CHAPTER 568
WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT

      *Compensation Review Board derives its authority from Workers' Compensation Act, which grants no authority to board to open a decision. 86 CA 880.

Table of Contents

Sec. 31-275. Definitions.
Sec. 31-284. Basic rights and liabilities. Civil action to enjoin noncomplying employer from entering into employment contracts. Notice of availability of compensation.
Sec. 31-293a. No right against fellow employee; exception.
Sec. 31-294c. Notice of claim for compensation. Notice contesting liability. Exception for dependents of certain deceased employees.
Sec. 31-294f. Medical examination of injured employee. Medical reports.
Sec. 31-294h. Benefits for police officers suffering mental or emotional impairment.
Sec. 31-299b. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Initial liability of last employer. Reimbursement.
Sec. 31-306. *(See end of section for amended versions of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) and subsections (c) and (d) and effective date.) Death resulting from accident or occupational disease. Dependents. Compensation.
Sec. 31-307a. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Cost-of-living adjustment in compensation rates.
Sec. 31-307b. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Benefits after relapse from recovery. Recurrent injuries.
Sec. 31-310. *(See end of section for amended version of subsection (a) and effective date.) Determination of average weekly wage of injured worker. Concurrent employment. Payments from Second Injury Fund. Publication of wage tables.
Sec. 31-349g. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Method of assessing all employers for the liabilities of the Second Injury Fund. Regulations.
Sec. 31-353. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Voluntary agreements; approval.
Sec. 31-354. *(See end of section for amended version of subsection (a) and effective date.) Second Injury Fund contributions. Duties and powers of State Treasurer.
Sec. 31-355. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Hearings; awards. Payments from Second Injury Fund on employer's failure to comply with award. Civil action for reimbursement. Insolvent insurer.

PART A
WORKERS' COMPENSATION COMMISSION.
COMPENSATION COMMISSIONERS.
EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY

I

WORKERS' COMPENSATION COMMISSION.

COMPENSATION COMMISSIONERS

      Sec. 31-275. Definitions. As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise provides:

      (1) "Arising out of and in the course of his employment" means an accidental injury happening to an employee or an occupational disease of an employee originating while the employee has been engaged in the line of the employee's duty in the business or affairs of the employer upon the employer's premises, or while engaged elsewhere upon the employer's business or affairs by the direction, express or implied, of the employer, provided:

      (A) (i) For a police officer or firefighter, "in the course of his employment" encompasses such individual's departure from such individual's place of abode to duty, such individual's duty, and the return to such individual's place of abode after duty;

      (ii) For an employee of the Department of Correction, (I) when responding to a direct order to appear at his or her work assignment under circumstances in which nonessential employees are excused from working, or (II) following two or more mandatory overtime work shifts on consecutive days, "in the course of his employment" encompasses such individual's departure from such individual's place of abode directly to duty, such individual's duty, and the return directly to such individual's place of abode after duty;

      (iii) Notwithstanding the provisions of clauses (i) and (ii) of this subparagraph, the dependents of any deceased employee of the Department of Correction who was injured in the course of his employment, as defined in this subparagraph, on or after July 1, 2000, and who died not later than July 15, 2000, shall be paid compensation on account of the death, in accordance with the provisions of section 31-306, retroactively to the date of the employee's death. The cost of the payment shall be paid by the employer or its insurance carrier which shall be reimbursed for such cost from the Second Injury Fund as provided in section 31-354 upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer may require;

      (B) A personal injury shall not be deemed to arise out of the employment unless causally traceable to the employment other than through weakened resistance or lowered vitality;

      (C) In the case of an accidental injury, a disability or a death due to the use of alcohol or narcotic drugs shall not be construed to be a compensable injury;

      (D) For aggravation of a preexisting disease, compensation shall be allowed only for that proportion of the disability or death due to the aggravation of the preexisting disease as may be reasonably attributed to the injury upon which the claim is based;

      (E) A personal injury shall not be deemed to arise out of the employment if the injury is sustained: (i) At the employee's place of abode, and (ii) while the employee is engaged in a preliminary act or acts in preparation for work unless such act or acts are undertaken at the express direction or request of the employer;

      (F) For purposes of subparagraph (C) of this subdivision, "narcotic drugs" means all controlled substances, as designated by the Commissioner of Consumer Protection pursuant to subsection (c) of section 21a-243, but does not include drugs prescribed in the course of medical treatment or in a program of research operated under the direction of a physician or pharmacologist. For purposes of subparagraph (E) of this subdivision, "place of abode" includes the inside of the residential structure, the garage, the common hallways, stairways, driveways, walkways and the yard;

      (G) The Workers' Compensation Commission shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to implement the provisions of this section and shall define the terms "a preliminary act", "acts in preparation for work", "departure from place of abode directly to duty" and "return directly to place of abode after duty" on or before January 1, 2006.

      (2) "Commission" means the Workers' Compensation Commission.

      (3) "Commissioner" means the compensation commissioner who has jurisdiction in the matter referred to in the context.

      (4) "Compensation" means benefits or payments mandated by the provisions of this chapter, including, but not limited to, indemnity, medical and surgical aid or hospital and nursing service required under section 31-294d and any type of payment for disability, whether for total or partial disability of a permanent or temporary nature, death benefit, funeral expense, payments made under the provisions of section 31-284b, 31-293a or 31-310, or any adjustment in benefits or payments required by this chapter.

      (5) "Date of the injury" means, for an occupational disease, the date of total or partial incapacity to work as a result of such disease.

      (6) "Dependent" means a member of the injured employee's family or next of kin who was wholly or partly dependent upon the earnings of the employee at the time of the injury.

      (7) "Dependent in fact" means a person determined to be a dependent of an injured employee, in any case where there is no presumptive dependent, in accordance with the facts existing at the date of the injury.

      (8) "Disfigurement" means impairment of or injury to the beauty, symmetry or appearance of a person that renders the person unsightly, misshapen or imperfect, or deforms the person in some manner, or otherwise causes a detrimental change in the external form of the person.

      (9) (A) "Employee" means any person who:

      (i) Has entered into or works under any contract of service or apprenticeship with an employer, whether the contract contemplated the performance of duties within or without the state;

      (ii) Is a sole proprietor or business partner who accepts the provisions of this chapter in accordance with subdivision (10) of this section;

      (iii) Is elected to serve as a member of the General Assembly of this state;

      (iv) Is a salaried officer or paid member of any police department or fire department;

      (v) Is a volunteer police officer, whether the officer is designated as special or auxiliary, upon vote of the legislative body of the town, city or borough in which the officer serves;

      (vi) Is an elected or appointed official or agent of any town, city or borough in the state, upon vote of the proper authority of the town, city or borough, including the elected or appointed official or agent, irrespective of the manner in which he or she is appointed or employed. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed as affecting any existing rights as to pensions which such persons or their dependents had on July 1, 1927, or as preventing any existing custom of paying the full salary of any such person during disability due to injury arising out of and in the course of his or her employment; or

      (vii) Is an officer or enlisted person of the National Guard or other armed forces of the state called to active duty by the Governor while performing his or her active duty service.

      (B) "Employee" shall not be construed to include:

      (i) Any person to whom articles or material are given to be treated in any way on premises not under the control or management of the person who gave them out;

      (ii) One whose employment is of a casual nature and who is employed otherwise than for the purposes of the employer's trade or business;

      (iii) A member of the employer's family dwelling in his house; but, if, in any contract of insurance, the wages or salary of a member of the employer's family dwelling in his house is included in the payroll on which the premium is based, then that person shall, if he sustains an injury arising out of and in the course of his employment, be deemed an employee and compensated in accordance with the provisions of this chapter;

      (iv) Any person engaged in any type of service in or about a private dwelling provided he is not regularly employed by the owner or occupier over twenty-six hours per week;

      (v) An employee of a corporation who is a corporate officer and who elects to be excluded from coverage under this chapter by notice in writing to his employer and to the commissioner; or

      (vi) Any person who is not a resident of this state but is injured in this state during the course of his employment, unless such person (I) works for an employer who has a place of employment or a business facility located in this state at which such person spends at least fifty per cent of his employment time, or (II) works for an employer pursuant to an employment contract to be performed primarily in this state.

