CHAPTER 669
REGULATED ACTIVITIES

Table of Contents

Sec. 36a-645. (Formerly Sec. 36-243a). Definitions.
Sec. 36a-657. (Formerly Sec. 36-369). Suspension, revocation or refusal to renew license. Enforcement powers of commissioner.
Sec. 36a-685. (Formerly Sec. 36-415). Unenforceable agreements.
Sec. 36a-699f. Blocking of information appearing on credit report as result of identity theft.
Sec. 36a-701. Security freeze on credit report: Definitions.
Sec. 36a-701a. Consumer security freezes on credit report. Timing. Disclosure of report to third party during freeze. Procedures for freeze. Refusal by credit rating agency to implement freeze. Exceptions.
Sec. 36a-701b. Breach of security re computerized data containing personal information. Disclosure of breach. Delay for criminal investigation. Means of notice. Unfair trade practice.
Sec. 36a-705. (Formerly Sec. 36-442). Definitions.
Sec. 36a-737. (Formerly Sec. 36-445). Discrimination in making of home purchase, home improvement and mortgage loans. Applications submitted by members of reserves or National Guard.
Sec. 36a-770. (Formerly Sec. 42-83). Applicability of Uniform Commercial Code. Filing and re:CHY:cording. Definitions.
Sec. 36a-801. (Formerly Sec. 42-127a). License required. Application, issuance, renewal. Examination of records. Automatic suspension of license or renewal license. Notice. Opportunity for hearing.
Sec. 36a-804. (Formerly Sec. 42-129a). Authority of commissioner to suspend, revoke or refuse to renew license of a consumer collection agency.

PART I
CREDITORS' COLLECTION PRACTICES

      Sec. 36a-645. (Formerly Sec. 36-243a). Definitions. As used in sections 36a-645 to 36a-647, inclusive, unless the context otherwise requires:

      (1) "Consumer debtor" means any natural person residing in this state who owes a debt to a creditor.

      (2) "Creditor" means (A) any person to whom a debt is owed by a consumer debtor and such debt results from a transaction occurring in the ordinary course of such person's business, or (B) any person to whom such debt is assigned. "Creditor" shall not include a consumer collection agency, as defined in section 36a-800, or any department or agency of the United States, this state, any other state, or any political subdivision thereof.

      (3) "Debt" means an obligation or alleged obligation arising out of a transaction in which the money, property, goods or services which are the subject of the transaction are for personal, family or household purposes, whether or not such obligation has been reduced to judgment.

      (P.A. 77-418, S. 1; 77-614, S. 161, 587, 610; P.A. 78-303, S. 85, 136; P.A. 80-482, S. 252, 345, 348; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; P.A. 91-357, S. 53, 78; P.A. 92-12, S. 70; P.A. 94-122, S. 293, 340; P.A. 97-207, S. 1; P.A. 04-69, S. 23; P.A. 05-288, S. 208.)

      History: P.A. 77-614 and P.A. 78-303 replaced bank commissioner with banking commissioner and made banking department a division within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-482 restored banking division as independent department with commissioner as its head and abolished the department of business regulation, thereby allowing revision of commissioner's title to omit reference to that department; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9 "banking commissioner" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "commissioner of banking"); P.A. 91-357 made a technical change in Subsec. (c); P.A. 92-12 redesignated Subdivs.; P.A. 94-122 deleted the definitions of "person" and "commissioner" and alphabetized the remaining definitions, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-243a transferred to Sec. 36a-645 in 1995; P.A. 97-207 redefined "consumer debtor", "creditor" and "debt", and deleted definition of "credit"; P.A. 04-69 amended Subdiv. (2) to insert clause (i) and (ii) designators and add "any person to whom such debt is assigned" as clause (ii); P.A. 05-288 made technical changes in Subdiv. (2), effective July 13, 2005.

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PART II
DEBT ADJUSTERS

      Sec. 36a-657. (Formerly Sec. 36-369). Suspension, revocation or refusal to renew license. Enforcement powers of commissioner. (a) The commissioner may suspend, revoke or refuse to renew any license, in accordance with the provisions of section 36a-51, for any reason which would be sufficient grounds for the commissioner to deny an application for a license under sections 36a-655 to 36a-665, inclusive, or if the commissioner finds that the licensee or any proprietor, director, officer, member, partner, shareholder, trustee, employee or agent of such licensee has done any of the following: (1) Made any material misstatement in the application; (2) committed any fraud or misappropriated funds; (3) violated any of the provisions of sections 36a-655 to 36a-665, inclusive, or any other law or regulation applicable to the conduct of its business; or (4) failed to perform any agreement with a debtor.

      (b) Whenever it appears to the commissioner that any person has violated, is violating or is about to violate the provisions of sections 36a-655 to 36a-665, inclusive, or any licensee or any proprietor, director, officer, member, partner, shareholder, trustee, employee or agent of such licensee has committed any fraud, misappropriated funds or failed to perform any agreement with a debtor, the commissioner may take action against such person or licensee in accordance with sections 36a-50 and 36a-52.

      (1967, P.A. 882, S. 6; P.A. 79-160, S. 3; P.A. 82-174, S. 11, 14; P.A. 94-122, S. 297, 340; P.A. 02-111, S. 42; P.A. 05-46, S. 13.)

      History: P.A. 79-160 rephrased provisions, added in Subdiv. (3) ground of material error if licensee was not at time of application entitled to obtain license and remains unentitled to do so, inserted new Subdiv. (4) and renumbered former Subdivs. (4) and (5) accordingly; P.A. 82-174 replaced the provision that the commissioner may revoke or suspend a license after notice and hearing with provisions concerning the form and manner of the notice and authorizing the commissioner to revoke or suspend a license "after allowing the licensee a reasonable opportunity to be heard"; P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-369 transferred to Sec. 36a-657 in 1995; P.A. 02-111 replaced former provisions re denial, revocation or suspension of a license by the commissioner with new provisions re suspension, revocation or refusal to renew license; P.A. 05-46 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (b) re commissioner's authority to impose civil penalty or issue cease and desist order against person or licensee.

