b, 53a-71, 53a-72a, 53a-72b, 53a-90a, 53a-196b, 53a-196c, 53a-196d, 53a-196e or 53a-196f.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 29; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 124, 129; P.A. 79-585, S. 8, 15; P.A. 89-219, S. 6, 10; P.A. 92-260, S. 12; P.A. 93-340, S. 12, 19; P.A. 95-142, S. 2; P.A. 01-84, S. 14, 26; P.A. 02-132, S. 30; P.A. 04-139, S. 8; P.A. 05-288, S. 181.)

      History: 1971 act repealed former Subsec. (e) requiring probation officer to make recommendation as to advisability of continuing probation after probationer has been on probation for a year and allowing person on probation to be heard by court with respect to continuance or discontinuance of probation; P.A. 79-585 replaced commission on adult probation with office of adult probation in Subsec. (c); P.A. 89-219 amended Subsec. (c) to require a person sentenced to a period of probation to pay to the court a fee of two hundred dollars; P.A. 92-260 amended Subsec. (c) to make technical changes and amended Subsec. (d) to replace "hereinafter provided" with "provided in section 53a-32 or 53a-33" and to replace in Subdiv. (5) "less than three months" with "three months or less"; P.A. 93-340 amended Subsec. (d) to add exception in Subdiv. (1) re Subsec. (e) and added Subsec. (e) to authorize a period of probation of not more than thirty-five years for conviction of a sexual assault under certain circumstances, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-142 amended Subsec. (e) to delete reference to an early termination of probation as provided in Sec. 53a-33, establish a minimum period of probation of ten years, include a violation of Subdiv. (2) of Sec. 53-21 and delete the provisions that limited the applicability of the Subsec. to where the conviction is of a second or subsequent violation or the defendant was eighteen years of age or older and the victim was under thirteen years of age; P.A. 01-84 amended Subsec. (e) to replace reference to "subdivision (2) of section 53-21" with "subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21", effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-132 amended Subsec. (c) by replacing "Office of Adult Probation" with "Court Support Services Division" and making a technical change; P.A. 04-139 amended Subsec. (e) to include a violation of Sec. 53a-90a, 53a-196b, 53a-196c, 53a-196d, 53a-196e or 53a-196f; P.A. 05-288 made technical changes in Subsec. (e), effective July 13, 2005.

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      Sec. 53a-30. Conditions of probation and conditional discharge. (a) When imposing sentence of probation or conditional discharge, the court may, as a condition of the sentence, order that the defendant: (1) Work faithfully at a suitable employment or faithfully pursue a course of study or of vocational training that will equip the defendant for suitable employment; (2) undergo medical or psychiatric treatment and remain in a specified institution, when required for that purpose; (3) support the defendant's dependents and meet other family obligations; (4) make restitution of the fruits of the defendant's offense or make restitution, in an amount the defendant can afford to pay or provide in a suitable manner, for the loss or damage caused thereby and the court may fix the amount thereof and the manner of performance; (5) if a minor, (A) reside with the minor's parents or in a suitable foster home, (B) attend school, and (C) contribute to the minor's own support in any home or foster home; (6) post a bond or other security for the performance of any or all conditions imposed; (7) refrain from violating any criminal law of the United States, this state or any other state; (8) if convicted of a misdemeanor or a felony, other than a capital felony, a class A felony or a violation of section 21a-278, 21a-278a, 53a-55, 53a-56, 53a-56b, 53a-57, 53a-58 or 53a-70b or any offense for which there is a mandatory minimum sentence which may not be suspended or reduced by the court, and any sentence of imprisonment is suspended, participate in an alternate incarceration program; (9) reside in a residential community center or halfway house approved by the Commissioner of Correction, and contribute to the cost incident to such residence; (10) participate in a program of community service labor in accordance with section 53a-39c; (11) participate in a program of community service in accordance with section 51-181c; (12) if convicted of a violation of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21, section 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-70b, 53a-71, 53a-72a or 53a-72b, undergo specialized sexual offender treatment; (13) if convicted of a criminal offense against a victim who is a minor, a nonviolent sexual offense or a sexually violent offense, as defined in section 54-250, or of a felony that the court finds was committed for a sexual purpose, as provided in section 54-254, register such person's identifying factors, as defined in section 54-250, with the Commissioner of Public Safety when required pursuant to section 54-251, 54-252 or 54-253, as the case may be; (14) be subject to electronic monitoring; (15) if convicted of a violation of section 46a-58, 53-37a, 53a-181j, 53a-181k or 53a-181l, participate in an anti-bias crime education program; (16) if convicted of a violation of section 53-247, undergo psychiatric or psychological counseling or participate in an animal cruelty prevention and education program provided such a program exists and is available to the defendant; or (17) satisfy any other conditions reasonably related to the defendant's rehabilitation. The court shall cause a copy of any such order to be delivered to the defendant and to the probation officer, if any.

      (b) When a defendant has been sentenced to a period of probation, the Court Support Services Division may require that the defendant comply with any or all conditions which the court could have imposed under subsection (a) of this section which are not inconsistent with any condition actually imposed by the court.

      (c) At any time during the period of probation or conditional discharge, after hearing and for good cause shown, the court may modify or enlarge the conditions, whether originally imposed by the court under this section or otherwise, and may extend the period, provided the original period with any extensions shall not exceed the periods authorized by section 53a-29. The court shall cause a copy of any such order to be delivered to the defendant and to the probation officer, if any.

      (d) The period of participation in an alternate incarceration program, unless terminated sooner, shall not exceed the period of probation authorized by section 53a-29 or two years, whichever is less.

      (e) The court may require that the person subject to electronic monitoring pursuant to subsection (a) of this section pay directly to the electronic monitoring service provider a fee for the cost of such electronic monitoring services. If the court finds that the person subject to electronic monitoring is indigent and unable to pay the costs of electronic monitoring services, it shall waive such costs. Any contract entered into by the judicial branch and the electronic monitoring service provider shall include a provision stating that the total cost for electronic monitoring services shall not exceed five dollars per day. Such amount shall be indexed annually to reflect the rate of inflation.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 30; 1971, P.A. 781, S. 1; P.A. 73-231; P.A. 78-188, S. 4, 8; P.A. 79-585, S. 9, 15; P.A. 82-298, S. 8; P.A. 86-403, S. 88, 132; P.A. 89-383, S. 4, 16; 89-390, S. 19, 37; P.A. 90-213, S. 4, 56; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-9, S. 4, 10; P.A. 93-340, S. 13, 19; P.A. 94-128, S. 1, 3; P.A. 95-142, S. 3; P.A. 97-199, S. 3; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-11, S. 62, 65; P.A. 99-183, S. 12, 13; P.A. 00-72, S. 5, 12; 00-141, S. 1; 01-84, S. 15, 26; P.A. 02-132, S. 31; P.A. 03-208, S. 1; P.A. 05-288, S. 182.)