      (10) "Employer" means any person, corporation, limited liability company, firm, partnership, voluntary association, joint stock association, the state and any public corporation within the state using the services of one or more employees for pay, or the legal representative of any such employer, but all contracts of employment between an employer employing persons excluded from the definition of employee and any such employee shall be conclusively presumed to include the following mutual agreements between employer and employee: (A) That the employer may accept and become bound by the provisions of this chapter by immediately complying with section 31-284; (B) that, if the employer accepts the provisions of this chapter, the employee shall then be deemed to accept and be bound by such provisions unless the employer neglects or refuses to furnish immediately to the employee, on his written request, evidence of compliance with section 31-284 in the form of a certificate from the commissioner, the Insurance Commissioner or the insurer, as the case may be; (C) that the employee may, at any time, withdraw his acceptance of, and become released from, the provisions of this chapter by giving written or printed notice of his withdrawal to the commissioner and to the employer, and the withdrawal shall take effect immediately from the time of its service on the commissioner and the employer; and (D) that the employer may withdraw his acceptance and the acceptance of the employee by filing a written or printed notice of his withdrawal with the commissioner and with the employee, and the withdrawal shall take effect immediately from the time of its service on the commissioner and the employee. The notices of acceptance and withdrawal to be given by an employer employing persons excluded from the definition of employee and the notice of withdrawal to be given by the employee, as provided in this subdivision, shall be served upon the commissioner, employer or employee, either by personal presentation or by registered or certified mail. In determining the number of employees employed by an individual, the employees of a partnership of which he is a member shall not be included. A person who is the sole proprietor of a business may accept the provisions of this chapter by notifying the commissioner, in writing, of his intent to do so. If such person accepts the provisions of this chapter he shall be considered to be an employer and shall insure his full liability in accordance with subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of section 31-284. Such person may withdraw his acceptance by giving notice of his withdrawal, in writing, to the commissioner. Any person who is a partner in a business shall be deemed to have accepted the provisions of this chapter and shall insure his full liability in accordance with subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of section 31-284, unless the partnership elects to be excluded from the provisions of this chapter by notice, in writing and by signed agreement of each partner, to the commissioner.

      (11) "Full-time student" means any student enrolled for at least seventy-five per cent of a full-time student load at a postsecondary educational institution which has been approved by a state-recognized or federally-recognized accrediting agency or body. "Full-time student load" means the number of credit hours, quarter credits or academic units required for a degree from such institution, divided by the number of academic terms needed to complete the degree.

      (12) "Medical and surgical aid or hospital and nursing service", when requested by an injured employee and approved by the commissioner, includes treatment by prayer or spiritual means through the application or use of the principles, tenets or teachings of any established church without the use of any drug or material remedy, provided sanitary and quarantine regulations are complied with, and provided all those ministering to the injured employee are bona fide members of such church.

      (13) "Member" includes all parts of the human body referred to in subsection (b) of section 31-308.

      (14) "Nursing" means the practice of nursing as defined in subsection (a) of section 20-87a, and "nurse" means a person engaged in such practice.

      (15) "Occupational disease" includes any disease peculiar to the occupation in which the employee was engaged and due to causes in excess of the ordinary hazards of employment as such, and includes any disease due to or attributable to exposure to or contact with any radioactive material by an employee in the course of his employment.

      (16) (A) "Personal injury" or "injury" includes, in addition to accidental injury that may be definitely located as to the time when and the place where the accident occurred, an injury to an employee that is causally connected with the employee's employment and is the direct result of repetitive trauma or repetitive acts incident to such employment, and occupational disease.

      (B) "Personal injury" or "injury" shall not be construed to include:

      (i) An injury to an employee that results from the employee's voluntary participation in any activity the major purpose of which is social or recreational, including, but not limited to, athletic events, parties and picnics, whether or not the employer pays some or all of the cost of such activity;

      (ii) A mental or emotional impairment, unless such impairment arises (I) from a physical injury or occupational disease, or (II) in the case of a police officer, from such police officer's use of deadly force or subjection to deadly force in the line of duty, regardless of whether such police officer is physically injured, provided such police officer is the subject of an attempt by another person to cause such police officer serious physical injury or death through the use of deadly force, and such police officer reasonably believes such police officer to be the subject of such an attempt. As used in this clause, "police officer" means a member of the Division of State Police within the Department of Public Safety, an organized local police department or a municipal constabulary, and "in the line of duty" means any action that a police officer is obligated or authorized by law, rule, regulation or written condition of employment service to perform, or for which the police officer is compensated by the public entity such officer serves;

      (iii) A mental or emotional impairment that results from a personnel action, including, but not limited to, a transfer, promotion, demotion or termination; or

      (iv) Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph (B)(i) of this subdivision, "personal injury" or "injury" includes injuries to employees of local or regional boards of education resulting from participation in a school-sponsored activity but does not include any injury incurred while going to or from such activity. As used in this clause, "school-sponsored activity" means any activity sponsored, recognized or authorized by a board of education and includes activities conducted on or off school property and "participation" means acting as a chaperone, advisor, supervisor or instructor at the request of an administrator with supervisory authority over the employee.

      (17) "Physician" includes any person licensed and authorized to practice a healing art, as defined in section 20-1, and licensed under the provisions of chapters 370, 372 and 373 to practice in this state.

      (18) "Podiatrist" means any practitioner of podiatry, as defined in section 20-50, and duly licensed under the provisions of chapter 375 to practice in this state.

      (19) "Presumptive dependents" means the following persons who are conclusively presumed to be wholly dependent for support upon a deceased employee: (A) A wife upon a husband with whom she lives at the time of his injury or from whom she receives support regularly; (B) a husband upon a wife with whom he lives at the time of her injury or from whom he receives support regularly; (C) any child under the age of eighteen, or over the age of eighteen but physically or mentally incapacitated from earning, upon the parent with whom he is living or from whom he is receiving support regularly, at the time of the injury of the parent; (D) any unmarried child who has attained the age of eighteen but has not attained the age of twenty-two and who is a full-time student, upon the parent with whom he is living or from whom he is receiving support regularly, provided, any child who has attained the age of twenty-two while a full-time student but has not completed the requirements for, or received, a degree from a postsecondary educational institution shall be deemed not to have attained the age of twenty-two until the first day of the first month following the end of the quarter or semester in which he is enrolled at the time, or if he is not enrolled in a quarter or semester system, until the first day of the first month following the completion of the course in which he is enrolled or until the first day of the third month beginning after such time, whichever occurs first.

      (20) "Previous disability" means an employee's preexisting condition caused by the total or partial loss of, or loss of use of, one hand, one arm, one foot or one eye resulting from accidental injury, disease or congenital causes, or other permanent physical impairment.

      (21) "Scar" means the mark left on the skin after the healing of a wound or sore, or any mark, damage or lasting effect resulting from past injury.

      (22) "Second disability" means a disability arising out of a second injury.