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PART III
TRUTH-IN-LENDING ACT

      Sec. 36a-685. (Formerly Sec. 36-415). Unenforceable agreements. (a) If it is the understanding of the creditor and the debtor at the time an extension of credit is made that delay in making repayment or failure to make repayment could result in the use of violence or other criminal means to cause harm to the person, reputation or property of any person, the repayment of the extension of credit is unenforceable through civil judicial processes against the debtor.

      (b) Proof that an extension of credit was made at an annual rate exceeding forty-five per cent calculated according to the actuarial method, and that the creditor then had a reputation for the use or threat of use of violence or other criminal means to cause harm to the person, reputation or property of any person to collect extensions of credit or to punish the nonrepayment thereof, is prima facie evidence that the extension of credit was unenforceable under subsection (a) of this section.

      (1969, P.A. 454, S. 23; P.A. 05-288, S. 209.)

      History: Sec. 36-415 transferred to Sec. 36a-685 in 1995; P.A. 05-288 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 13, 2005.

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PART V
CONSUMER CREDIT REPORTS

      Sec. 36a-699f. Blocking of information appearing on credit report as result of identity theft. (a) A consumer, as defined in section 36a-695, who believes he or she is a victim of a violation of section 53a-129a of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to January 1, 2003, or section 53a-129b, 53a-129c or 53a-129d may request a credit rating agency, as defined in section 36a-695, to block and not report information appearing on his or her credit report, as defined in section 36a-695, as a result of such violation. Such consumer shall submit such request, in writing, to the credit rating agency, together with proof of such consumer's identity and a copy of a police report prepared pursuant to section 54-1n. Not later than thirty days after receipt of such request, the credit rating agency shall block reporting any information that the consumer alleges appears on his or her credit report as a result of such violation so that the information cannot be reported. The credit rating agency shall promptly notify the furnisher of the information that a police report has been filed, that a block has been requested and the effective date of the block.

      (b) A credit rating agency may decline to block or may rescind any block of consumer information if the credit rating agency believes in good faith that: (1) The information was blocked due to a misrepresentation of fact by the consumer relevant to the request to block under this section, (2) the consumer agrees that the blocked information or portions of the blocked information were blocked in error, (3) the consumer knowingly obtained possession of goods, services or moneys as a result of the blocked transaction or transactions or the consumer should have known that he or she obtained possession of goods, services or moneys as a result of the blocked transaction or transactions, (4) the information was blocked due to fraud in which the consumer participated or of which the consumer had knowledge, and which may for purposes of this section be demonstrated by circumstantial evidence, or (5) the credit rating agency, in the exercise of good faith and reasonable judgment, has substantial reason based on specific, verifiable facts to doubt the authenticity of the consumer's report of a violation of section 53a-129a of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to January 1, 2003, or section 53a-129b, 53a-129c or 53a-129d.

      (c) If the credit rating agency declines to block information or rescinds the block of information pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, the credit rating agency shall promptly notify the consumer in the same manner as consumers are notified of the reinsertion of information pursuant to subsection (b) of section 36a-699b. The prior presence of the blocked information in the credit rating agency's file on the consumer is not evidence of whether the consumer knew or should have known that he or she obtained possession of any goods, services or moneys.

      (d) A credit rating agency shall accept the consumer's version of the disputed information and correct the disputed item when the consumer submits to the credit rating agency documentation obtained from the source of the item in dispute or from public records confirming that the report was inaccurate or incomplete, unless the credit rating agency, in the exercise of good faith and reasonable judgment, has substantial reason based on specific, verifiable facts to doubt the authenticity of the documentation submitted and notifies the consumer in writing of that decision, explaining its reasons for unblocking the information and setting forth specific, verifiable facts on which the decision is based.

      (e) A credit rating agency shall delete from a credit report inquiries for credit reports based upon credit requests that the credit rating agency verifies were initiated as a result of a violation of section 53a-129a of the general statutes, revision of 1958, revised to January 1, 2003, or section 53a-129b, 53a-129c or 53a-129d.

      (f) The provisions of this section do not apply to: (1) A credit rating agency that acts as a reseller of credit information by assembling and merging information contained in the databases of other credit rating agencies, and that does not maintain a permanent database of credit information from which new credit reports are produced, (2) a check services or fraud prevention services company that issues reports on incidents of fraud or authorizations for the purpose of approving or processing negotiable instruments, electronic funds transfers or similar payment methods, or (3) a demand deposit account information service company that issues reports regarding account closures due to fraud, substantial overdrafts, automated teller machine abuse or similar negative information regarding a consumer to inquiring banks or other financial institutions for use only in reviewing a consumer request for a demand deposit account at the inquiring bank or financial institution.

      (P.A. 03-156, S. 9; P.A. 05-288, S. 224.)

      History: P.A. 05-288 made a technical change in Subsec. (f)(3), effective July 13, 2005.

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      Sec. 36a-701. Security freeze on credit report: Definitions. As used in this section and section 36a-701a:

      (1) "Consumer" means any person who is utilizing or seeking credit for personal, family or household purposes;

      (2) "Credit rating agency" means credit rating agency, as defined in section 36a-695;

      (3) "Credit report" means credit report, as defined in section 36a-695;

      (4) "Creditor" means creditor, as defined in section 36a-695; and

      (5) "Security freeze" means a notice placed in a consumer's credit report, at the request of the consumer, that prohibits the credit rating agency from releasing the consumer's credit report or any information from it without the express authorization of the consumer.