      History: 1971 act authorized court to order defendant to reside in residential community center and contribute to costs; P.A. 73-231 authorized court to order that defendant shall reside in a halfway house approved by commissioner of correction; P.A. 78-188 restated Subdiv. (4) in Subsec. (a) and required offender to submit to restitution investigation if necessary; P.A. 79-585 replaced commission on adult probation with office of adult probation in Subsec. (b); P.A. 82-298 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting provision re restitution investigation as provided in Sec. 54-110a; P.A. 86-403 made technical change in Subsec. (c), substituting "conditional discharge" for "conditional release"; P.A. 89-383 amended Subsec. (a) to add a new Subdiv. (8) authorizing the court to order certain defendants to participate in an alternate incarceration program, renumbering the remaining Subdivs. accordingly, and added Subsec. (d) limiting the period of participation in an alternate incarceration program, effective July 5, 1989, to July 1, 1994; P.A. 89-390 amended Subsec. (a) to add a new Subdiv. (9) authorizing the court to order the defendant to participate in a program of special alternative incarceration in accordance with Sec. 53a-39b, renumbering the remaining Subdiv. accordingly; P.A. 90-213 amended Subsec. (a) to add a new Subdiv. (11) authorizing the court to order the defendant to participate in a program of community service labor in accordance with Sec. 53a-39c, renumbering the remaining Subdiv. accordingly; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-9 amended Subsec. (a) to eliminate former Subdiv. (9) authorizing court to order defendant to participate in a program of special alternative incarceration in accordance with Sec. 53a-39b, renumbering remaining Subdivs. accordingly; P.A. 93-340 amended Subsec. (a) to add a new Subdiv. (11) authorizing the court to order the defendant to undergo specialized sexual offender treatment when convicted of sexual assault under certain circumstances, renumbering the remaining Subdiv. accordingly, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-128 negated effect of P.A. 89-383 which had discontinued alternative incarceration program as of July 1, 1994, and reenacted and continued existence of section, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 95-142 amended Subdiv. (11) of Subsec. (a) to include a violation of Subdiv. (2) of Sec. 53-21 and delete provisions that limited the applicability of said Subdiv. to where the conviction is of a second or subsequent violation or the defendant was eighteen years of age or older and the victim was under thirteen years of age; P.A. 97-199 amended Subsec. (a) by adding new Subdiv. (11) re participation in program of community service and by renumbering existing Subdivs. (11) and (12) as Subdivs. (12) and (13), respectively; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-11 changed effective date of P.A. 97-199 from October 1, 1997, to July 1, 1997, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 99-183 amended Subsec. (a) by adding new Subdiv. (13) re registration of identifying factors with the Commissioner of Public Safety by certain sexual offenders and renumbering existing Subdiv. (13) as Subdiv. (14), effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 00-72 amended Subsec. (a) by adding new provision, designated as Subdiv. (15), re participation in an anti-bias crime education program and making technical changes, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 00-141 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes and add Subdiv. (14) re electronic monitoring, and added Subsec. (e) re electronic monitoring services; P.A. 01-84 amended Subsec. (a)(12) to replace reference to "subdivision (2) of section 53-21" with "subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53-21", effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-132 amended Subsec. (b) by replacing "Office of Adult Probation" with "Court Support Services Division" and making a technical change; P.A. 03-208 amended Subsec. (a) by adding new Subdiv. (16) re counseling or participation in an animal cruelty prevention and education program for defendant convicted of a violation of Sec. 53-247 and redesignating existing Subdiv. (16) as Subdiv. (17); P.A. 05-288 made a technical change in Subsec. (e), effective July 13, 2005.

      Subsec. (b):

      Probation officer could not enter into agreement with defendant that would have been in direct contradiction to a condition of probation imposed by sentencing court. 86 CA 657.

      Subsec. (c):

      Probation officer did not have authority to modify original conditions of probation ordered by sentencing court. 86 CA 657.

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      Sec. 53a-38. Calculation of terms of imprisonment.

      Subsec. (b):

      Where habeas corpus petitioner was convicted and sentenced on separate charges in April and September of same year, and the September sentence was to run concurrent to the April sentence, petitioner's September sentence began to run in September, because that is when he was "received in the custody to which he was sentenced". 274 C. 563.

      Subsec. (c):

      Proper method for calculating terms of imprisonment discussed. 90 CA 460.

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      Sec. 53a-39. Reduction of sentence or discharge of defendant by sentencing court or judge. Statement by victim.

      Subsec. (a):

      "Definite sentence" is intended to have same meaning in both this subsec. and Sec. 54-125e and does not include a period of special parole. 272 C. 72.

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      Sec. 53a-40e. Standing criminal restraining order. (a) If any person is convicted of a violation of section 53a-59, 53a-59a, 53a-60, 53a-60a, 53a-60b, 53a-60c, 53a-70, 53a-70a, 53a-70b, 53a-71, 53a-72a, 53a-72b, 53a-181c, 53a-181d, 53a-181e or 53a-223, or of attempt or conspiracy to violate any of said sections or section 53a-54a, against a family or household member, as defined in subdivision (2) of section 46b-38a, the court may, in addition to imposing the sentence authorized for the crime under section 53a-35a, if the court is of the opinion that the history and character and the nature and circumstances of the criminal conduct of such offender indicate that a standing criminal restraining order will best serve the interest of the victim and the public, issue a standing criminal restraining order which shall remain in effect until modified or revoked by the court for good cause shown.

      (b) Such standing criminal restraining order may include but is not limited to enjoining the offender from (1) imposing any restraint upon the person or liberty of the victim; (2) threatening, harassing, assaulting, molesting, sexually assaulting or attacking the victim; or (3) entering the family dwelling or the dwelling of the victim.

      (c) Every standing criminal restraining order of the court made in accordance with this section shall contain the following language: "This order shall remain in effect until modified or revoked by the court for good cause shown. In accordance with section 53a-223a, violation of a standing criminal restraining order issued by the court pursuant to subsection (a) of this section shall be punishable by a term of imprisonment of not less than one year nor more than five years, a fine of not more than five thousand dollars or both."

      (P.A. 96-228, S. 1; P.A. 98-15; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 41, 121; P.A. 99-186, S. 13; P.A. 05-147, S. 2.)

      History: (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (c) the reference in public act 96-228 to "section 1 of this act" was deemed by the Revisors to be a reference to section 2 of that act and therefore codified as "section 53a-110c"); P.A. 98-15 amended Subsec. (a) to add references to Secs. 53a-181c, 53a-181d and 53a-181e; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective June 24, 1998; P.A. 99-186 amended Subsec.(a) to make provisions applicable to any person convicted "of attempt or conspiracy to violate any of said sections or section 53a-54a"; P.A. 05-147 amended Subsec. (a) to include a violation of Sec. 53a-223 and make a technical change.

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      Sec. 53a-44a. Surcharge on fine for criminal trespass or criminal mischief on public land. Whenever any person is convicted of a violation of subdivision (4) of subsection (a) of section 53a-107, subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 53a-108, subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of section 53a-109, subdivision (5) of subsection (a) of section 53a-115, subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of section 53a-116, subdivision (3) or (4) of subsection (a) of section 53a-117 or subdivision (3) or (4) of subsection (a) of section 53a-117a, the court, in addition to imposing any fine authorized by section 53a-41 or 53a-42 for such violation, shall impose a surcharge in an amount equal to fifty per cent of such fine. Any such surcharge collected shall be payable to the municipality in which the arrest was made unless the arresting law enforcement authority was a conservation officer, special conservation officer or patrolman appointed by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection under authority of section 26-5, in which case such surcharge shall be payable to the Department of Environmental Protection.

      (P.A. 05-234, S. 9.)

      History: P.A. 05-234 effective January 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 53a-46a. Imposition of sentence for capital felony. Hearing. Special verdict. Mitigating and aggravating factors. Factors barring death sentence.

      Statutory scheme does not contemplate right of allocution in a capital sentencing hearing. 272 C. 106. Once one or more jurors find that defendant has proven existence of a mitigating factor by a preponderance of the evidence, entire jury, and not just those jurors who have found the existence of that mitigating factor, proceed to the weighing process. Id. Nonunanimous decision during penalty phase of a capital trial does not result automatically in sentence of life imprisonment without the possibility of release. Id. Trial court improperly declined to instruct jury that, in order to sentence defendant to death, it must be persuaded beyond a reasonable doubt that aggravating factor or factors outweigh mitigating factor or factors and that, accordingly, it is persuaded beyond a reasonable doubt that death is the appropriate punishment. Id.

      Subsec. (b):

      Provision does not preclude trial court's declaring a mistrial and impaneling new jury after original jury becomes deadlocked in penalty phase of a capital case. 271 C. 338.

      Subsec. (c):

      Although defendant may offer any evidence relevant to any mitigating factor, trial court is vested with discretion to exclude irrelevant information. 272 C. 106.

      Subsec. (d):

      "Facts and circumstances" language is a constitutionally permissible method of determining how mitigating circumstances are to be established. Nowhere does statute require that mitigating evidence have some nexus to the offense. 272 C. 106.

      Subsec. (i):

      Principles of accessorial liability may be used to prove aggravating factors in the penalty phase of a capital case. 271 C. 338. Subdiv. (3): In order to establish this aggravating factor state must prove that defendant knew that in killing one person, another person would be subject to a very serious risk or danger to his or her life. Id. Subdiv. (4) requires proof that defendant engaged in intentional conduct that inflicted extreme physical or psychological pain, suffering or torture on victim above and beyond that necessarily accompanying the underlying killing, and that defendant specifically intended to inflict such extreme pain, suffering or torture or was callous or indifferent to the extreme physical or psychological pain, suffering or torture that his intentional conduct in fact inflicted on victim. 272 C. 106.

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      Sec. 53a-46b. Review of death sentence.

      Subsec. (b):

      Court stayed proceedings pending review. 272 C. 674. Subsec. does not create nonwaivable right to mandatory sentence review by Connecticut Supreme Court of any and all claims that death sentence was "the product of passion, prejudice or any other arbitrary factor," regardless of the time and manner in which claim was raised. Court is not required to impose moratorium on execution of death sentences whenever an unproven claim of systemic arbitrariness in administration of death penalty scheme is raised. Id., 676.