      (23) "Second injury" means an injury, incurred by accident, repetitive trauma, repetitive acts or disease arising out of and in the course of employment, to an employee with a previous disability.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7416; 1949, S. 3037d; 1958 Rev., S. 31-139; 1961, P.A. 491, S. 1; 1967, P.A. 842, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 289; 556, S. 1; 696, S. 1; 806, S. 1; 1972, P.A. 281, S. 2; P.A. 77-614, S. 163, 610; P.A. 78-324, S. 3; P.A. 79-113; 79-540, S. 1; P.A. 80-124, S. 1; 80-284, S. 1; 80-414, S. 1; 80-482, S. 201, 348; 80-483, S. 95, 186; P.A. 82-398, S. 1; P.A. 84-320, S. 1, 6; P.A. 85-420, S. 1, 4; P.A. 88-184, S. 1, 3; 88-364, S. 50, 123; P.A. 91-32, S. 1, 41; 91-339, S. 1; P.A. 92-31, S. 1, 7; P.A. 93-228, S. 1, 35; P.A. 95-79, S. 117, 189; 95-262, S. 2, 3; P.A. 96-180, S. 104, 166; P.A. 97-205, S. 1; P.A. 99-102, S. 41; P.A. 01-208, S. 2, 3; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 146(c); P.A. 04-189, S. 1; P.A. 05-208, S. 4; 05-230, S. 1; 05-236, S. 2.)

      History: 1961 act entirely replaced previous provisions; 1967 act redefined "commission" as seven rather than five commissioners, added exception in definition of "dependent" and redefined "employer" as those employing one or more rather than two or more persons; 1969 acts redefined "arising out of and in the course of his employment" to include special provision re policemen and firemen, redefined "physician" to include those practicing a healing art and duly licensed rather than those practicing as chiropractors, added definition of "podiatrist", redefined "occupational disease" to include diseases resulting from exposure to or contact with radioactive materials and specified "regularly" employed in Subdiv. (d) of definition of "employer"; 1972 act included persons elected as members of the general assembly in definition of "employee"; P.A. 77-614 made insurance department a division within the department of business regulation with insurance commissioner as its head, effective January 1, 1979 (See Subsec. (6)); P.A. 78-324 included volunteer police officers in definition of "employee"; P.A. 79-113 divided section into Subsecs. and redefined "employee" and "employer" to include provisions re persons who are sole proprietors or partners in a business; P.A. 79-540 redefined "commission" to raise number of commissioners to eight and defined "compensation review division"; P.A. 80-124 substituted "causally" for "casually" in Subsec. (8); P.A. 80-284 inserted new Subsec. (13) defining "full-time student" and renumbered former Subsec. (13) accordingly; P.A. 80-414 redefined "commission" and "compensation review division" to reflect increase in number of commissioners to nine; P.A. 80-482 reinstated insurance department and deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 80-483 made technical correction; P.A. 82-398 defined "income", including within it all forms of remuneration to an individual from his employment; P.A. 84-320 amended Subsecs. (2) and (3) to increase the number of commissioners to ten; P.A. 85-420 amended Subdivs. (2) and (3) to increase the number of commissioners to eleven; P.A. 88-184 redefined "commission" and "compensation review division" to reflect an increase in number of commissioners to thirteen; P.A. 88-364 made a technical change in Subsec. (5); P.A. 91-32 replaced existing definitions with Subdivs. (1) to (22), inclusive; P.A. 91-339 redefined "commission" in Subsec. (2), deleted definition of "compensation review division" in former Subsec. (5), deleted reference to Sec. 31-308b from renumbered Subsec. (6), added new Subsec. (8) defining "disfigurement" and added new Subsec. (21) defining "scar", renumbering as necessary; P.A. 92-31 redefined "compensation" to delete dependency allowances; P.A. 93-228 redefined "arising out of and in the course of his employment", "employee", "employer" and "personal injury" in Subdivs. (1), (9), (10) and (16), respectively, added definition of "narcotic drugs" in Subdiv. (1), and deleted definitions of "significant disfigurement" and "significant scar" in Subdivs. (8) and (21), respectively, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-79 redefined "employer" in Subdiv. (10) to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 95-262 amended Subdiv. (1) to redefine "arising out of and in the course of his employment" to exclude as a personal injury, any injury sustained at the employee's place of abode while the employee is engaged in a preliminary act or acts in preparation for work unless at the express direction or request of the employer, to define "place of abode" and to require the Workers' Compensation Commission to adopt regulations and to define "a preliminary act" and "acts in preparation for work", effective July 6, 1995 (Revisor's note: The phrase "the Workers Compensation Commissioner shall adopt regulations" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "the Workers Compensation Commission shall adopt regulations" to correct an apparent clerical error in the reference to "Commissioner"); P.A. 96-180 amended Subdivs. (9) and (10) to make technical changes, effective June 3, 1996; P.A. 97-205 amended Subpara. (B) of Subdiv. (16) to define "personal injury" and "school-sponsored activity"; P.A. 99-102 amended Subdiv. (17) by deleting obsolete reference to chapter 371; P.A. 01-208 amended Subdiv. (1) by making technical changes throughout, designating existing Subpara. (A) as Subpara. (A)(i), adding Subpara. (A)(ii) re dependents of certain deceased employees of the Department of Correction and designating portions of existing Subpara. (E) as Subparas. (F) and (G), effective July 13, 2001; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 replaced Commissioner of Consumer Protection with Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 04-189 repealed Sec. 146 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, thereby reversing the merger of the Departments of Agriculture and Consumer Protection, effective June 1, 2004; P.A. 05-208 amended Subdiv. (16)(B)(ii) to exempt mental or emotional impairment of police officer arising from use of or subjection to deadly force from general mental or emotional impairment exclusion from definition of "personal injury" or "injury" and made technical changes throughout Subdiv. (16); P.A. 05-230 amended Subdiv. (1)(A) by adding new clause (ii) defining "in the course of his employment" for employees of Department of Correction, redesignating existing clause (ii) as clause (iii) and making a conforming change therein, and amended Subdiv. (1)(G) by requiring Workers' Compensation Commission to define "departure from place of abode directly to duty" and "return directly to place of abode after duty" by regulation on or before January 1, 2006; P.A. 05-236 amended Subdiv. (9)(A) by making technical changes in clause (vi) and adding clause (vii) to redefine "employee" to include members of the National Guard or other armed forces of the state called to active duty by Governor while performing active duty service, effective July 1, 2005.

      See Sec. 31-294h re extent of benefits for mental or emotional impairment of police officers.

      In-home health care worker comes within traveling employee exception to "coming and going rule", and injury sustained during travel from her home to home of patient is injury "arising out of and in the course of his employment". 274 C. 219.

      Based on facts presented, plaintiff's injury was compensable when sustained during a basketball game organized by supervisors during working hours. 91 CA 345.

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II

EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY

      Sec. 31-284. Basic rights and liabilities. Civil action to enjoin noncomplying employer from entering into employment contracts. Notice of availability of compensation.

      Section, absent an exception, bars plaintiff from claiming underinsured motorist coverage under his employer's policy despite fact that he is a named insured. 87 CA 416.

      Subsec. (a):

      Cause of action in tort against insurer for bad faith processing of compensation claim barred by exclusivity provision of section, and remedies are limited to those afforded under Secs. 31-288(b) and 31-300. 273 C. 487.

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PART B
WORKERS' COMPENSATION

      Sec. 31-293a. No right against fellow employee; exception.

      Injury occurring from use of motor vehicle at service station did not fall under the motor vehicle exception but rather is attributable to "the special hazards of the work place". 49 CS 351.