      (P.A. 05-148, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 05-148 effective January 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 36a-701a. Consumer security freezes on credit report. Timing. Disclosure of report to third party during freeze. Procedures for freeze. Refusal by credit rating agency to implement freeze. Exceptions. (a) Any consumer may submit a written request, by certified mail or such other secure method as authorized by a credit rating agency, to a credit rating agency to place a security freeze on such consumer's credit report. Such credit rating agency shall place a security freeze on a consumer's credit report not later than five business days after receipt of such request. Not later than ten business days after placing a security freeze on a consumer's credit report, such credit rating agency shall send a written confirmation of such security freeze to such consumer that provides the consumer with a unique personal identification number or password to be used by the consumer when providing authorization for the release of such consumer's report to a third party or for a period of time.

      (b) In the event such consumer wishes to authorize the disclosure of such consumer's credit report to a third party, or for a period of time, while such security freeze is in effect, such consumer shall contact such credit rating agency and provide: (1) Proper identification, (2) the unique personal identification number or password described in subsection (a) of this section, and (3) proper information regarding the third party who is to receive the credit report or the time period for which the credit report shall be available. Any credit rating agency that receives a request from a consumer pursuant to this section shall lift such security freeze not later than three business days after receipt of such request.

      (c) Except for the temporary lifting of a security freeze as provided in subsection (b) of this section, any security freeze authorized pursuant to the provisions of this section shall remain in effect until such time as such consumer requests such security freeze to be removed. A credit rating agency shall remove such security freeze not later than three business days after receipt of such request provided such consumer provides proper identification to such credit rating agency and the unique personal identification number or password described in subsection (a) of this section at the time of such request for removal of the security freeze.

      (d) Any credit rating agency may develop procedures to receive and process such request from a consumer to temporarily lift or remove a security freeze on a credit report pursuant to subsection (b) of this section. Such procedures, at a minimum, shall include, but not be limited to, the ability of a consumer to send such temporary lift or removal request by electronic mail, letter or facsimile.

      (e) In the event that a third party requests access to a consumer's credit report that has such a security freeze in place and such third party request is made in connection with an application for credit or any other use and such consumer has not authorized the disclosure of such consumer's credit report to such third party, such third party may deem such credit application as incomplete.

      (f) Any credit rating agency may refuse to implement or may remove such security freeze if such agency believes, in good faith, that: (1) The request for a security freeze was made as part of a fraud that the consumer participated in, had knowledge of, or that can be demonstrated by circumstantial evidence, or (2) the consumer credit report was frozen due to a material misrepresentation of fact by the consumer. In the event any such credit rating agency refuses to implement or removes a security freeze pursuant to this subsection, such credit rating agency shall promptly notify such consumer in writing of such refusal not later than five business days after such refusal or, in the case of a removal of a security freeze, prior to removing the freeze on the consumer's credit report.

      (g) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit disclosure of a consumer's credit report to: (1) A person, or the person's subsidiary, affiliate, agent or assignee with which the consumer has or, prior to assignment, had an account, contract or debtor-creditor relationship for the purpose of reviewing the account or collecting the financial obligation owing for the account, contract or debt; (2) a subsidiary, affiliate, agent, assignee or prospective assignee of a person to whom access has been granted under subsection (b) of this section for the purpose of facilitating the extension of credit or other permissible use; (3) any person acting pursuant to a court order, warrant or subpoena; (4) any person for the purpose of using such credit information to prescreen as provided by the federal Fair Credit Reporting Act; (5) any person for the sole purpose of providing a credit file monitoring subscription service to which the consumer has subscribed; (6) a credit rating agency for the sole purpose of providing a consumer with a copy of his or her credit report upon the consumer's request; or (7) a federal, state or local governmental entity, including a law enforcement agency, or court, or their agents or assignees pursuant to their statutory or regulatory duties. For purposes of this subsection, "reviewing the account" includes activities related to account maintenance, monitoring, credit line increases and account upgrades and enhancements.

      (h) The following persons shall not be required to place a security freeze on a consumer's credit report, provided such persons shall be subject to any security freeze placed on a credit report by another credit rating agency: (1) A check services or fraud prevention services company that reports on incidents of fraud or issues authorizations for the purpose of approving or processing negotiable instruments, electronic fund transfers or similar methods of payment; (2) a deposit account information service company that issues reports regarding account closures due to fraud, substantial overdrafts, automated teller machine abuse, or similar information regarding a consumer to inquiring banks or other financial institutions for use only in reviewing a consumer request for a deposit account at the inquiring bank or financial institution; or (3) a credit rating agency that: (A) Acts only to resell credit information by assembling and merging information contained in a database of one or more credit reporting agencies; and (B) does not maintain a permanent database of credit information from which new credit reports are produced.

      (i) A credit rating agency may charge a fee of not more than ten dollars to a consumer for each security freeze, removal of such freeze or temporary lift of such freeze for a period of time, and a fee of not more than twelve dollars for a temporary lift of such freeze for a specific party.

      (j) An insurer, as defined in section 38a-1, may deny an application for insurance if an applicant has placed a security freeze on such applicant's credit report and fails to authorize the disclosure of such applicant's credit report to such insurer pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section.

      (P.A. 05-148, S. 2; 05-288, S. 230.)

      History: P.A. 05-148 effective January 1, 2006; P.A. 05-288 made a technical change in Subsec. (f), effective January 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 36a-701b. Breach of security re computerized data containing personal information. Disclosure of breach. Delay for criminal investigation. Means of notice. Unfair trade practice. (a) For purposes of this section, "breach of security" means unauthorized access to or acquisition of electronic files, media, databases or computerized data containing personal information when access to the personal information has not been secured by encryption or by any other method or technology that renders the personal information unreadable or unusable; "personal information" means an individual's first name or first initial and last name in combination with any one, or more, of the following data: (1) Social Security number; (2) driver's license number or state identification card number; or (3) account number, credit or debit card number, in combination with any required security code, access code or password that would permit access to an individual's financial account. "Personal information" does not include publicly available information that is lawfully made available to the general public from federal, state or local government records or widely distributed media.