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PART III
INCHOATE OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-49. Criminal attempt: Sufficiency of conduct; renunciation as defense.

      Jury was within its right to conclude that defendant, armed with dangerous instrument, entered apartment unlawfully with intent to commit a robbery, but once inside, did not do anything which constituted a substantial step in a course of conduct planned to culminate in a robbery or that he abandoned his attempt. 87 CA 251.

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PART IV
HOMICIDE

      Sec. 53a-54a. Murder.

      Trial court did not improperly exclude proffered evidence re defendant's claim of intoxication at time of murder. 91 CA 169.

      Subsec. (a):

      Specifically provides for intent to be transferred from the target of defendant's conduct to an unintended victim. 273 C. 393.

      Permits conviction of manslaughter in the first degree with a firearm under Sec. 53a-55a regardless of extreme emotional disturbance defense. 86 CA 784.

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      Sec. 53a-54b. Capital felony.

      Trial court properly instructed jury that it could convict defendant of capital felony based upon a theory of conspiratorial liability even though defendant did not pull trigger of gun that killed victims and was not present when the shootings occurred. 271 C. 338.

      Subdiv. (8):

      Legislature had rational basis for classifying intentional murder of a person under the age of sixteen as a capital felony. 272 C. 106.

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      Sec. 53a-55a. Manslaughter in the first degree with a firearm: Class B felony: Five years not suspendable.

      Sec. 53a-54a(a) permits conviction under this section regardless of extreme emotional disturbance defense. 86 CA 784.

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PART V
ASSAULT AND RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-59. Assault in the first degree: Class B felony: Nonsuspendable sentences.

      Subsec. (a):

      Defendant who was not perpetrator of physical assaults on child and who was neither a parent nor a legal guardian could not be criminally liable for assault in the first degree in violation of Subdiv. (3). Accordingly, defendant's conviction of two counts of that crime were reversed and case remanded for resentencing on remaining charge of risk of injury to a child. 274 C. 727.

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PART VI
SEX OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-70. Sexual assault in the first degree: Class B or A felony.

      Subsec. (b):

      Issue of whether victims were less than ten years of age was a question for jury to decide during guilt phase of trial except in this case, where court decided issue of age in sentencing process, error was harmless beyond a reasonable doubt. 271 C. 499.

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PART VII
KIDNAPPING AND RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-92. Kidnapping in the first degree: Class A felony.

      Subsec. (a):

      Kidnapping in the first degree statute was unconstitutionally vague as applied to facts of defendant's case. 91 CA 47.

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      Sec. 53a-97. Custodial interference in the first degree: Class D felony.

      Language of the statute standing alone provided defendant with fair notice of the illegality of his conduct at the time of his actions. 272 C. 762.

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      Sec. 53a-98. Custodial interference in the second degree: Class A misdemeanor.

      Language of the statute standing alone provided defendant with fair notice of the illegality of his conduct at the time of his actions. 272 C. 762.

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PART VIII
BURGLARY, CRIMINAL TRESPASS, ARSON,
CRIMINAL MISCHIEF AND RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-100. Definitions. (a) The following definitions are applicable to this part: (1) "Building" in addition to its ordinary meaning, includes any watercraft, aircraft, trailer, sleeping car, railroad car or other structure or vehicle or any building with a valid certificate of occupancy. Where a building consists of separate units, such as, but not limited to separate apartments, offices or rented rooms, any unit not occupied by the actor is, in addition to being a part of such building, a separate building; (2) "dwelling" means a building which is usually occupied by a person lodging therein at night, whether or not a person is actually present; (3) "night" means the period between thirty minutes after sunset and thirty minutes before sunrise; and (4) "public land" means a state park, state forest or municipal park or any other publicly-owned land that is open to the public for active or passive recreation.

      (b) The following definition is applicable to sections 53a-101 to 53a-106, inclusive: A person "enters or remains unlawfully" in or upon premises when the premises, at the time of such entry or remaining, are not open to the public and when the actor is not otherwise licensed or privileged to do so.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 102; P.A. 74-186, S. 10, 12; P.A. 79-570, S. 7; P.A. 92-260, S. 40; P.A. 05-234, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 74-186 included railroad cars in definition of "building"; P.A. 79-570 included buildings "with a valid certificate of occupancy" in definition of "building"; P.A. 92-260 made a technical change in definition of "building"; P.A. 05-234 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (4) defining "public land", effective January 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 53a-101. Burglary in the first degree: Class B felony.

      Jury was within its right to conclude that defendant, armed with dangerous instrument, entered apartment unlawfully with intent to commit a robbery, but once inside, did not do anything which constituted a substantial step in a course of conduct planned to culminate in a robbery or that he abandoned his attempt. 87 CA 251.

      Subsec. (a):

      Trial court correctly permitted jury to consider charge of burglary in the third degree as lesser included offense of burglary in the first degree. State was not collaterally estopped from prosecuting defendant for burglary in the first degree. 275 C. 192.

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      Sec. 53a-103. Burglary in the third degree: Class D felony.

      Trial court correctly permitted jury to consider charge of burglary in the third degree as lesser included offense of burglary in the first degree. State was not colleterally estopped from prosecuting defendant for burglary in the first degree. 275 C. 192.

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      Sec. 53a-107. Criminal trespass in the first degree: Class A misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of criminal trespass in the first degree when: (1) Knowing that such person is not licensed or privileged to do so, such person enters or remains in a building or any other premises after an order to leave or not to enter personally communicated to such person by the owner of the premises or other authorized person; or (2) such person enters or remains in a building or any other premises in violation of a restraining order issued pursuant to section 46b-15 or a protective order issued pursuant to section 46b-38c, 54-1k or 54-82r by the Superior Court; or (3) such person enters or remains in a building or any other premises in violation of a foreign order of protection, as defined in section 46b-15a, that has been issued against such person in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person; or (4) knowing that such person is not licensed or privileged to do so, such person enters or remains on public land after an order to leave or not to enter personally communicated to such person by an authorized official of the state or a municipality, as the case may be.

      (b) Criminal trespass in the first degree is a class A misdemeanor.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 109; P.A. 80-58; P.A. 91-381, S. 2; P.A. 92-260, S. 43; P.A. 95-214, S. 4; P.A. 99-240, S. 5; P.A. 03-98, S. 3; P.A. 05-147, S. 3; 05-234, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 80-58 added Subdiv. (2) in Subsec. (a) specifying that entering or remaining in building or other premises in violation of a restraining order is criminal trespass in the first degree; P.A. 91-381 amended Subsec. (a) by adding "pursuant to section 46b-15 or a protective order issued pursuant to section 46b-38c" after "issued"; P.A. 92-260 made technical changes in Subsec. (a) by replacing references to "such person" with "he" or "him" as appropriate; P.A. 95-214 amended Subsec. (a) to include in Subdiv. (2) a protective order issued pursuant to Sec. 54-1k; P.A. 99-240 amended Subsec. (a) to include in Subdiv. (2) a protective order issued pursuant to Sec. 54-82r and to make provisions gender neutral; P.A. 03-98 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdiv. (3) re entry or remaining in a building or other premises in violation of a foreign order of protection; P.A. 05-147 amended Subsec. (a)(3) to delete the requirement that the foreign order of protection has been issued "after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person"; P.A. 05-234 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdiv. (4) re entry or remaining on public land, effective January 1, 2006.

      See Sec. 53a-44a re surcharge on fine for trespass on public land.

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      Sec. 53a-108. Criminal trespass in the second degree: Class B misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of criminal trespass in the second degree when, knowing that such person is not licensed or privileged to do so, (1) such person enters or remains in a building, or (2) such person enters or remains on public land.

      (b) Criminal trespass in the second degree is a class B misdemeanor.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 110; P.A. 05-234, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 05-234 amended Subsec. (a) to designate existing provision re entry or remaining in a building as Subdiv. (1), add Subdiv. (2) re entry or remaining on public land and make technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, effective January 1, 2006.

      See Sec. 53a-44a re surcharge on fine for trespass on public land.

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      Sec. 53a-109. Criminal trespass in the third degree: Class C misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of criminal trespass in the third degree when, knowing that such person is not licensed or privileged to do so: (1) Such person enters or remains in premises which are posted in a manner prescribed by law or reasonably likely to come to the attention of intruders or are fenced or otherwise enclosed in a manner designed to exclude intruders, or which belong to the state and are appurtenant to any state institution; or (2) such person enters or remains in any premises for the purpose of hunting, trapping or fishing; or (3) such person enters or remains on public land which is posted in a manner prescribed by law or reasonably likely to come to the attention of intruders or is fenced or otherwise enclosed in a manner designed to exclude intruders.