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      Sec. 31-294c. Notice of claim for compensation. Notice contesting liability. Exception for dependents of certain deceased employees. (a) No proceedings for compensation under the provisions of this chapter shall be maintained unless a written notice of claim for compensation is given within one year from the date of the accident or within three years from the first manifestation of a symptom of the occupational disease, as the case may be, which caused the personal injury, provided, if death has resulted within two years from the date of the accident or first manifestation of a symptom of the occupational disease, a dependent or dependents, or the legal representative of the deceased employee, may make claim for compensation within the two-year period or within one year from the date of death, whichever is later. Notice of a claim for compensation may be given to the employer or any commissioner and shall state, in simple language, the date and place of the accident and the nature of the injury resulting from the accident, or the date of the first manifestation of a symptom of the occupational disease and the nature of the disease, as the case may be, and the name and address of the employee and of the person in whose interest compensation is claimed. An employee of the state shall send a copy of the notice to the Commissioner of Administrative Services. As used in this section, "manifestation of a symptom" means manifestation to an employee claiming compensation, or to some other person standing in such relation to him that the knowledge of the person would be imputed to him, in a manner that is or should be recognized by him as symptomatic of the occupational disease for which compensation is claimed.

      (b) Whenever liability to pay compensation is contested by the employer, he shall file with the commissioner, on or before the twenty-eighth day after he has received a written notice of claim, a notice in accord with a form prescribed by the chairman of the Workers' Compensation Commission stating that the right to compensation is contested, the name of the claimant, the name of the employer, the date of the alleged injury or death and the specific grounds on which the right to compensation is contested. The employer shall send a copy of the notice to the employee in accordance with section 31-321. If the employer or his legal representative fails to file the notice contesting liability on or before the twenty-eighth day after he has received the written notice of claim, the employer shall commence payment of compensation for such injury or death on or before the twenty-eighth day after he has received the written notice of claim, but the employer may contest the employee's right to receive compensation on any grounds or the extent of his disability within one year from the receipt of the written notice of claim, provided the employer shall not be required to commence payment of compensation when the written notice of claim has not been properly served in accordance with section 31-321 or when the written notice of claim fails to include a warning that (1) the employer, if he has commenced payment for the alleged injury or death on or before the twenty-eighth day after receiving a written notice of claim, shall be precluded from contesting liability unless a notice contesting liability is filed within one year from the receipt of the written notice of claim, and (2) the employer shall be conclusively presumed to have accepted the compensability of the alleged injury or death unless the employer either files a notice contesting liability on or before the twenty-eighth day after receiving a written notice of claim or commences payment for the alleged injury or death on or before such twenty-eighth day. An employer shall be entitled, if he prevails, to reimbursement from the claimant of any compensation paid by the employer on and after the date the commissioner receives written notice from the employer or his legal representative, in accordance with the form prescribed by the chairman of the Workers' Compensation Commission, stating that the right to compensation is contested. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection, an employer who fails to contest liability for an alleged injury or death on or before the twenty-eighth day after receiving a written notice of claim and who fails to commence payment for the alleged injury or death on or before such twenty-eighth day, shall be conclusively presumed to have accepted the compensability of the alleged injury or death.

      (c) Failure to provide a notice of claim under subsection (a) of this section shall not bar maintenance of the proceedings if there has been a hearing or a written request for a hearing or an assignment for a hearing within a one-year period from the date of the accident or within a three-year period from the first manifestation of a symptom of the occupational disease, as the case may be, or if a voluntary agreement has been submitted within the applicable period, or if within the applicable period an employee has been furnished, for the injury with respect to which compensation is claimed, with medical or surgical care as provided in section 31-294d. No defect or inaccuracy of notice of claim shall bar maintenance of proceedings unless the employer shows that he was ignorant of the facts concerning the personal injury and was prejudiced by the defect or inaccuracy of the notice. Upon satisfactory showing of ignorance and prejudice, the employer shall receive allowance to the extent of the prejudice.

      (d) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, a dependent or dependents of a deceased employee seeking compensation under section 31-306 who was barred by a final judgment in a court of law from filing a claim arising out of the death of the deceased employee, whose date of injury was between June 1, 1991, and June 30, 1991, and whose date of death was between November 1, 1992, and November 30, 1992, because of the failure of the dependent to timely file a separate death benefits claim, shall be allowed to file a written notice of claim for compensation not later than one year after July 8, 2005, and the commissioner shall have jurisdiction to determine such dependent's claim.

      (P.A. 91-32, S. 11, 41; 91-339, S. 47, 55; P.A. 93-228, S. 8, 35; 93-419, S. 8, 9; P.A. 05-230, S. 2.)

      History: P.A. 91-339 amended Subsec. (b) to change "commissioners" to "chairman of the workers' compensation commission"; P.A. 93-228 amended Subsec. (b) to change the circumstances under which a conclusive presumption of employer liability is established and to allow an employer who successfully contests liability for a claim to recover compensation paid to the claimant, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-419 made technical change in Subsec. (b), replacing "commended" with "commenced", effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 05-230 added new Subsec. (d) re jurisdiction of commissioner over specified claim of dependent or dependents of deceased employee, effective July 8, 2005, and applicable to claims pending on or filed on and after that date.

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      Sec. 31-294f. Medical examination of injured employee. Medical reports.

      Although plain language of statute authorizes physical or mental examinations by reputable practicing physician or surgeon and defendant's vocational rehabilitation expert is not a medical doctor, statute does not limit broad equitable powers of commissioner to act pursuant to the more general provisions that encourage full disclosure and cooperation among the parties during pendency of a claim; workers' compensation review board properly affirmed commissioner's decision to compel plaintiff to undergo vocational rehabilitation examination by a nonphysician selected by defendant, and commissioner did not abuse his discretion in precluding plaintiff from admitting evidence from her vocational rehabilitation expert when she disregarded commissioner's order to submit to examination by defendant's vocational rehabilitation expert. 91 CA 470.

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      Sec. 31-294h. Benefits for police officers suffering mental or emotional impairment. Notwithstanding any provision of this chapter, workers' compensation benefits for any police officer, as defined in subparagraph (B)(ii) of subdivision (16) of section 31-275, who suffers a mental or emotional impairment arising from such police officer's use of deadly force or subjection to deadly force in the line of duty, shall be limited to treatment by a psychologist or a psychiatrist who is on the approved list of practicing physicians established by the chairman of the Workers' Compensation Commission pursuant to section 31-280.

      (P.A. 05-208, S. 5.)

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      Sec. 31-299b. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Initial liability of last employer. Reimbursement. If an employee suffers an injury or disease for which compensation is found by the commissioner to be payable according to the provisions of this chapter, the employer who last employed the claimant prior to the filing of the claim, or the employer's insurer, shall be initially liable for the payment of such compensation. The commissioner shall, within a reasonable period of time after issuing an award, on the basis of the record of the hearing, determine whether prior employers, or their insurers, are liable for a portion of such compensation and the extent of their liability. If prior employers are found to be so liable, the commissioner shall order such employers or their insurers to reimburse the initially liable employer or insurer according to the proportion of their liability. Reimbursement shall be made within ten days of the commissioner's order with interest, from the date of the initial payment, at twelve per cent per annum. If no appeal from the commissioner's order is taken by any employer or insurer within twenty days, the order shall be final and may be enforced in the same manner as a judgment of the Superior Court.

      (P.A. 81-155, S. 1; P.A. 01-22, S. 2.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2006, this section, as amended by section 1 of public act 05-199, is to read as follows:

      "Sec. 31-299b. Initial liability of last employer. Reimbursement. If an employee suffers an injury or disease for which compensation is found by the commissioner to be payable according to the provisions of this chapter, the employer who last employed the claimant prior to the filing of the claim, or the employer's insurer, shall be initially liable for the payment of such compensation. The commissioner shall, within a reasonable period of time after issuing an award, on the basis of the record of the hearing, determine whether prior employers, or their insurers, are liable for a portion of such compensation and the extent of their liability. If prior employers are found to be so liable, the commissioner shall order such employers or their insurers to reimburse the initially liable employer or insurer according to the proportion of their liability. Reimbursement shall be made within ten days of the commissioner's order with interest, from the date of the initial payment, at twelve per cent per annum. If no appeal from the commissioner's order is taken by any employer or insurer within twenty days, the order shall be final and may be enforced in the same manner as a judgment of the Superior Court. For purposes of this section, the Second Injury Fund shall not be deemed an employer or an insurer and shall be exempt from any liability. The amount of any compensation for which the Second Injury Fund would be liable except for the exemption provided under this section shall be reallocated among any other employers, or their insurers, who are liable for such compensation according to a ratio, the numerator of which is the percentage of the total compensation for which an employer, or its insurer, is liable and the denominator of which is the total percentage of liability of all employers, or their insurers, excluding the percentage that would have been attributable to the Second Injury Fund, for such compensation."