      (b) Any person who conducts business in this state, and who, in the ordinary course of such person's business, owns, licenses or maintains computerized data that includes personal information, shall disclose any breach of security following the discovery of the breach to any resident of this state whose personal information was, or is reasonably believed to have been, accessed by an unauthorized person through such breach of security. Such disclosure shall be made without unreasonable delay, subject to the provisions of subsection (d) of this section and the completion of an investigation by such person to determine the nature and scope of the incident, to identify the individuals affected, or to restore the reasonable integrity of the data system. Such notification shall not be required if, after an appropriate investigation and consultation with relevant federal, state and local agencies responsible for law enforcement, the person reasonably determines that the breach will not likely result in harm to the individuals whose personal information has been acquired and accessed.

      (c) Any person that maintains computerized data that includes personal information that the person does not own shall notify the owner or licensee of the information of any breach of the security of the data immediately following its discovery, if the personal information was, or is reasonably believed to have been accessed by an unauthorized person.

      (d) Any notification required by this section shall be delayed for a reasonable period of time if a law enforcement agency determines that the notification will impede a criminal investigation and such law enforcement agency has made a request that the notification be delayed. Any such delayed notification shall be made after such law enforcement agency determines that notification will not compromise the criminal investigation and so notifies the person of such determination.

      (e) Any notice required by the provisions of this section may be provided by one of the following methods: (1) Written notice; (2) telephone notice; (3) electronic notice, provided such notice is consistent with the provisions regarding electronic records and signatures set forth in 15 USC 7001; (4) substitute notice, provided such person demonstrates that the cost of providing notice in accordance with subdivision (1), (2) or (3) of this subsection would exceed two hundred fifty thousand dollars, that the affected class of subject persons to be notified exceeds five hundred thousand persons or the person does not have sufficient contact information. Substitute notice shall consist of the following: (A) Electronic mail notice when the person, business or agency has an electronic mail address for the affected persons; (B) conspicuous posting of the notice on the web site of the person, business or agency if the person maintains one; and (C) notification to major state-wide media, including newspapers, radio and television.

      (f) Any person that maintains such person's own security breach procedures as part of an information security policy for the treatment of personal information and otherwise complies with the timing requirements of this section, shall be deemed to be in compliance with the security breach notification requirements of this section, provided such person notifies subject persons in accordance with such person's policies in the event of a breach of security. Any person that maintains such a security breach procedure pursuant to the rules, regulations, procedures or guidelines established by the primary or functional regulator, as defined in 15 USC 6809(2), shall be deemed to be in compliance with the security breach notification requirements of this section, provided such person notifies subject persons in accordance with the policies or the rules, regulations, procedures or guidelines established by the primary or functional regulator in the event of a breach of security of the system.

      (g) Failure to comply with the requirements of this section shall constitute an unfair trade practice for purposes of section 42-110b and shall be enforced by the Attorney General.

      (P.A. 05-148, S. 3; 05-288, S. 231, 232.)

      History: P.A. 05-148 effective January 1, 2006; P.A. 05-288 made technical changes in Subsecs. (b) and (f), effective January 1, 2006.

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PART VI
MORTGAGE PROCESSING

      Sec. 36a-705. (Formerly Sec. 36-442). Definitions. As used in this section and sections 36a-706, 36a-707 and 36a-708, unless the context otherwise requires:

      (1) "First mortgage loan" means "first mortgage loan", as defined in section 36a-485;

      (2) "Mortgage broker" means "first mortgage broker", as defined in section 36a-485, who is licensed or required to be licensed under sections 36a-485 to 36a-498a, inclusive;

      (3) "Mortgage lender" means "mortgage lender", as defined in section 36a-485, who is required to be licensed under sections 36a-485 to 36a-498a, inclusive, except that the term shall include a bank, out-of-state bank, Connecticut credit union, federal credit union and out-of-state credit union; and

      (4) "Mortgage rate lock-in" means a written or electronically transmitted confirmation issued to a mortgage applicant or the representative of such applicant by a mortgage lender or the lender's representative, prior to the issuance of a first mortgage loan commitment, stating that a particular rate, number of points or variable rate terms will be the rate, number of points, or variable rate terms at which the lender will make the loan, provided the first mortgage loan is closed by a specified date, and the applicant qualifies for the loan in accordance with the lender's standards of creditworthiness.

      (P.A. 87-73, S. 1; P.A. 92-12, S. 89; P.A. 94-122, S. 311, 340; P.A. 04-69, S. 26; 04-105, S. 1; P.A. 05-74, S. 4.)

      History: P.A. 92-12 redesignated Subdivs; P.A. 94-122 deleted the definition of "person", reordered definitions and made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 36-442 transferred to Sec. 36a-705 in 1995; P.A. 04-69 amended Subdiv. (2) to substitute "36a-498a" for "36a-498"; P.A. 04-105 added reference to Sec. 36a-708, redefined "first mortgage loan" in Subdiv. (1), added new Subdiv. (2) defining "mortgage lender", redesignated existing Subdivs. (2) and (3) as new Subdivs. (3) and (4), respectively, and redefined "mortgage lender" and "mortgage rate lock-in" therein, effective May 21, 2004; P.A. 05-74 amended Subdiv. (3) to make a technical change, effective June 2, 2005.

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PART IX
HOME MORTGAGE DISCLOSURE

      Sec. 36a-737. (Formerly Sec. 36-445). Discrimination in making of home purchase, home improvement and mortgage loans. Applications submitted by members of reserves or National Guard. (a) No financial institution and no federal bank or federal credit union shall discriminate, on a basis that is arbitrary or unsupported by a reasonable analysis of the lending risks associated with the applicant for a given loan or the condition of the property to secure it, in the granting, withholding, extending, modifying, renewing or in the fixing of the rates, terms, conditions or provisions of any home purchase loan, home improvement loan or other mortgage loan on one-to-four-family owner-occupied residential real property, solely because such property is located in a low-income or moderate-income neighborhood or geographical area, provided it shall not be a violation of this section if the home purchase loan, home improvement loan or other mortgage loan is made pursuant to a specific public or private program, the purpose of which is to increase the availability of home purchase loans, home improvement loans or other mortgage loans within a low-income or moderate-income neighborhood or geographical area in which such investment capital has generally been denied.