      (b) Criminal trespass in the third degree is a class C misdemeanor.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 111; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 20; P.A. 92-260, S. 44; P.A. 05-234, S. 3.)

      History: 1971 act added Subdiv. (2) in Subsec. (a) specifying that person's entering or remaining in premises for purpose of hunting, trapping or fishing although he knows he is not licensed or privileged to do so is criminal trespass in the third degree; P.A. 92-260 made technical changes and deleted redundant language in Subsec. (a); P.A. 05-234 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (3) re entry or remaining on public land which is posted or is fenced or otherwise enclosed and to make technical changes, effective January 1, 2006.

      See Sec. 53a-44a re surcharge on fine for trespass on public land.

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      Sec. 53a-115. Criminal mischief in the first degree: Class D felony. (a) A person is guilty of criminal mischief in the first degree when: (1) With intent to cause damage to tangible property of another and having no reasonable ground to believe that such person has a right to do so, such person damages tangible property of another in an amount exceeding one thousand five hundred dollars, or (2) with intent to cause an interruption or impairment of service rendered to the public and having no reasonable ground to believe that such person has a right to do so, such person damages or tampers with tangible property of a utility or mode of public transportation, power or communication, and thereby causes an interruption or impairment of service rendered to the public, or (3) with intent to cause damage to any electronic monitoring equipment owned or leased by the state or its agent and required as a condition of probation or conditional discharge pursuant to section 53a-30, as a condition of release pursuant to section 54-64a or as a condition of community release pursuant to section 18-100c, and having no reasonable ground to believe that such person has a right to do so, such person damages such electronic monitoring equipment and thereby causes an interruption in its ability to function, or (4) with intent to cause an interruption or impairment of service rendered to the public and having no reasonable ground to believe that such person has a right to do so, such person damages or tampers with (A) any tangible property owned by the state, a municipality or a person for fire alarm or police alarm purposes, (B) any telecommunication system operated by the state police or a municipal police department, (C) any emergency medical or fire service dispatching system, (D) any fire suppression equipment owned by the state, a municipality, a person or a fire district, or (E) any fire hydrant or hydrant system owned by the state or a municipality, a person, a fire district or a private water company, or (5) with intent to cause damage to tangible property owned by the state or a municipality that is located on public land and having no reasonable ground to believe that such person has a right to do so, such person damages such tangible property in an amount exceeding one thousand five hundred dollars.

      (b) Criminal mischief in the first degree is a class D felony.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 117; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 21; P.A. 83-330, S. 1; P.A. 92-260, S. 48; P.A. 00-141, S. 4; P.A. 01-8; P.A. 05-234, S. 4.)

      History: 1971 act added Subdiv. (3) in Subsec. (a) re tampering with fire or police alarms; P.A. 83-330 amended Subdiv. (3) of Subsec. (a) to designate damaging or tampering with fire or police alarms as Subpara. (A) and to add Subparas. (B) to (E) re damaging or tampering with telecommunication systems, emergency medical or fire service dispatching systems, fire suppression equipment and fire hydrants or hydrant systems; P.A. 92-260 made technical changes in Subsec. (a); P.A. 00-141 amended Subsec. (a) by making technical changes, adding new Subdiv. (3) re intentional damage to electronic monitoring equipment and redesignating former Subdiv. (3) as Subdiv. (4); P.A. 01-8 amended Subsec. (a)(3) to include damage to electronic monitoring equipment required as a condition of community release pursuant to Sec. 18-100c; P.A. 05-234 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (5) re damage to tangible property owned by the state or a municipality located on public land in an amount exceeding one thousand five hundred dollars, effective January 1, 2006.

      See Sec. 53a-44a re surcharge on fine for criminal mischief on public land.

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      Sec. 53a-116. Criminal mischief in the second degree: Class A misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of criminal mischief in the second degree when: (1) With intent to cause damage to tangible property of another and having no reasonable ground to believe that such person has a right to do so, such person damages tangible property of another in an amount exceeding two hundred fifty dollars; or (2) with intent to cause an interruption or impairment of service rendered to the public and having no reasonable ground to believe that such person has a right to do so, such person damages or tampers with tangible property of a public utility or mode of public transportation, power or communication, and thereby causes a risk of interruption or impairment of service rendered to the public; or (3) with intent to cause damage to tangible property owned by the state or a municipality that is located on public land and having no reasonable ground to believe that such person has a right to do so, such person damages such tangible property in an amount exceeding two hundred fifty dollars.

      (b) Criminal mischief in the second degree is a class A misdemeanor.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 118; P.A. 05-234, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 05-234 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (3) re damage to tangible property owned by the state or a municipality located on public land in an amount exceeding two hundred fifty dollars and make technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, effective January 1, 2006.

      See Sec. 53a-44a re surcharge on fine for criminal mischief on public land.

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      Sec. 53a-117. Criminal mischief in the third degree: Class B misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of criminal mischief in the third degree when, having no reasonable ground to believe that such person has a right to do so, such person: (1) Intentionally or recklessly (A) damages tangible property of another, or (B) tampers with tangible property of another and thereby causes such property to be placed in danger of damage; or (2) damages tangible property of another by negligence involving the use of any potentially harmful or destructive force or substance, including, but not limited to, fire, explosives, flood, avalanche, collapse of building, poison gas or radioactive material; or (3) intentionally or recklessly (A) damages tangible property owned by the state or a municipality that is located on public land, or (B) tampers with tangible property owned by the state or a municipality that is located on public land and thereby causes such property to be placed in danger of damage; or (4) damages tangible property owned by the state or a municipality that is located on public land by negligence involving the use of any potentially harmful or destructive force or substance, including, but not limited to, fire, explosives, flood, avalanche, collapse of building, poison gas or radioactive material.

      (b) Criminal mischief in the third degree is a class B misdemeanor.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 119; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 22; P.A. 05-234, S. 6.)

      History: 1971 act specified that use of harmful or destructive force or substance is "not limited to" fire, explosives, etc. in Subsec. (a)(2); P.A. 05-234 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (3) re intentionally or recklessly damaging or tampering with tangible property owned by the state or a municipality located on public land, add Subdiv. (4) re damaging or tampering with tangible property owned by the state or a municipality located on public land by negligence involving the use of any potentially harmful or destructive force or substance and make technical changes, effective January 1, 2006.

      See Sec. 53a-44a re surcharge on fine for criminal mischief on public land.

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      Sec. 53a-117a. Criminal mischief in the fourth degree: Class C misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of criminal mischief in the fourth degree when, having no reasonable ground to believe such person has a right to do so, such person intentionally or recklessly (1) damages or tampers with any fire hydrant or hydrant system owned by the state or a municipality, fire district or private water company; or (2) damages, tampers with or removes any tangible property owned by the state, a municipality or a person for fire alarm, smoke detection and alarm, fire suppressant or police alarm purposes; or (3) damages or tampers with any fire hydrant or hydrant system owned by the state or a municipality that is located on public land; or (4) damages, tampers with or removes any tangible property owned by the state or a municipality that is located on public land for fire alarm, smoke detection and alarm, fire suppressant or police alarm purposes.

      (b) Criminal mischief in the fourth degree is a class C misdemeanor.

      (P.A. 83-330, S. 2; P.A. 84-546, S. 125, 173; P.A. 85-132; P.A. 05-234, S. 7.)

      History: P.A. 84-546 changed "public alarm purposes" to "police alarm purposes"; P.A. 85-132 amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) by prohibiting removal of any of the specified property and by including property used for smoke detection and alarm or fire suppressant purposes; P.A. 05-234 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (3) re damaging or tampering with any fire hydrant or hydrant system owned by the state or a municipality located on public land, add Subdiv. (4) re damaging, tampering with or removing any tangible property owned by the state or a municipality located on public land for fire alarm, smoke detection and alarm, fire suppressant or police alarm purposes and make technical changes, effective January 1, 2006.

      See Sec. 53a-44a re surcharge on fine for criminal mischief on public land.

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PART IX
LARCENY, ROBBERY AND RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-119. Larceny defined. A person commits larceny when, with intent to deprive another of property or to appropriate the same to himself or a third person, he wrongfully takes, obtains or withholds such property from an owner. Larceny includes, but is not limited to:

      (1) Embezzlement. A person commits embezzlement when he wrongfully appropriates to himself or to another property of another in his care or custody.

      (2) Obtaining property by false pretenses. A person obtains property by false pretenses when, by any false token, pretense or device, he obtains from another any property, with intent to defraud him or any other person.