      (P.A. 81-155, S. 1; P.A. 01-22, S. 2; P.A. 05-199, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 01-22 increased time for taking an appeal from order of commissioner from ten to twenty days; P.A. 05-199 provided that Second Injury Fund not be deemed an employer or insurer and be exempt from liability under section, and that compensation otherwise attributable to fund be reallocated among any other liable employers or insurers according to ratio, effective July 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 31-306. *(See end of section for amended versions of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) and subsections (c) and (d) and effective date.) Death resulting from accident or occupational disease. Dependents. Compensation. (a) Compensation shall be paid to dependents on account of death resulting from an accident arising out of and in the course of employment or from an occupational disease as follows:

      (1) Four thousand dollars shall be paid for burial expenses in any case in which the employee died on or after October 1, 1988. If there is no one wholly or partially dependent upon the deceased employee, the burial expenses of four thousand dollars shall be paid to the person who assumes the responsibility of paying the funeral expenses.

      *(2) To those wholly dependent upon the deceased employee at the date of the deceased employee's injury, a weekly compensation equal to seventy-five per cent of the average weekly earnings of the deceased calculated pursuant to section 31-310, after such earnings have been reduced by any deduction for federal or state taxes, or both, and for the federal Insurance Contributions Act made from such employee's total wages received during the period of calculation of the employee's average weekly wage pursuant to said section 31-310, as of the date of the injury but not more than the maximum weekly compensation rate set forth in section 31-309 for the year in which the injury occurred or less than twenty dollars weekly. (A) The weekly compensation rate of each dependent entitled to receive compensation under this section as a result of death arising from a compensable injury occurring on or after October 1, 1977, shall be adjusted annually as provided in this subdivision as of the following October first, and each subsequent October first, to provide the dependent with a cost-of-living adjustment in the dependent's weekly compensation rate as determined as of the date of the injury under section 31-309. If the maximum weekly compensation rate, as determined under the provisions of said section 31-309, to be effective as of any October first following the date of the injury, is greater than the maximum weekly compensation rate prevailing at the date of the injury, the weekly compensation rate which the injured employee was entitled to receive at the date of the injury or October 1, 1990, whichever is later, shall be increased by the percentage of the increase in the maximum weekly compensation rate required by the provisions of said section 31-309 from the date of the injury or October 1, 1990, whichever is later, to such October first. The cost-of-living increases provided under this subdivision shall be paid by the employer without any order or award from the commissioner. The adjustments shall apply to each payment made in the next succeeding twelve-month period commencing with the October first next succeeding the date of the injury. With respect to any dependent receiving benefits on October 1, 1997, with respect to any injury occurring on or after July 1, 1993, and before October 1, 1997, such benefit shall be recalculated to October 1, 1997, as if such benefits had been subject to recalculation annually under this subparagraph. The difference between the amount of any benefits that would have been paid to such dependent if such benefits had been subject to such recalculation and the actual amount of benefits paid during the period between such injury and such recalculation shall be paid to the dependent not later than December 1, 1997, in a lump-sum payment. The employer or its insurer shall be reimbursed by the Second Injury Fund, as provided in section 31-354, for adjustments, including lump-sum payments, payable under this subparagraph for deaths from compensable injuries occurring on or after July 1, 1993, and before October 1, 1997, upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require. (B) The weekly compensation rate of each dependent entitled to receive compensation under this section as a result of death arising from a compensable injury occurring on or before September 30, 1977, shall be adjusted as of October 1, 1977, and October 1, 1980, and thereafter, as provided in this subdivision to provide the dependent with partial cost-of-living adjustments in the dependent's weekly compensation rate. As of October 1, 1977, the weekly compensation rate paid prior to October 1, 1977, to the dependent shall be increased by twenty-five per cent. The partial cost-of-living adjustment provided under this subdivision shall be paid by the employer without any order or award from the commissioner. In addition, on each October first, the weekly compensation rate of each dependent as of October 1, 1990, shall be increased by the percentage of the increase in the maximum compensation rate over the maximum compensation rate of October 1, 1990, as determined under the provisions of section 31-309 existing on October 1, 1977. The cost of the adjustments shall be paid by the employer or its insurance carrier who shall be reimbursed for such cost from the Second Injury Fund as provided in section 31-354 upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require.

      (3) If the surviving spouse is the sole presumptive dependent, compensation shall be paid until death or remarriage.

      (4) If there is a presumptive dependent spouse surviving and also one or more presumptive dependent children, all of which children are either children of the surviving spouse or are living with the surviving spouse, the entire compensation shall be paid to the surviving spouse in the same manner and for the same period as if the surviving spouse were the sole dependent. If, however, any of the presumptive dependent children are neither children of the surviving spouse nor living with the surviving spouse, the compensation shall be divided into as many parts as there are presumptive dependents. The shares of any children having a presumptive dependent parent shall be added to the share of the parent and shall be paid to the parent. The share of any dependent child not having a surviving dependent parent shall be paid to the father or mother of the child with whom the child may be living, or to the legal guardian of the child, or to any other person, for the benefit of the child, as the commissioner may direct.

      (5) If the compensation being paid to the surviving presumptive dependent spouse terminates for any reason, or if there is no surviving presumptive dependent spouse at the time of the death of the employee, but there is at either time one or more presumptive dependent children, the compensation shall be paid to the children as a class, each child sharing equally with the others. Each child shall receive compensation until the child reaches the age of eighteen or dies before reaching age eighteen, provided the child shall continue to receive compensation up to the attainment of the age of twenty-two if unmarried and a full-time student, except any child who has attained the age of twenty-two while a full-time student but has not completed the requirements for, or received, a degree from a postsecondary educational institution shall be deemed not to have attained age twenty-two until the first day of the first month following the end of the quarter or semester in which the child is enrolled at the time, or if the child is not enrolled in a quarter or semester system, until the first day of the first month following the completion of the course in which the child is enrolled or until the first day of the third month beginning after such time, whichever occurs first. When a child's participation ceases, such child's share shall be divided among the remaining eligible dependent children, provided if any child, when the child reaches the age of eighteen years, is physically or mentally incapacitated from earning, the child's right to compensation shall not terminate but shall continue for the full period of incapacity.

      (6) In all cases where there are no presumptive dependents, but where there are one or more persons wholly dependent in fact, the compensation in case of death shall be divided according to the relative degree of their dependence. Compensation payable under this subdivision shall be paid for not more than three hundred and twelve weeks from the date of the death of the employee. The compensation, if paid to those wholly dependent in fact, shall be paid at the full compensation rate. The compensation, if paid to those partially dependent in fact upon the deceased employee as of the date of the injury, shall not, in total, be more than the full compensation rate nor less than twenty dollars weekly, nor, if the average weekly sum contributed by the deceased at the date of the injury to those partially dependent in fact is more than twenty dollars weekly, not more than the sum so contributed.

      (7) When the sole presumptive dependents are, at the time of the injury, nonresident aliens and the deceased has in this state some person or persons who are dependent in fact, the commissioner may in the commissioner's discretion equitably apportion the sums payable as compensation to the dependents.