      (b) If a member of any reserve component of the armed forces of the United States, as defined in section 27-103, or a member of the National Guard, is called into active duty after submitting an application to a financial institution, federal bank or federal credit union for a home purchase loan, home improvement loan or other mortgage loan on one-to-four-family owner-occupied residential real property and before the financial institution, federal bank or federal credit union makes a determination on the application, such financial institution, federal bank or federal credit union shall maintain the application on file for two years and two months after such member is called into active duty, if the member submits, not later than thirty days after being called into active duty, a written statement to the financial institution, federal bank or federal credit union indicating that the member (1) has been called into active duty, and (2) requests that the application be maintained on file. If the applicant returns from active duty not later than two years after submitting an application under this section and submits a written statement to the financial institution, federal bank or federal credit union not later than sixty days after being discharged from active duty verifying that there has been no material change in the applicant's income, assets, debts and employment, the financial institution, federal bank or federal credit union shall finalize processing of the application in accordance with the same terms and conditions that it made available to the applicant at the time of application, provided the financial institution, federal bank or federal credit union shall offer to the applicant any different terms and conditions that the financial institution, federal bank or federal credit union is offering to the public at the time of the applicant's return from active duty.

      (P.A. 77-153, S. 3; P.A. 93-186, S. 2, 9; P.A. 94-161, S. 2; P.A. 95-155, S. 28, 29; P.A. 03-24, S. 1; P.A. 05-46, S. 14.)

      History: P.A. 93-186 deleted references to "mortgage loans" in favor of "home purchase loan" and made technical corrections for clarity and accuracy, effective June 23, 1993; P.A. 94-161 included "other mortgage loans" within the antidiscrimination provision and changed "specific neighborhood" to "low-income or moderate-income neighborhood"; Sec. 36-445 transferred to Sec. 36a-737 in 1995; P.A. 95-155 applied section to federal banks, effective June 27, 1995; P.A. 03-24 designated existing provisions as Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (b) re loan applications by members of reserves or National Guard called into active duty, effective July 1, 2003; P.A. 05-46 applied section to federal credit unions.

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PART XI
RETAIL INSTALLMENT SALES FINANCING

      Sec. 36a-770. (Formerly Sec. 42-83). Applicability of Uniform Commercial Code. Filing and re:CHY:cording. Definitions. (a) The Uniform Commercial Code. A transaction subject to sections 36a-770 to 36a-788, inclusive, 42-100b and 42-100c is also subject to the Uniform Commercial Code, title 42a, but in case of any conflict the provisions of sections 36a-770 to 36a-788, inclusive, 42-100b and 42-100c shall control.

      (b) Filing and re:CHY:cording. Section 42a-9-310 determines the need for filing or re:CHY:cording to perfect a security interest, section 42a-9-317 determines the persons who take subject to an unperfected security interest, and sections 42a-9-311 and 42a-9-501 to 42a-9-526, inclusive, determine the place for such filing or re:CHY:cording.

      (c) Definitions. As used in sections 36a-770 to 36a-788, inclusive, 42-100b and 42-100c, unless the context otherwise requires:

      (1) "Boat" means any watercraft, as defined in section 22a-248, other than a seaplane, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water, by any power including muscular.

      (2) "Cash price" means the total amount in dollars at which the seller and buyer agreed the seller would transfer unqualified title to the goods, if the transaction were a cash sale instead of a sale under a retail installment contract.

      (3) "Commercial vehicle" means any domestic or foreign truck or truck tractor of ten thousand or more pounds gross vehicular weight or any trailer or semitrailer designed for use in connection with any truck or truck tractor of ten thousand or more pounds gross vehicular weight and which is not used primarily for personal, family or household use.

      (4) "Filing fee" means the fee prescribed by law for filing, re:CHY:cording or otherwise perfecting and releasing or satisfying a security interest, as defined in subdivision (35) of subsection (b) of section 42a-1-201, retained or created by a retail installment contract or installment loan contract.

      (5) "Finance charge" means the amount in excess of the cash price of the goods agreed upon by the retail seller and the retail buyer, to be paid by the retail buyer for the privilege of purchasing the goods under the retail installment contract or installment loan contract.

      (6) "Goods" means (A) "consumer goods", as defined in subdivision (23) of subsection (a) of section 42a-9-102 and motor vehicles included under such definition, having an aggregate cash price of fifty thousand dollars or less, and (B) "equipment", as defined in subdivision (33) of subsection (a) of section 42a-9-102, having an aggregate cash price of sixteen thousand dollars or less, provided such consumer goods or such equipment is included in one retail installment contract or installment loan contract.

      (7) "Installment loan contract" means any agreement made in this state to repay in installments the amount loaned or advanced to a retail buyer for the purpose of paying the retail purchase price of goods and by virtue of which a security interest, as defined in subdivision (35) of subsection (b) of section 42a-1-201, is taken in the goods for the payment of the amount loaned or advanced. For purposes of this subdivision, "installment loan contract" does not include agreements to repay in installments loans made by the United States or any department, agency or instrumentality thereof.

      (8) "Lender" means a person who extends or offers to extend credit to a retail buyer under an installment loan contract.