      (3) Obtaining property by false promise. A person obtains property by false promise when, pursuant to a scheme to defraud, he obtains property of another by means of a representation, express or implied, that he or a third person will in the future engage in particular conduct, and when he does not intend to engage in such conduct or does not believe that the third person intends to engage in such conduct. In any prosecution for larceny based upon a false promise, the defendant's intention or belief that the promise would not be performed may not be established by or inferred from the fact alone that such promise was not performed.

      (4) Acquiring property lost, mislaid or delivered by mistake. A person who comes into control of property of another that he knows to have been lost, mislaid, or delivered under a mistake as to the nature or amount of the property or the identity of the recipient is guilty of larceny if, with purpose to deprive the owner thereof, he fails to take reasonable measures to restore the property to a person entitled to it.

      (5) Extortion. A person obtains property by extortion when he compels or induces another person to deliver such property to himself or a third person by means of instilling in him a fear that, if the property is not so delivered, the actor or another will: (A) Cause physical injury to some person in the future; or (B) cause damage to property; or (C) engage in other conduct constituting a crime; or (D) accuse some person of a crime or cause criminal charges to be instituted against him; or (E) expose a secret or publicize an asserted fact, whether true or false, tending to subject some person to hatred, contempt or ridicule; or (F) cause a strike, boycott or other collective labor group action injurious to some person's business; except that such a threat shall not be deemed extortion when the property is demanded or received for the benefit of the group in whose interest the actor purports to act; or (G) testify or provide information or withhold testimony or information with respect to another's legal claim or defense; or (H) use or abuse his position as a public servant by performing some act within or related to his official duties, or by failing or refusing to perform an official duty, in such manner as to affect some person adversely; or (I) inflict any other harm which would not benefit the actor.

      (6) Defrauding of public community. A person is guilty of defrauding a public community who (A) authorizes, certifies, attests or files a claim for benefits or reimbursement from a local, state or federal agency which he knows is false; or (B) knowingly accepts the benefits from a claim he knows is false; or (C) as an officer or agent of any public community, with intent to prejudice it, appropriates its property to the use of any person or draws any order upon its treasury or presents or aids in procuring to be allowed any fraudulent claim against such community. For purposes of this subdivision such order or claim shall be deemed to be property.

      (7) Theft of services. A person is guilty of theft of services when: (A) With intent to avoid payment for restaurant services rendered, or for services rendered to him as a transient guest at a hotel, motel, inn, tourist cabin, rooming house or comparable establishment, he avoids such payment by unjustifiable failure or refusal to pay, by stealth, or by any misrepresentation of fact which he knows to be false; or (B) (i) with intent to obtain railroad, subway, bus, air, taxi or any other public transportation service without payment of the lawful charge therefor or to avoid payment of the lawful charge for such transportation service which has been rendered to him, he obtains such service or avoids payment therefor by force, intimidation, stealth, deception or mechanical tampering, or by unjustifiable failure or refusal to pay, or (ii) with intent to obtain the use of equipment, including a motor vehicle, without payment of the lawful charge therefor, or to avoid payment of the lawful charge for such use which has been permitted him, he obtains such use or avoids such payment therefor by means of any false or fraudulent representation, fraudulent concealment, false pretense or personation, trick, artifice or device, including, but not limited to, a false representation as to his name, residence, employment, or driver's license; or (C) obtaining or having control over labor in the employ of another person, or of business, commercial or industrial equipment or facilities of another person, knowing that he is not entitled to the use thereof, and with intent to derive a commercial or other substantial benefit for himself or a third person, he uses or diverts to the use of himself or a third person such labor, equipment or facilities.

      (8) Receiving stolen property. A person is guilty of larceny by receiving stolen property if he receives, retains, or disposes of stolen property knowing that it has probably been stolen or believing that it has probably been stolen, unless the property is received, retained or disposed of with purpose to restore it to the owner. A person who accepts or receives the use or benefit of a public utility commodity which customarily passes through a meter, knowing such commodity (A) has been diverted therefrom, (B) has not been correctly registered or (C) has not been registered at all by a meter, is guilty of larceny by receiving stolen property.

      (9) Shoplifting. A person is guilty of shoplifting who intentionally takes possession of any goods, wares or merchandise offered or exposed for sale by any store or other mercantile establishment with the intention of converting the same to his own use, without paying the purchase price thereof. A person intentionally concealing unpurchased goods or merchandise of any store or other mercantile establishment, either on the premises or outside the premises of such store, shall be prima facie presumed to have so concealed such article with the intention of converting the same to his own use without paying the purchase price thereof.

      (10) Conversion of a motor vehicle. A person is guilty of conversion of a motor vehicle who, after renting or leasing a motor vehicle under an agreement in writing which provides for the return of such vehicle to a particular place at a particular time, fails to return the vehicle to such place within the time specified, and who thereafter fails to return such vehicle to the agreed place or to any other place of business of the lessor within one hundred twenty hours after the lessor shall have sent a written demand to him for the return of the vehicle by registered mail addressed to him at his address as shown in the written agreement or, in the absence of such address, to his last-known address as recorded in the records of the motor vehicle department of the state in which he is licensed to operate a motor vehicle. It shall be a complete defense to any civil action arising out of or involving the arrest or detention of any person to whom such demand was sent by registered mail that he failed to return the vehicle to any place of business of the lessor within one hundred twenty hours after the mailing of such demand.

      (11) Obtaining property through fraudulent use of an automated teller machine. A person obtains property through fraudulent use of an automated teller machine when such person obtains property by knowingly using in a fraudulent manner an automated teller machine with intent to deprive another of property or to appropriate the same to himself or a third person. In any prosecution for larceny based upon fraudulent use of an automated teller machine, the crime shall be deemed to have been committed in the town in which the machine was located. In any prosecution for larceny based upon more than one instance of fraudulent use of an automated teller machine, (A) all such instances in any six-month period may be combined and charged as one offense, with the value of all property obtained thereby being accumulated, and (B) the crime shall be deemed to have been committed in any of the towns in which a machine which was fraudulently used was located. For the purposes of this subsection, "automated teller machine" means an unmanned device at which banking transactions including, without limitation, deposits, withdrawals, advances, payments and transfers may be conducted, and includes, without limitation, a satellite device and point of sale terminal as defined in section 36a-2.

      (12) Library theft. A person is guilty of library theft when (A) he conceals on his person or among his belongings a book or other archival library materials, belonging to, or deposited in, a library facility with the intention of removing the same from the library facility without authority or without authority removes a book or other archival library materials from such library facility or (B) he mutilates a book or other archival library materials belonging to, or deposited in, a library facility, so as to render it unusable or reduce its value. The term "book or other archival library materials" includes any book, plate, picture, photograph, engraving, painting, drawing, map, manuscript, document, letter, public record, microform, sound re:CHY:cording, audiovisual material in any format, magnetic or other tape, electronic data-processing record, artifact or other documentary, written or printed material regardless of physical form or characteristics, or any part thereof, belonging to, on loan to, or otherwise in the custody of a library facility. The term "library facility" includes any public library, any library of an educational institution, organization or society, any museum, any repository of public records and any archives.

      (13) Conversion of leased property. (A) A person is guilty of conversion of leased personal property who, with the intent of converting the same to his own use or that of a third person, after renting or leasing such property under an agreement in writing which provides for the return of such property to a particular place at a particular time, sells, conveys, conceals or aids in concealing such property or any part thereof, and who thereafter fails to return such property to the agreed place or to any other place of business of the lessor within one hundred ninety-two hours after the lessor shall have sent a written demand to him for the return of the property by registered or certified mail addressed to him at his address as shown in the written agreement, unless a more recent address is known to the lessor. (B) Any person, being in possession of personal property other than wearing apparel, received upon a written lease, who, with intent to defraud, sells, conveys, conceals or aids in concealing such property, or any part thereof, shall be prima facie presumed to have done so with the intention of converting such property to his own use. (C) A person who uses a false or fictitious name or address in obtaining such leased personal property shall be prima facie presumed to have obtained such leased personal property with the intent of converting the same to his own use or that of a third person. (D) "Leased personal property", as used in this subdivision, means any personal property received pursuant to a written contract, by which one owning such property, the lessor, grants to another, the lessee, the right to possess, use and enjoy such personal property for a specified period of time for a specified sum.

      (14) Failure to pay prevailing rate of wages. A person is guilty of failing to pay the prevailing rate of wages when he (A) files a certified payroll, in accordance with section 31-53 which he knows is false, in violation of section 53a-157a, and (B) fails to pay to an employee or to an employee welfare fund the amount attested to in the certified payroll with the intent to convert such amount to his own use or to the use of a third party.