      (b) The dependents of any deceased employee who was injured on or after January 1, 1974, and who subsequently dies shall be paid compensation on account of the death retroactively to the date of the employee's death. The cost of the payment or adjustment shall be paid by the employer or its insurance carrier who shall be reimbursed for such cost from the Second Injury Fund as provided in section 31-354 upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require.

      *(c) (1) The dependents of any deceased employee who was injured between January 1, 1952, and December 31, 1973, and who subsequently dies, shall be paid compensation on account of the death retroactively to the date of the employee's death. The cost of the payment or adjustment shall be paid by the employer or its insurance carrier who shall be reimbursed for such cost from the Second Injury Fund as provided in section 31-354 upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require.

      (2) The dependents of any deceased employee who was injured before January 1, 1952, and who died on or before October 1, 1991, shall be paid compensation on account of the death retroactively to the date of the employee's death. The cost of the payment or adjustment shall be paid by the employer or its insurance carrier who shall be reimbursed for such cost from the Second Injury Fund as provided in section 31-354 upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require.

      *(d) The dependents of any deceased employee who was injured in an accident arising out of and in the course of employment before January 1, 1952, and who died, as a result of those injuries, after October 1, 1991, shall be paid compensation, under the provisions of this section, effective as of the date of death of any such employee. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, the weekly compensation rate for such dependents shall equal the amount of compensation the injured employee was receiving prior to death pursuant to section 31-307. Such weekly compensation rate shall hereafter be adjusted in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a) of this section. The cost of such payment or adjustment shall be paid by the employer or the insurance carrier of such employer who shall be reimbursed for such cost from the Second Injury Fund provided for in section 31-354.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7428, 7429; 1949, 1951, 1953, 1955, S. 3042d; 1957, P.A. 463, S. 1; 1958 Rev., S. 31-159, 31-160; 1959, P.A. 580, S. 5, 22; 1961, P.A. 491, S. 29; 1967, P.A. 842, S. 12, 13; P.A. 77-554, S. 1; P.A. 78-369; P.A. 80-124, S. 2; 80-284, S. 2; 80-329; P.A. 84-453; P.A. 88-92; P.A. 89-68, S. 1; P.A. 91-32, S. 21, 41; 91-339, S. 25; P.A. 92-31, S. 4, 7; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11, S. 54, 70; P.A. 93-228, S. 15, 35; P.A. 97-205, S. 3; P.A. 98-104, S. 2, 6; P.A. 01-162, S. 1, 2.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2006, subdivision (2) of subsection (a) and subsections (c) and (d), as amended by sections 2, 3 and 4, respectively, of public act 05-199, are to read as follows:

      "(2) To those wholly dependent upon the deceased employee at the date of the deceased employee's injury, a weekly compensation equal to seventy-five per cent of the average weekly earnings of the deceased calculated pursuant to section 31-310, after such earnings have been reduced by any deduction for federal or state taxes, or both, and for the federal Insurance Contributions Act made from such employee's total wages received during the period of calculation of the employee's average weekly wage pursuant to said section 31-310, as of the date of the injury but not more than the maximum weekly compensation rate set forth in section 31-309 for the year in which the injury occurred or less than twenty dollars weekly. (A) The weekly compensation rate of each dependent entitled to receive compensation under this section as a result of death arising from a compensable injury occurring on or after October 1, 1977, shall be adjusted annually as provided in this subdivision as of the following October first, and each subsequent October first, to provide the dependent with a cost-of-living adjustment in the dependent's weekly compensation rate as determined as of the date of the injury under section 31-309. If the maximum weekly compensation rate, as determined under the provisions of said section 31-309, to be effective as of any October first following the date of the injury, is greater than the maximum weekly compensation rate prevailing at the date of the injury, the weekly compensation rate which the injured employee was entitled to receive at the date of the injury or October 1, 1990, whichever is later, shall be increased by the percentage of the increase in the maximum weekly compensation rate required by the provisions of said section 31-309 from the date of the injury or October 1, 1990, whichever is later, to such October first. The cost-of-living increases provided under this subdivision shall be paid by the employer without any order or award from the commissioner. The adjustments shall apply to each payment made in the next succeeding twelve-month period commencing with the October first next succeeding the date of the injury. With respect to any dependent receiving benefits on October 1, 1997, with respect to any injury occurring on or after July 1, 1993, and before October 1, 1997, such benefit shall be recalculated to October 1, 1997, as if such benefits had been subject to recalculation annually under this subparagraph. The difference between the amount of any benefits that would have been paid to such dependent if such benefits had been subject to such recalculation and the actual amount of benefits paid during the period between such injury and such recalculation shall be paid to the dependent not later than December 1, 1997, in a lump-sum payment. The employer or its insurer shall be reimbursed by the Second Injury Fund, as provided in section 31-354, for adjustments, including lump-sum payments, payable under this subparagraph for deaths from compensable injuries occurring on or after July 1, 1993, and before October 1, 1997, upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require. No claim for payment of retroactive benefits may be made to the Second Injury Fund more than two years after the date on which the employer or its insurer paid such benefits in accordance with this subparagraph. (B) The weekly compensation rate of each dependent entitled to receive compensation under this section as a result of death arising from a compensable injury occurring on or before September 30, 1977, shall be adjusted as of October 1, 1977, and October 1, 1980, and thereafter, as provided in this subdivision to provide the dependent with partial cost-of-living adjustments in the dependent's weekly compensation rate. As of October 1, 1977, the weekly compensation rate paid prior to October 1, 1977, to the dependent shall be increased by twenty-five per cent. The partial cost-of-living adjustment provided under this subdivision shall be paid by the employer without any order or award from the commissioner. In addition, on each October first, the weekly compensation rate of each dependent as of October 1, 1990, shall be increased by the percentage of the increase in the maximum compensation rate over the maximum compensation rate of October 1, 1990, as determined under the provisions of section 31-309 existing on October 1, 1977. The cost of the adjustments shall be paid by the employer or its insurance carrier who shall be reimbursed for such cost from the Second Injury Fund as provided in section 31-354 upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require. No claim for payment of retroactive benefits may be made to the Second Injury Fund more than two years after the date on which the employer or its insurance carrier paid such benefits in accordance with this subparagraph."

      "(c) (1) The dependents of any deceased employee who was injured between January 1, 1952, and December 31, 1973, and who subsequently dies, shall be paid compensation on account of the death retroactively to the date of the employee's death. The cost of the payment or adjustment shall be paid by the employer or its insurance carrier who shall be reimbursed for such cost from the Second Injury Fund as provided in section 31-354 upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require. No claim for payment of retroactive benefits may be made to the Second Injury Fund more than two years after the date on which the employer or its insurance carrier paid such benefits in accordance with this subdivision.

      (2) The dependents of any deceased employee who was injured before January 1, 1952, and who died on or before October 1, 1991, shall be paid compensation on account of the death retroactively to the date of the employee's death. The cost of the payment or adjustment shall be paid by the employer or its insurance carrier who shall be reimbursed for such cost from the Second Injury Fund as provided in section 31-354 upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require. No claim for payment of retroactive benefits may be made to the Second Injury Fund more than two years after the date on which the employer or its insurance carrier paid such benefits in accordance with this subdivision."

      "(d) The dependents of any deceased employee who was injured in an accident arising out of and in the course of employment before January 1, 1952, and who died, as a result of those injuries, after October 1, 1991, shall be paid compensation, under the provisions of this section, effective as of the date of death of any such employee. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, the weekly compensation rate for such dependents shall equal the amount of compensation the injured employee was receiving prior to death pursuant to section 31-307. Such weekly compensation rate shall hereafter be adjusted in accordance with the provisions of subsection (a) of this section. The cost of such payment or adjustment shall be paid by the employer or the insurance carrier of such employer who shall be reimbursed for such cost from the Second Injury Fund provided for in section 31-354. No claim for payment of retroactive benefits may be made to the Second Injury Fund more than two years after the date on which the employer or its insurance carrier paid such benefits in accordance with this subsection."