      (9) A retail installment contract or installment loan contract is "made in this state" if: (A) An offer or agreement is made in Connecticut by a retail seller or a lender to sell or extend credit to a resident retail buyer, including, but not limited to, any verbal or written solicitation or communication to sell or extend credit originating outside the state of Connecticut but forwarded to and received in Connecticut by a resident retail buyer; or (B) an offer to buy or an application for extension of credit, or an acceptance of an offer to buy or to extend credit, is made in Connecticut by a resident retail buyer, regardless of the situs of the contract which may be specified therein, including, but not limited to, any verbal or written solicitation or communication to buy or to have credit extended, originating within the state of Connecticut but forwarded to and received by a retail seller or a lender outside the state of Connecticut. For purposes of this subdivision, a "resident retail buyer" means a retail buyer who is a resident of the state of Connecticut.

      (10) "Motor vehicle" means any device in, upon or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway by any power other than muscular. For purposes of this subdivision, "motor vehicle" does not include self-propelled wheelchairs and invalid tricycles, tractors, power shovels, road machinery, implements of husbandry and other agricultural machinery, or other machinery not designed primarily for highway transportation but which may incidentally transport persons or property on a highway, or devices which move upon or are guided by a track or travel through the air.

      (11) "Retail buyer" means a person who buys or agrees to buy one or more articles of goods from a retail seller not for the purpose of resale or lease to others in the course of business and who executes a retail installment contract or an installment loan contract in connection therewith.

      (12) "Retail installment contract" means any security agreement, as defined in subdivision (73) of subsection (a) of section 42a-9-102, made in this state, including one in the form of a mortgage, conditional sale contract or other instrument evidencing an agreement to pay the retail purchase price of goods, or any part thereof, in installments over a period of time and pursuant to which a security interest, as defined in subdivision (35) of subsection (b) of section 42a-1-201, is retained or taken by the retail seller for the payment of the amount of such retail installment contract. For purposes of this subdivision, "retail installment contract" does not include a rent-to-own agreement, as defined in section 42-240.

      (13) "Retail installment sale" means any sale evidenced by a retail installment contract or installment loan contract wherein a retail buyer buys goods from a retail seller at a time sale price payable in two or more installments. The cash price of the goods, the amount, if any, included for other itemized charges which are included in the amount of the credit extended but which are not part of the finance charge under sections 36a-675 to 36a-685, inclusive, and the finance charge shall together constitute the time sale price. For purposes of this subdivision, "retail installment sale" does not include a rent-to-own agreement, as defined in section 42-240.

      (14) "Retail seller" means a person who sells or agrees to sell one or more articles of goods under a retail installment contract to a retail buyer.

      (15) "Sales finance company" means any person engaging in this state in the business, in whole or in part, of acquiring retail installment contracts from retail sellers or installment loan contracts from holders thereof, by purchase, discount or pledge, or by loan or advance to the holder of either on the security thereof, or otherwise.

      (1949 Rev., S. 6698; 1949, 1955, S. 2862d; November, 1955, N218; 1957, P.A. 357, S. 1; March, 1958, P.A. 27, S. 33; 1959, P.A. 495; 589, S. 2; 1961, P.A. 116, S. 20; 1969, P.A. 454, S. 28; P.A. 77-317; 77-604, S. 52, 84; P.A. 78-313, S. 1, 3; P.A. 81-158, S. 13, 17; P.A. 82-18, S. 2, 4; P.A. 89-210, S. 1; P.A. 91-162, S. 15, 18; P.A. 93-39; P.A. 94-122, S. 325, 340; 94-134, S. 1, 3; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 109, 130; P.A. 01-132, S. 170; P.A. 03-19, S. 85; 03-62, S. 21; P.A. 05-109, S. 49.)

      History: 1959 acts amended definitions of "goods" and "retail buyer"; 1961 act coordinated this section with Uniform Commercial Code; 1969 act redefined "retail installment sale" to include the amount of itemized charges included in amount of credit extended but excluded from finance charge rather than the amount of insurances and other benefits and filing fees; P.A. 77-317 redefined goods to raise maximum aggregate cash price from six thousand to twenty-five thousand dollars; P.A. 77-604 revised references to Sec. 42a-9-105; P.A. 78-313 redefined "goods" to include motor vehicles and to establish separate maximum cash value of eight thousand dollars for equipment and defined "lender" and contracts "made in this state" in new Subdivs. (m) and (n) of Subsec. (3); P.A. 81-158 amended Subsec. (3) by replacing in Subdiv. (d) "section 36-396", which had been repealed, with "chapter 657", effective March 31, 1982; P.A. 82-18 changed effective date of P.A. 81-158 from March 31, 1982, to "the effective date of Title VI of Public Law 96-221, as contained in Section 625(a) of Public Law 96-221, as amended", i.e. October 1, 1982; P.A. 89-210 amended Subsec. (3) by adding Subdiv. (o) defining "commercial vehicle"; P.A. 91-162 amended Subsecs. (d) and (e) of Subdiv. (3) to specifically exclude consumer rent-to-own agreements, as defined in Sec. 42-240, from the definitions of "retail installment sale" and "retail installment contract"; P.A. 93-39 amended Subsec. (b) by increasing the aggregate cash price of a motor vehicle to be included in the definition of "consumer goods" from twenty-five thousand dollars to fifty thousand dollars and increasing the aggregate cash price of equipment to be included from eight thousand dollars to sixteen thousand dollars; P.A. 94-122 changed Subdivs. (1), (2) and (3) to Subsecs. (a), (b) and (c), deleted the definition of "person", reordered the definitions and made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 94-134 added Subsec. (p) defining "boat", effective October 1, 1994, and applicable to retail installment contracts and installment loan contracts executed on or after that date; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1994, and applicable January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-83 transferred to Sec. 36a-770 in 1995; (Revisor's note: In 1997 a reference in Subsec. (a) to "42-110b" was corrected editorially by the Revisors to "42-100b" thereby correcting a clerical error which occurred during the preparation of the 1995 revision); P.A. 01-132 amended Subsec. (b) to replace reference to Sec. 42a-9-302 with Sec. 42a-9-310, replace reference to Sec. 42a-9-301 with Sec. 42a-9-317 and replace reference to Secs. 42a-9-302(3)(b) and 42a-9—401 to 42a-9-409, inclusive, with Secs. 42a-9-311 and 42a-9-501 to 42a-9-518, inclusive, and amended Subsec. (c) to make a technical change in Subdiv. (4), in Subdiv. (6) replace Secs. 42a-9-105(1)(h) and 42a-9-109(1) with Sec. 42a-9-102(a)(23) as the statutory reference for the definition of "consumer goods", make a technical change and replace Sec. 42a-9-109(2) with Sec. 42a-9-102(a)(33) as the statutory reference for the definition of "equipment", make a technical change in Subdiv. (7) and replace in Subdiv. (12) Sec. 42a-9-105(1)(l) with Sec. 42a-9-102(a)(73) as the statutory reference for the definition of "security agreement" and make a technical change; P.A. 03-19 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective May 12, 2003; P.A. 03-62 amended Subsec. (b) to replace reference to Sec. 42a-9-518 with Sec. 42a-9-526 and make technical changes; P.A. 05-109 amended Subsec. (c) by replacing references to Sec. 42a-1-201(37) with references to Sec. 42a-1-201(b)(35) in Subdivs. (4), (7) and (12).