      (15) Theft of utility service. A person is guilty of theft of utility service when he intentionally obtains electric, gas, water, telecommunications, wireless radio communications or community antenna television service that is available only for compensation: (A) By deception or threat or by false token, slug or other means including, but not limited to, electronic or mechanical device or unauthorized use of a confidential identification or authorization code or through fraudulent statements, to avoid payment for the service by himself or another person; or (B) by tampering or making connection with or disconnecting the meter, pipe, cable, conduit, conductor, attachment or other equipment or by manufacturing, modifying, altering, programming, reprogramming or possessing any device, software or equipment or part or component thereof or by disguising the identity or identification numbers of any device or equipment utilized by a supplier of electric, gas, water, telecommunications, wireless radio communications or community antenna television service, without the consent of such supplier, in order to avoid payment for the service by himself or another person; or (C) with intent to avoid payment by himself or another person for a prospective or already rendered service the charge or compensation for which is measured by a meter or other mechanical measuring device provided by the supplier of the service, by tampering with such meter or device or by attempting in any manner to prevent such meter or device from performing its measuring function, without the consent of the supplier of the service. There shall be a rebuttable presumption that the person to whom the service is billed has the intent to obtain the service and to avoid making payment for the service if, without the consent of the supplier of the service: (i) Any meter, pipe, cable, conduit, conductor, attachment or other equipment has been tampered with or connected or disconnected, (ii) any device, software or equipment or part or component thereof has been modified, altered, programmed, reprogrammed or possessed, (iii) the identity or identification numbers of any device or equipment utilized by the supplier of the service have been disguised, or (iv) a meter or other mechanical measuring device provided by the supplier of the service has been tampered with or prevented from performing its measuring function. The presumption does not apply if the person to whose service the condition applies has received such service for less than thirty-one days or until the service supplier has made at least one meter or service reading and provided a billing statement to the person as to whose service the condition applies. The presumption does not apply with respect to wireless radio communications.

      (16) Air bag fraud. A person is guilty of air bag fraud when such person, with intent to defraud another person, obtains property from such other person or a third person by knowingly installing or reinstalling any object in lieu of an air bag that was designed in accordance with federal safety requirements as provided in 49 CFR 571.208, as amended, and which is proper for the make, model and year of the vehicle, as part of the vehicle inflatable restraint system.

      (17) Theft of motor fuel. A person is guilty of theft of motor fuel when such person (A) delivers or causes to be delivered motor fuel, as defined in section 14-327a, into the fuel tank of a vehicle or into a portable container, or into both, on the premises of a retail dealer, as defined in section 14-318, and (B) with the intent to appropriate such motor fuel to himself or a third person, leaves such premises without paying the purchase price for such motor fuel.

      (18) Failure to repay surplus Citizens' Election Fund grant funds. A person is guilty of failure to repay surplus Citizens' Election Fund grant funds when such person fails to return to the Citizens' Election Fund any surplus funds from a grant made pursuant to sections 9-700 to 9-716, inclusive, not later than ninety days after the primary or election for which the grant is made.

      (1969, P.A. 828, S. 121; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 24; 1972, P.A. 188, S. 1, 2; P.A. 73-639, S. 21; P.A. 75-225; P.A. 76-109; P.A. 79-268; P.A. 81-224; 81-263, S. 1; P.A. 83-417, S. 1; P.A. 84-248, S. 1; 84-301, S. 1; 84-546, S. 161, 173; P.A. 85-339, S. 1; P.A. 91-162, S. 17, 18; P.A. 92-260, S. 49; P.A. 93-392, S. 5; P.A. 95-246, S. 1; P.A. 01-36; P.A. 03-201, S. 1; 03-278, S. 105; Oct. 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-5, S. 50.)

      History: 1971 act deleted "Committing the crime of" preceding actual crimes in Subdivs. (6) to (8), specified actions which constitute theft of services or receiving stolen property in Subdivs. (7) and (8), deleting references to those crimes as defined in Secs. 53a-120 and 53a-126 respectively, and added Subdiv. (9) re shoplifting; 1972 act added Subpara. (B) in Subdiv. (7)(2) re fraud in avoiding payment for use of equipment, including motor vehicles and added Subdiv. (10) re conversion of motor vehicle; P.A. 73-639 revised Subdiv. (10) to clarify title of crime where previously crime described was simply referred to as larceny; P.A. 75-225 deleted provision in Subdiv. (3) which required that finding be based on evidence establishing that case facts and circumstances are "wholly consistent with guilty intent or belief and wholly inconsistent with innocent intent or belief", and that evidence excludes "to a moral certainty every hypothesis except that of the defendant's intention or belief that the promise would not be performed"; P.A. 76-109 applied provisions of Subdiv. (7) to community antenna television service; P.A. 79-268 specified applicability of Subdiv. (7)(3) re "gas, electricity, water and steam service" for consistency with Subdiv. (7)(5); P.A. 81-224 amended Subdiv. (8) to include receiving the use or benefit of public utility services which have been diverted from or incorrectly registered on a meter as larceny by receiving stolen property; P.A. 81-263 amended Subdiv. (6) by adding the provision that a person is guilty of defrauding a public community who authorizes or files a false claim for benefits from a local, state or federal agency or accepts the benefits from a false claim; P.A. 83-417 added Subdiv. (11) re obtaining property through fraudulent use of an automatic teller machine; P.A. 84-248 added Subdiv. (12) defining crime of library theft and the Revisors editorially added a subdivision catchline to conform with previously existing Subdivs.; P.A. 84-301 amended Subdiv. (11) by replacing "automatic" with "automated", adding provisions re prosecution for larceny based upon more than one instance of fraudulent use, and adding definition of "automated teller machine"; P.A. 84-546 made technical change in Subdiv. (12); P.A. 85-339 added Subdiv. (13) re conversion of leased personal property; P.A. 91-162 amended Subdiv. (13) to delete refusal to return leased personal property or failure to return leased personal property to a certain place within a certain time as elements of the offense of conversion of leased personal property in order to protect consumers leasing personal property under consumer rent-to-own agreements, as defined in Sec. 42-240a, from being charged with the offense of conversion of leased personal property upon their refusal or failure to return such property to the lessor; P.A. 92-260 made a technical change in Subdiv. (6) and made technical changes in Subpara. indicators in Subdivs. (6) to (8), inclusive; P.A. 93-392 added Subdiv. (14) re failure to pay prevailing rate of wages; P.A. 95-246 amended Subdiv. (7) to delete Subpara. (C) re theft of gas, electricity, water, steam, telecommunication or community antenna service, Subpara. (D) re tampering with a meter or measuring device to avoid payment for service the charge or compensation of which is measured by such meter or device and Subpara. (E) re tampering with the equipment of a supplier of gas, electricity, water, steam, telephone or community antenna television service, relettering former Subpara. (F) as Subpara. (C), and added Subdiv. (15) re theft of utility service; (Revisors's note: In 1999 the words in Subdiv. (8)(C) "as not been registered" were replaced editorially by the Revisors with "has not been registered" to correct a clerical error); P.A. 01-36 added Subdiv. (16) re air bag fraud (Revisor's note: In Subdiv. (16), the heading "Air bag fraud." was added editorially by the Revisors following "(16)" to conform the format of this new subdivision with the format of Subdivs. (1) to (15), inclusive, each of which was enacted with a descriptive heading); P.A. 03-201 added Subdiv. (17) re theft of motor fuel; P.A. 03-278 made technical changes in Subdiv. (11), effective July 9, 2003; Oct. 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-5 added Subdiv. (18) re failure to repay surplus Citizens' Election Fund grant funds, effective December 31, 2006, and applicable to elections held on or after that date.

      See Sec. 9-717 re effect of court of competent jurisdiction's prohibiting or limiting the expenditure of funds from the Citizens' Election Fund established in Sec. 9-701.

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      Sec. 53a-134. Robbery in the first degree: Class B felony.

      Jury was within its right to conclude that defendant, armed with dangerous instrument, entered apartment unlawfully with intent to commit a robbery, but once inside, did not do anything which constituted a substantial step in a course of conduct planned to culminate in a robbery or that he abandoned his attempt. 87 CA 251.

      Subsec. (a):

      Subdiv. (4): There is no statutory monetary value of stolen property included as element of robbery in the first degree. 86 CA 507. Trial court did not err in permitting state to file an amended information charging defendant with robbery in the second degree in violation of Sec. 53a-135(a)(2) after trial had commenced in matter where defendant had originally been charged with robbery in the first degree in violation of Sec. 53a-134(a)(2)(3) and (4), because amended information charged lesser included offenses included within offenses that were charged in the original information, no due process violation arose. 87 CA 750.