      (1949 Rev., S. 7428, 7429; 1949, 1951, 1953, 1955, S. 3042d; 1957, P.A. 463, S. 1; 1958 Rev., S. 31-159, 31-160; 1959, P.A. 580, S. 5, 22; 1961, P.A. 491, S. 29; 1967, P.A. 842, S. 12, 13; P.A. 77-554, S. 1; P.A. 78-369; P.A. 80-124, S. 2; 80-284, S. 2; 80-329; P.A. 84-453; P.A. 88-92; P.A. 89-68, S. 1; P.A. 91-32, S. 21, 41; 91-339, S. 25; P.A. 92-31, S. 4, 7; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11, S. 54, 70; P.A. 93-228, S. 15, 35; P.A. 97-205, S. 3; P.A. 98-104, S. 2, 6; P.A. 01-162, S. 1, 2; P.A. 05-199, S. 2-4.)

      History: 1959 act replaced previous provisions and was in turn replaced by provisions of 1961 act; 1967 act increased payments for burial expenses from five hundred to one thousand dollars in all cases where previously thousand-dollar payment was given to father, mother, brother, sister, son or daughter of deceased in Subsec. (a) and raised weekly compensation allowed in Subsec. (b) from sixty to sixty-six and two-thirds per cent of deceased's average weekly earnings; P.A. 77-554 increased burial payments to one thousand five hundred dollars and deleted requirement that death must have occurred within six years of date of injury or first manifestation of occupational disease symptoms in Subsec. (b), added provisions re cost-of-living adjustments in Subsec. (b) and amended Subsec. (c) to allow compensation to widows and widowers on same basis where previously widowers' payments terminated after three hundred and twelve weeks; P.A. 78-369 reorganized Subsecs., designating former Subsecs. (a) to (h) as Subdivs. (1) to (8) under Subsec. (b) and deleted former Subsec. (i) re reduction of compensation period by the period for which payments were made to deceased if death occurred more than two years from date of injury or manifestation of disease symptoms; P.A. 80-124 specified in Subsec. (b)(2) that time of injury is date of incapacity to work because of disease in cases involving occupational disease; P.A. 80-284 added Subdiv. (4) in Subsec. (a) re unmarried children, rephrased Subdiv. (5) in Subsec. (b) accordingly and deleted Subdiv. (6); P.A. 80-329 added provisions re cost-of-living adjustments as of October 1, 1980; P.A. 84-453 amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (b) to increase burial expense benefits from one thousand five hundred dollars to three thousand dollars; P.A. 88-92 amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (b) to increase burial expense benefits from three to four thousand dollars; P.A. 89-68 added Subsec. (c) providing for the payment of compensation to dependents of deceased employees who were injured on or after January 1, 1974, and who died not later than December 31, 1981; P.A. 91-32 deleted existing Subsec. (a) which had detailed persons to be considered wholly dependent on a deceased employee, relettering remaining Subsecs. accordingly and made technical changes; P.A. 91-339 changed the weekly compensation allowed in Subsec. (a)(2) from sixty-six and two-thirds per cent of average weekly earnings to eighty per cent of average weekly earnings reduced by deductions for federal taxes and FICA; P.A. 92-31 amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (a) to provide that burial expenses shall be paid in any case where the employee died on or after October 1, 1988, amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) to provide that cost-of-living increases shall be calculated using a percentage instead of a dollar amount, and amended Subsec. (b) to authorize the payment of compensation to dependents of deceased employees who died not later than November 1, 1991; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11 added Subsec. (c) (Revisor's note: A reference to "second injury and compensation assurance fund" was changed editorially by the Revisors to read "second injury fund" for consistency with section 38 of public act 91-32); P.A. 93-228 amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) to decrease weekly compensation benefits for dependents of deceased employee from eighty to seventy-five per cent of deceased's average weekly earnings, to require that state taxes be deducted in calculating such earnings, and to eliminate cost-of-living adjustments for dependents of deceased employees injured on or after July 1, 1993, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 97-205 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to reinstate cost-of-living adjustments to benefits received for injuries occurring on or after July 1, 1993, and before October 1, 1997; P.A. 98-104 increased the annual cost-of-living adjustment on workers' compensation benefits paid to those dependent upon a deceased employee who died of on-the-job injuries prior to October 1, 1990, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 01-162 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) and (b), added new Subsec. (c) re compensation to dependents of any deceased employee who was injured between January 1, 1952, and December 31, 1973, and compensation to dependents of any deceased employee who was injured before January 1, 1952, and who died on or before October 1, 1991, and redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (d), making a technical change therein, effective July 6, 2001; P.A. 05-199 amended Subsecs. (a), (c) and (d) to require claims for payment of retroactive benefits to be made to Second Injury Fund not more than two years after payment by employer or insurer, effective July 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 31-307a. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Cost-of-living adjustment in compensation rates. (a) The weekly compensation rate of each employee entitled to receive compensation under section 31-307 as a result of an injury sustained on or after October 1, 1969, and before July 1, 1993, which totally disables the employee continuously or intermittently for any period extending to the following October first or thereafter, shall be adjusted annually as provided in this subsection as of the following October first, and each subsequent October first, to provide the injured employee with a cost-of-living adjustment in his weekly compensation rate as determined as of the date of the injury under section 31-309. If the maximum weekly compensation rate as determined under the provisions of section 31-309, to be effective as of any October first following the date of the injury, is greater than the maximum weekly compensation rate prevailing as of the date of the injury, the weekly compensation rate which the injured employee was entitled to receive at the date of the injury or October 1, 1990, whichever is later, shall be increased by the percentage of the increase in the maximum weekly compensation rate required by the provisions of section 31-309 from the date of the injury or October 1, 1990, whichever is later, to such October first. The cost-of-living increases provided under this subsection shall be paid by the employer without any order or award from the commissioner. The adjustments shall apply to each payment made in the next succeeding twelve-month period commencing with the October first next succeeding the date of the injury.

      (b) The weekly compensation rate of each employee entitled to receive compensation under section 31-307 as a result of an injury sustained prior to October 1, 1969, which has disabled the employee for a period extending to October 1, 1969, or thereafter shall be adjusted as of October 1, 1969, and annually thereafter, as provided in this subsection to provide the injured employee with a partial cost-of-living adjustment in his weekly compensation rate. The weekly compensation rate paid prior to October 1, 1969, to the injured employee shall be increased as of October 1, 1969, by the amount that the maximum weekly compensation rate as determined under section 31-309 to be effective for injuries sustained on or after October 1, 1969, is greater than the maximum weekly compensation rate as determined under section 31-309 to be effective for injuries sustained on or after October 1, 1965, or the date of the injury, whichever is later, but not more than fifteen dollars per week. Thereafter, increases, if any, for cost-of-living as provided in subsection (a) of this section shall be added to the amount of weekly compensation payable as of the date of the injury or October 1, 1990, whichever is later. The partial cost-of-living adjustments provided under this subsection shall be paid by the employer without any order or award from the commissioner. The adjustments shall apply to each payment made in the next twelve-month period, on or after October 1, 1969. The cost of the adjustments shall be paid by the employer or his insurance carrier who shall be reimbursed therefor from the Second Injury Fund as provided in section 31-354 upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require.