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PART XII
CONSUMER COLLECTION AGENCIES

      Sec. 36a-801. (Formerly Sec. 42-127a). License required. Application, issuance, renewal. Examination of records. Automatic suspension of license or renewal license. Notice. Opportunity for hearing. (a) No person shall act within this state as a consumer collection agency without a consumer collection agency license. A consumer collection agency is acting within this state if it (1) has its place of business located within this state; (2) has its place of business located outside this state and collects from consumer debtors or property tax debtors who reside within this state for creditors who are located within this state; (3) has its place of business located outside this state and regularly collects from consumer debtors or property tax debtors who reside within this state for creditors who are located outside this state; or (4) has its place of business located outside this state and is engaged in the business of collecting child support for creditors located within this state from consumer debtors who are located outside this state.

      (b) (1) Any person desiring to act within this state as a consumer collection agency shall make a written application to the commissioner for such license in such form as the commissioner prescribes. Such application shall be accompanied by (A) a financial statement prepared by a certified public accountant or a public accountant, the accuracy of which is sworn to under oath before a notary public by the proprietor, a general partner or a corporate officer or a member duly authorized to execute such documents, (B) a license fee of eight hundred dollars, or in the case of an initial application that is filed not earlier than one year before the date such license will expire, a license fee of four hundred dollars, and (C) an investigation fee of one hundred dollars. The commissioner shall cause to be made such inquiry and examination as to the qualifications of each such applicant as the commissioner deems necessary. Each applicant shall furnish satisfactory evidence to the commissioner that the applicant is a person of good moral character and is financially responsible. If the commissioner is satisfied that such applicant is in all respects properly qualified and trustworthy and that the granting of such license is not against the public interest, the commissioner may issue to such applicant a license, in such form as the commissioner may adopt, to act within this state as a consumer collection agency. Any such license issued by the commissioner shall expire at the close of business on September thirtieth of the odd-numbered year following its issuance, unless such license is renewed, provided any license that is renewed effective May 1, 2003, shall expire on September 30, 2005. The commissioner may renew such application, in the commissioner's discretion, upon filing of a proper renewal application accompanied by a license fee of eight hundred dollars, or in the case of an application for renewal of a license that expires on April 30, 2003, a license fee of one thousand dollars, and satisfactory proof that such applicant at that time possesses the required qualifications for the license. Such renewal application shall be filed with the commissioner on or before September first of the year in which the license expires, or in the case of a license that expires on April 30, 2003, on or before April 1, 2003. Any renewal application filed with the commissioner after September first, or in the case of a license that expires on April 30, 2003, after April 1, 2003, shall be accompanied by a one-hundred-dollar late fee and any such filing shall be deemed to be timely and sufficient for purposes of subsection (b) of section 4-182. Whenever an application for a license, other than a renewal application, is filed under sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive, by any person who was a licensee under said sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive, and whose license expired less than sixty days prior to the date such application was filed, such application shall be accompanied by a one-hundred-dollar processing fee in addition to the application fee. To further the enforcement of this section and to determine the eligibility of any person holding a license, the commissioner may, as often as the commissioner deems necessary, examine the licensee's books and records, and may, at any time, require the licensee to submit such a financial statement for the examination of the commissioner, so that the commissioner may determine whether the licensee is financially responsible to carry on a consumer collection agency business within the intents and purposes of sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive. Any financial statement submitted by a licensee shall be confidential and shall not be a public record unless introduced in evidence at a hearing conducted by the commissioner.

      (2) If the commissioner determines that a check filed with the commissioner to pay a fee under subdivision (1) of this subsection has been dishonored, the commissioner shall automatically suspend the license or a renewal license that has been issued but is not yet effective. The commissioner shall give the licensee notice of the automatic suspension pending proceedings for revocation or refusal to renew and an opportunity for a hearing on such actions in accordance with section 36a-51.

      (3) No abatement of the license fee shall be made if the license is surrendered, revoked or suspended prior to the expiration of the period for which it was issued. All fees required by this section shall be nonrefundable.

      (c) No person licensed to act within this state as a consumer collection agency shall do so under any other name or at any other place of business than that named in the license. Any change of location of a place of business of a licensee shall require prior written notice to the commissioner. Not more than one place of business shall be maintained under the same license but the commissioner may issue more than one license to the same licensee upon compliance with the provisions of sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive, as to each new licensee. A license shall not be transferable or assignable. Any licensee holding, applying for, or seeking renewal of more than one license may, at its option, file the bond required under section 36a-802 separately for each place of business licensed, or to be licensed, or a single bond, naming each place of business, in an amount equal to five thousand dollars for each place of business.