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PART XI
BRIBERY, OFFENSES AGAINST THE ADMINISTRATION
OF JUSTICE AND OTHER RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-167a. Interfering with an officer: Class A misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of interfering with an officer when such person obstructs, resists, hinders or endangers any peace officer, special policeman appointed under section 29-18b or firefighter in the performance of such peace officer's, special policeman's or firefighter's duties.

      (b) Interfering with an officer is a class A misdemeanor.

      (1971, P.A. 871, S. 50; P.A. 76-225; P.A. 01-84, S. 11, 26; P.A. 05-180, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 76-225 reworded Subsec. (a) to eliminate redundant reference to interference with peace officer or fireman and made interference with an officer a Class A misdemeanor rather than a Class D felony; P.A. 01-84 amended Subsec. (a) to replace "fireman" with "firefighter" and make other technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 05-180 amended Subsec. (a) to include a special policeman appointed under Sec. 29-18b within purview of subsection.

      Legislature did not intend failure to identify oneself instantly and voicing of declaratory statements, such as "this isn't Russia," to constitute interference or obstruction under section. 86 CA 363. Interfering with an officer is lesser offense included in greater offense of assault of public safety personnel and thus conviction of both offenses for same act constituted double jeopardy violation. Id., 607.

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      Sec. 53a-167b. Failure to assist a peace officer, special policeman or firefighter: Class A misdemeanor. (a) A person is guilty of failure to assist a peace officer, special policeman or firefighter when, commanded by a peace officer, special policeman appointed under section 29-18b or firefighter authorized to command assistance, such person refuses to assist such peace officer, special policeman or firefighter in the execution of such peace officer's, special policeman's or firefighter's duties.

      (b) Failure to assist a peace officer, special policeman or firefighter is a class A misdemeanor.

      (1971, P.A. 871, S. 51; P.A. 01-84, S. 12, 26; P.A. 05-180, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 01-84 replaced "fireman" with "firefighter" and made other technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 05-180 changed the name of the offense from "failure to assist a peace officer or firefighter" to "failure to assist a peace officer, special policeman or firefighter" and included a special policeman appointed under Sec. 29-18b within purview of section.

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      Sec. 53a-167c. Assault of public safety or emergency medical personnel. (a) A person is guilty of assault of public safety or emergency medical personnel when, with intent to prevent a reasonably identifiable peace officer, special policeman appointed under section 29-18b, firefighter or employee of an emergency medical service organization, as defined in section 53a-3, emergency room physician or nurse, employee of the Department of Correction, member or employee of the Board of Pardons and Paroles, probation officer, employee of the judicial branch assigned to provide pretrial secure detention and programming services to juveniles accused of the commission of a delinquent act, employee of the Department of Children and Families assigned to provide direct services to children and youth in the care or custody of the department, employee of a municipal police department assigned to provide security at the police department's lockup and holding facility or active individual member of a volunteer canine search and rescue team, as defined in section 5-249, from performing his or her duties, and while such peace officer, special policeman, firefighter, employee, physician, nurse, member, probation officer or active individual member is acting in the performance of his or her duties, (1) such person causes physical injury to such peace officer, special policeman, firefighter, employee, physician, nurse, member, probation officer or active individual member, or (2) such person throws or hurls, or causes to be thrown or hurled, any rock, bottle, can or other article, object or missile of any kind capable of causing physical harm, damage or injury, at such peace officer, special policeman, firefighter, employee, physician, nurse, member, probation officer or active individual member, or (3) such person uses or causes to be used any mace, tear gas or any like or similar deleterious agent against such peace officer, special policeman, firefighter, employee, physician, nurse, member, probation officer or active individual member, or (4) such person throws or hurls, or causes to be thrown or hurled, any paint, dye or other like or similar staining, discoloring or coloring agent or any type of offensive or noxious liquid, agent or substance at such peace officer, special policeman, firefighter, employee, physician, nurse, member, probation officer or active individual member, or (5) such person throws or hurls, or causes to be thrown or hurled, any bodily fluid including, but not limited to, urine, feces, blood or saliva at such peace officer, special policeman, firefighter, employee, physician, nurse, member, probation officer or active individual member.

      (b) Assault of public safety or emergency medical personnel is a class C felony. If any person who is confined in an institution or facility of the Department of Correction is sentenced to a term of imprisonment for assault of an employee of the Department of Correction under this section, such term shall run consecutively to the term for which the person was serving at the time of the assault.

      (P.A. 73-639, S. 19; P.A. 90-157, S. 2; 90-250, S. 2; P.A. 93-246, S. 1; P.A. 94-62; P.A. 98-41; P.A. 99-26, S. 28; 99-204; P.A. 01-84, S. 13, 26; P.A. 03-6, S. 1; 03-19, S. 126; P.A. 04-234, S. 2; 04-241, S. 3; 04-257, S. 120; P.A. 05-108, S. 7; 05-180, S. 6.)

      History: P.A. 90-157 applied provisions to assaults of employees of an emergency medical service organization; P.A. 90-250 applied provisions to employees of the department of correction, specified that assault must occur while peace officer, fireman or correction department employee is acting in performance of his duties and added provision re consecutive sentences for persons sentenced for assault of correction department employees; P.A. 93-246 applied provisions to assault of an employee or member of the board of parole or probation officer; P.A. 94-62 applied the provisions to emergency room physicians and emergency room nurses; P.A. 98-41 applied provisions to an assault of an employee of the Judicial Branch assigned to provide pretrial secure detention and programming services to juveniles accused of the commission of a delinquent act or an assault of an employee of the Department of Children and Families performing duties at Long Lane School; P.A. 99-26 revised the category of employees of the Department of Children and Families to which provisions apply by replacing an employee "performing duties at Long Lane School" with an employee "assigned to provide direct services to children and youth in the care or custody of the department"; P.A. 99-204 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (5) re throwing or hurling any bodily fluid at specified personnel and changed the name of the offense to "assault of public safety or emergency medical personnel" where appearing; P.A. 01-84 replaced "fireman" with "firefighter" in Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (a) to apply provisions to assault of an employee of a municipal police department assigned to provide security at the police department's lockup and holding facility and make a technical change for the purpose of gender neutrality; P.A. 03-19 made a technical change in Subsec. (a), effective May 12, 2003; P.A. 04-234 replaced Board of Parole with Board of Pardons and Paroles, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-241 applied provisions to assaults of active individual members of volunteer canine search and rescue teams; P.A. 04-257 amended Subsec. (a) to delete reference to an employee of the Board of Parole, effective June 14, 2004; P.A. 05-108 amended Subsec. (a) to restore reference to an employee of the Board of Pardons and Paroles, effective June 7, 2005; P.A. 05-180 amended Subsec. (a) to apply provisions to assault of a special policeman appointed under Sec. 29-18b.

      Interfering with an officer is lesser offense included in greater offense of assault of public safety personnel and thus conviction of both offenses for same act constituted double jeopardy violation. 86 CA 607.

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PART XII
ESCAPE AND RELATED OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-174b. Conveyance or use of electronic wireless communication device in correctional institution. Any person not authorized by the Commissioner of Correction or the commissioner's designee who (1) conveys or possesses with intent to convey an electronic wireless communication device to any inmate of a correctional institution while such inmate is in such institution, or (2) uses an electronic wireless communication device to take a photographic or digital image in a correctional institution, shall be guilty of a class A misdemeanor.

      (P.A. 05-87, S. 1.)

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PART XXI
MISCELLANEOUS OFFENSES

      Sec. 53a-216. Criminal use of firearm or electronic defense weapon: Class D felony.

      Subsec. (a):

      Judgment reversed where defendant convicted of violation of statute and Sec. 53a-134(a)(2). 85 CA 708.

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      Sec. 53a-217. Criminal possession of a firearm or electronic defense weapon: Class D felony. (a) A person is guilty of criminal possession of a firearm or electronic defense weapon when such person possesses a firearm or electronic defense weapon and (1) has been convicted of a felony, (2) has been convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious juvenile offense, as defined in section 46b-120, (3) knows that such person is subject to (A) a restraining or protective order of a court of this state that has been issued against such person, after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person, in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, or (B) a foreign order of protection, as defined in section 46b-15a, that has been issued against such person in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, (4) knows that such person is subject to a firearms seizure order issued pursuant to subsection (d) of section 29-38c after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person, or (5) is prohibited from shipping, transporting, possessing or receiving a firearm pursuant to 18 USC 922(g)(4). For the purposes of this section, "convicted" means having a judgment of conviction entered by a court of competent jurisdiction.