      (1971, P.A. 539, S. 2, 3; P.A. 73-284; 73-328; 73-341; P.A. 81-292, S. 12; P.A. 88-150, S. 9; P.A. 92-89, S. 17, 20; P.A. 93-127, S. 2, 3; P.A. 94-104, S. 6; 94-122, S. 329, 340; P.A. 96-71, S. 7, 8; P.A. 01-207, S. 4, 12; P.A. 02-111, S. 47; P.A. 04-69, S. 30; P.A. 05-46, S. 15; 05-74, S. 5.)

      History: P.A. 73-284 required that financial statements be "prepared" rather than "certified" by accountant and required that their accuracy be sworn to by proprietor, general partner or corporate officer in Subsec. (b); P.A. 73-328 defined acting within state with regard to consumer collection agencies in Subsec. (a); P.A. 73-341 added Subsec. (c); P.A. 81-292 amended Subsec. (b) by increasing the license fee from one hundred to two hundred dollars and the renewal fee from fifty to two hundred dollars; P.A. 88-150 amended Subsec. (b) by providing that license and investigation fees are nonrefundable; P.A. 92-89 amended Subsec. (b) to increase the license fee from two hundred to four hundred dollars, to increase the investigation fee from fifty to one hundred dollars and to increase the renewal fee from two hundred to four hundred dollars; P.A. 93-127 amended Subsec. (a) by substituting "who are" for "whose place of business is", effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-104 changed the license expiration date from May first to April thirtieth, made April first the renewal application deadline and added a one-hundred-dollar late fee in Subsec. (a), and made technical changes; P.A. 94-122 made technical changes, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-127a transferred to Sec. 36a-801 in 1995; P.A. 96-71 amended Subsec. (b) to make technical changes and to add Subdiv. (2) to make all fees required by this section nonrefundable, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 01-207 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (4) defining acting within state re consumer collection agencies to include having its place of business located outside this state and engaging in the business of collecting child support for creditors located within this state from consumer debtors located outside this state, effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-111 amended Subsec. (a) by replacing provision re holding a license then in force with provision re consumer collection agency license and adding references to "property tax debtors", amended Subsec. (b) by adding reference to "a member" in Subdiv. (1)(A), by providing that license fee is eight hundred dollars or, in the case of initial application filed not earlier than one year before the expiration date of license, fee is four hundred dollars in Subdiv. (1)(B), by adding provisions re expiration of license at the close of business on September thirtieth of the odd-numbered year following its issuance, renewal fee of eight hundred dollars and exceptions for license, renewed effective May 1, 2003, and licenses that expire on April 30, 2003, and by adding provision re one-hundred-dollar processing fee and amended Subsec. (c) by adding provisions re prior written notice to commissioner of any change of location of a place of business and re license shall not be transferable or assignable; P.A. 04-69 amended Subsec. (b) by adding new Subdiv. (2), requiring commissioner to automatically suspend license or renewal license if commissioner determines that a check filed to pay fee has been dishonored and requiring commissioner to give notice of the automatic suspension pending proceedings for revocation or refusal to renew and an opportunity for a hearing in accordance with Sec. 36a-51, and redesignating existing Subdiv. (2) as Subdiv. (3); P.A. 05-46 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to make a technical change and provide that renewal application for licensees filed with commissioner after September first, accompanied by late fee, shall be deemed to be timely and sufficient for purposes of Sec. 4-182(b); P.A. 05-74 amended Subsec. (c) to make a technical change, effective June 2, 2005.

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      Sec. 36a-804. (Formerly Sec. 42-129a). Authority of commissioner to suspend, revoke or refuse to renew license of a consumer collection agency. (a) The commissioner may suspend, revoke or refuse to renew any license, in accordance with the provisions of section 36a-51, for any reason which would be sufficient grounds for the commissioner to deny an application for a license under sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive, or if the commissioner finds that the licensee or any proprietor, director, officer, member, partner, shareholder, trustee, employee or agent of such licensee has done any of the following: (1) Made any material misstatement in the application; (2) committed any fraud or misrepresentation or misappropriated funds; or (3) violated any of the provisions of sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive, or of any regulations adopted pursuant thereto, or any other law or regulation applicable to the conduct of its business.

      (b) Whenever it appears to the commissioner that any person has violated, is violating or is about to violate any of the provisions of sections 36a-800 to 36a-810, inclusive, or any regulation adopted pursuant thereto, or the licensee or any proprietor, director, officer, member, partner, shareholder, trustee, employee or agent of such licensee has committed any fraud, made any misrepresentation or misappropriated funds, the commissioner may take action against such person or licensee in accordance with sections 36a-50 and 36a-52.

      (1971, P.A. 539, S. 6; 1972, P.A. 108, S. 8; P.A. 74-254, S. 8; P.A. 94-122, S. 331, 340; P.A. 02-111, S. 49; P.A. 05-46, S. 16.)

      History: 1972 act replaced superior court with court of common pleas, effective September 1, 1972, except that courts with cases pending retain jurisdiction; P.A. 74-254 replaced detailed appeal provisions with statement requiring that appeals be made in accordance with chapter 54; P.A. 94-122 replaced notice, hearing and appeal provisions with a reference to Sec. 36a-51, effective January 1, 1995; Sec. 42-129a transferred to Sec. 36a-804 in 1995; P.A. 02-111 replaced former provisions with new Subsecs. (a) and (b) re commissioner's authority to suspend, revoke or refuse to renew license and the grounds for such action and commissioner's authority re violations of Secs. 36a-800 to 36a-810; P.A. 05-46 amended Subsec. (b) to allow commissioner to impose civil penalty or issue cease and desist order against licensee or any proprietor, director, officer, member, partner, shareholder, trustee, employee or agent of such licensee who has committed fraud, made any misrepresentation or misappropriated funds.

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