      (b) Criminal possession of a firearm or electronic defense weapon is a class D felony, for which two years of the sentence imposed may not be suspended or reduced by the court.

      (P.A. 82-464, S. 1; P.A. 86-287, S. 5; P.A. 91-212; P.A. 98-129, S. 12; P.A. 99-212, S. 1; P.A. 01-130, S. 15; P.A. 03-98, S. 4; P.A. 05-147, S. 4; 05-283, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 86-287 added reference to electronic defense weapons; P.A. 91-212 replaced "pistol, revolver" with "firearm" and made technical changes; P.A. 98-129 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (2) prohibiting possession by a person who has been convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious juvenile offense; P.A. 99-212 made provisions applicable to a person convicted of any felony rather than only of a capital felony and specified class A, B, C and D felonies; P.A. 01-130 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (3) re possession by a person who knows he or she is subject to a restraining or protective order issued after notice and an opportunity to be heard in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person and add Subdiv. (4) re possession by a person who knows he or she is subject to a firearms seizure order issued pursuant to Sec. 29-38c after notice and an opportunity to be heard; P.A. 03-98 amended Subsec. (a)(3) by replacing "protective order issued by a court" with "protective order of a court of this state" and adding provisions re foreign order of protection and re order that has been issued against such person; P.A. 05-147 amended Subsec. (a)(3) to designate existing provisions re a restraining or protective order as Subpara. (A), designate existing provisions re a foreign order of protection as Subpara. (B) and amend said Subpara. (B) to delete the requirement that the foreign order of protection has been issued "after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person"; P.A. 05-283 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (5) re possession by a person who is prohibited from shipping, transporting, possessing or receiving a firearm pursuant to 18 USC 922(g)(4).

      Replica antique pistol, which fired a .44 caliber ball propelled by a black powder charge, instead of a bullet from a fixed cartridge, constituted a weapon under section; defendant's claim of implicit "antique gun exception" to prohibitions of section rejected. 49 CS 248.

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      Sec. 53a-217c. Criminal possession of a pistol or revolver: Class D felony. (a) A person is guilty of criminal possession of a pistol or revolver when such person possesses a pistol or revolver, as defined in section 29-27, and (1) has been convicted of a felony or of a violation of subsection (c) of section 21a-279 or section 53a-58, 53a-61, 53a-61a, 53a-62, 53a-63, 53a-96, 53a-175, 53a-176, 53a-178 or 53a-181d, (2) has been convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious juvenile offense, as defined in section 46b-120, (3) has been discharged from custody within the preceding twenty years after having been found not guilty of a crime by reason of mental disease or defect pursuant to section 53a-13, (4) has been confined in a hospital for persons with psychiatric disabilities, as defined in section 17a-495, within the preceding twelve months by order of a probate court, (5) knows that such person is subject to (A) a restraining or protective order of a court of this state that has been issued against such person, after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person, in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, or (B) a foreign order of protection, as defined in section 46b-15a, that has been issued against such person in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another person, (6) knows that such person is subject to a firearms seizure order issued pursuant to subsection (d) of section 29-38c after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person, (7) is prohibited from shipping, transporting, possessing or receiving a firearm pursuant to 18 USC 922(g)(4), or (8) is an alien illegally or unlawfully in the United States. For the purposes of this section, "convicted" means having a judgment of conviction entered by a court of competent jurisdiction.

      (b) Criminal possession of a pistol or revolver is a class D felony.

      (July Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 3; P.A. 98-129, S. 13; P.A. 99-212, S. 21; P.A. 03-98, S. 5; P.A. 05-147, S. 5; 05-283, S. 3.)

      History: P.A. 98-129 amended Subsec. (a) to add new Subdiv. (2) prohibiting the possession of a pistol or revolver by a person who has been convicted as delinquent for the commission of a serious juvenile offense, renumbering the remaining Subdivs. accordingly, and replaced in Subdiv. (4) "hospital for mental illness" with "hospital for persons with psychiatric disabilities"; P.A. 99-212 amended Subsec. (a) to add new Subdiv. (6) prohibiting the possession of a pistol or revolver by a person who knows that such person is subject to a firearms seizure order issued pursuant to Sec. 29-38c(d) after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person, renumbering the remaining Subdiv. accordingly, and made provisions gender neutral; P.A. 03-98 amended Subsec. (a) by making a technical change in Subdiv. (1) and replacing "protective order issued by a court" with "protective order of a court of this state" and adding provisions re foreign order of protection and re order that has been issued against such person in Subdiv. (5); P.A. 05-147 amended Subsec. (a)(5) to designate existing provisions re a restraining or protective order as Subpara. (A), designate existing provisions re a foreign order of protection as Subpara. (B) and amend said Subpara. (B) to delete the requirement that the foreign order of protection has been issued "after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person"; P.A. 05-283 amended Subsec. (a) to add new Subdiv. (7) prohibiting the possession of a pistol or revolver by a person who is prohibited from shipping, transporting, possessing or receiving a firearm pursuant to 18 USC 922 (g)(4) and to redesignate existing Subdiv. (7) as Subdiv. (8).

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      Sec. 53a-223. (Formerly Sec. 53a-110b). Criminal violation of a protective order: Class D felony.

      Annotation to former section 53a-110b:

      Section, as amended by P.A. 99-240, does not provide that validity of underlying protective order is a necessary element of that offense. 273 C. 418.

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      Sec. 53a-223b. Criminal violation of a restraining order: Class D felony. (a) A person is guilty of criminal violation of a restraining order when (1) (A) a restraining order has been issued against such person pursuant to section 46b-15, or (B) a foreign order of protection, as defined in section 46b-15a, has been issued against such person in a case involving the use, attempted use or threatened use of physical force against another, and (2) such person, having knowledge of the terms of the order, (A) does not stay away from a person or place in violation of the order, (B) contacts a person in violation of the order, (C) imposes any restraint upon the person or liberty of a person in violation of the order, or (D) threatens, harasses, assaults, molests, sexually assaults or attacks a person in violation of the order.

      (b) Criminal violation of a restraining order is a class D felony.

      (P.A. 02-127, S. 1; P.A. 03-98, S. 6; P.A. 05-147, S. 6.)

      History: P.A. 03-98 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provisions re foreign order of protection issued after notice and opportunity to be heard in a case involving use of physical force and making technical changes; P.A. 05-147 amended Subsec. (a)(1)(B) to delete the requirement that the foreign order of protection has been issued "after notice and an opportunity to be heard has been provided to such person" and amended Subsec. (b) to increase the penalty from a class A misdemeanor to a class D felony.

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PART XXIV
VENDOR FRAUD

      Sec. 53a-290. "Vendor fraud" defined. A person commits vendor fraud when, with intent to defraud and acting on such person's own behalf or on behalf of an entity, such person provides goods or services to a beneficiary under sections 17b-22, 17b-75 to 17b-77, inclusive, 17b-79 to 17b-103, inclusive, 17b-180a, 17b-183, 17b-260 to 17b-262, inclusive, 17b-264 to 17b-285, inclusive, 17b-357 to 17b-361, inclusive, 17b-600 to 17b-604, inclusive, 17b-749, 17b-807 and 17b-808 or provides services to a recipient under Title XIX of the Social Security Act, as amended, and, (1) presents for payment any false claim for goods or services performed; (2) accepts payment for goods or services performed, which exceeds either the amounts due for goods or services performed, or the amounts authorized by law for the cost of such goods or services; (3) solicits to perform services for or sell goods to any such beneficiary, knowing that such beneficiary is not in need of such goods or services; (4) sells goods to or performs services for any such beneficiary without prior authorization by the Department of Social Services, when prior authorization is required by said department for the buying of such goods or the performance of any service; or (5) accepts from any person or source other than the state an additional compensation in excess of the amount authorized by law.

      (P.A. 96-169, S. 3; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 00-2, S. 25, 53; P.A. 05-280, S. 27.)

      History: (Revisor's note: In 1997, the phrase "17b-180 to 17b-183, inclusive," was replaced editorially by the Revisors with "17b-180a, 17b-183," to reflect the repeal of Secs. 17b-180, 17b-181 and 17b-182); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 00-2 deleted reference to Sec. 17b-114, added reference to Sec. 17b-749 and made technical changes for the purpose of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 05-280 substituted "17b-361" for "17b-362" as Sec. 17b-362 was repealed by the same act, effective July 1, 2005.

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