      (c) On and after October 1, 1997, the weekly compensation rate of each employee entitled to receive compensation under section 31-307 as a result of an injury sustained on or after July 1, 1993, which totally incapacitates the employee permanently, shall be adjusted as provided in this subsection as of October 1, 1997, or the October first following the injury date, whichever is later, and annually on each subsequent October first, to provide the injured employee with a cost-of-living adjustment in his weekly compensation rate as determined as of the date of injury under section 31-309. If the maximum weekly compensation rate, as determined under the provisions of said section 31-309, to be effective as of any October first following the date of the injury, is greater than the maximum weekly compensation rate prevailing as of the date of injury, the weekly compensation rate which the injured employee was entitled to receive as of the date of injury shall be increased by the percentage of the increase in the maximum weekly compensation rate required by the provisions of said section 31-309 from the date of the injury to such October first. The cost-of-living adjustments provided under this subdivision shall be paid by the employer without any order or award from the commissioner. The adjustments shall apply to each payment made in the next succeeding twelve-month period commencing with October 1, 1997, or the October first next succeeding the date of injury, whichever is later. With respect to any employee receiving benefits on October 1, 1997, with respect to any such injury occurring on or after July 1, 1993, and before October 1, 1997, or with respect to any employee who was adjudicated to be totally incapacitated permanently subsequent to the date of his injury or is totally incapacitated permanently due to the fact that the employee has been totally incapacitated by such an injury for a period of five years or more, such benefit shall be recalculated to October 1, 1997, to the date of such adjudication or to the end of such five-year period, as the case may be, as if such benefits had been subject to recalculation annually under the provisions of this subsection. The difference between the amount of any benefits which would have been paid to such employee if such benefits had been subject to such recalculation and the actual amount of benefits paid during the period between such injury and such recalculation shall be paid to the dependent not later than December 1, 1997, or thirty days after such adjudication or the end of such period, as the case may be, in a lump-sum payment. The employer or his insurer shall be reimbursed by the Second Injury Fund, as provided in section 31-354, for adjustments, including lump-sum payments, payable under this subsection for compensable injuries occurring on or after July 1, 1993, and before October 1, 1997, upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require.

      (1967, P.A. 842, S. 23, 24; 1969, P.A. 696, S. 5; P.A. 91-32, S. 24, 41; 91-339, S. 27; P.A. 93-228, S. 17, 35; P.A. 97-205, S. 4; P.A. 98-104, S. 3, 6.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2006, this section, as amended by section 5 of public act 05-199, is to read as follows:

      "Sec. 31-307a. Cost-of-living adjustment in compensation rates. (a) The weekly compensation rate of each employee entitled to receive compensation under section 31-307 as a result of an injury sustained on or after October 1, 1969, and before July 1, 1993, which totally disables the employee continuously or intermittently for any period extending to the following October first or thereafter, shall be adjusted annually as provided in this subsection as of the following October first, and each subsequent October first, to provide the injured employee with a cost-of-living adjustment in his or her weekly compensation rate as determined as of the date of the injury under section 31-309. If the maximum weekly compensation rate as determined under the provisions of section 31-309, to be effective as of any October first following the date of the injury, is greater than the maximum weekly compensation rate prevailing as of the date of the injury, the weekly compensation rate which the injured employee was entitled to receive at the date of the injury or October 1, 1990, whichever is later, shall be increased by the percentage of the increase in the maximum weekly compensation rate required by the provisions of section 31-309 from the date of the injury or October 1, 1990, whichever is later, to such October first. The cost-of-living increases provided under this subsection shall be paid by the employer without any order or award from the commissioner. The adjustments shall apply to each payment made in the next succeeding twelve-month period commencing with the October first next succeeding the date of the injury.

      (b) The weekly compensation rate of each employee entitled to receive compensation under section 31-307 as a result of an injury sustained prior to October 1, 1969, which has disabled the employee for a period extending to October 1, 1969, or thereafter shall be adjusted as of October 1, 1969, and annually thereafter, as provided in this subsection to provide the injured employee with a partial cost-of-living adjustment in his or her weekly compensation rate. The weekly compensation rate paid prior to October 1, 1969, to the injured employee shall be increased as of October 1, 1969, by the amount that the maximum weekly compensation rate as determined under section 31-309 to be effective for injuries sustained on or after October 1, 1969, is greater than the maximum weekly compensation rate as determined under section 31-309 to be effective for injuries sustained on or after October 1, 1965, or the date of the injury, whichever is later, but not more than fifteen dollars per week. Thereafter, increases, if any, for cost-of-living as provided in subsection (a) of this section shall be added to the amount of weekly compensation payable as of the date of the injury or October 1, 1990, whichever is later. The partial cost-of-living adjustments provided under this subsection shall be paid by the employer without any order or award from the commissioner. The adjustments shall apply to each payment made in the next twelve-month period, on or after October 1, 1969. The cost of the adjustments shall be paid by the employer or the employer's insurance carrier who shall be reimbursed therefor from the Second Injury Fund as provided in section 31-354 upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require. No claim for payment of retroactive benefits may be made to the Second Injury Fund more than two years after the date on which the employer or its insurance carrier paid such benefits in accordance with this subsection.

      (c) On and after October 1, 1997, the weekly compensation rate of each employee entitled to receive compensation under section 31-307 as a result of an injury sustained on or after July 1, 1993, which totally incapacitates the employee permanently, shall be adjusted as provided in this subsection as of October 1, 1997, or the October first following the injury date, whichever is later, and annually on each subsequent October first, to provide the injured employee with a cost-of-living adjustment in his or her weekly compensation rate as determined as of the date of injury under section 31-309. If the maximum weekly compensation rate, as determined under the provisions of said section 31-309, to be effective as of any October first following the date of the injury, is greater than the maximum weekly compensation rate prevailing as of the date of injury, the weekly compensation rate which the injured employee was entitled to receive as of the date of injury shall be increased by the percentage of the increase in the maximum weekly compensation rate required by the provisions of said section 31-309 from the date of the injury to such October first. The cost-of-living adjustments provided under this subdivision shall be paid by the employer without any order or award from the commissioner. The adjustments shall apply to each payment made in the next succeeding twelve-month period commencing with October 1, 1997, or the October first next succeeding the date of injury, whichever is later. With respect to any employee receiving benefits on October 1, 1997, with respect to any such injury occurring on or after July 1, 1993, and before October 1, 1997, or with respect to any employee who was adjudicated to be totally incapacitated permanently subsequent to the date of his or her injury or is totally incapacitated permanently due to the fact that the employee has been totally incapacitated by such an injury for a period of five years or more, such benefit shall be recalculated to October 1, 1997, to the date of such adjudication or to the end of such five-year period, as the case may be, as if such benefits had been subject to recalculation annually under the provisions of this subsection. The difference between the amount of any benefits which would have been paid to such employee if such benefits had been subject to such recalculation and the actual amount of benefits paid during the period between such injury and such recalculation shall be paid to the dependent not later than December 1, 1997, or thirty days after such adjudication or the end of such period, as the case may be, in a lump-sum payment. The employer or the employer's insurer shall be reimbursed by the Second Injury Fund, as provided in section 31-354, for adjustments, including lump-sum payments, payable under this subsection for compensable injuries occurring on or after July 1, 1993, and before October 1, 1997, upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require. No claim for payment of retroactive benefits may be made to the Second Injury Fund more than two years after the date on which the employer or its insurance carrier paid such benefits in accordance with this subsection."

      (1967, P.A. 842, S. 23, 24; 1969, P.A. 696, S. 5; P.A. 91-32, S. 24, 41; 91-339, S. 27; P.A. 93-228, S. 17, 35; P.A. 97-205, S. 4; P.A. 98-104, S. 3, 6; P.A. 05-199, S. 5.)

      History: 1969 act rewrote previous provisions in greater detail and required presentation of vouchers etc. as required by treasurer rather than comptroller; P.A. 91-32 made technical changes; P.A. 91-339 amended Subsec. (a) to provide a cost of living adjustment based on the percentage of the increase in the maximum weekly compensation rate; P.A. 93-228 amended Subsec. (a) to eliminate cost-of-living adjustments for totally incapacitated employees injured on or after July 1, 1993, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 97-205 added new Subsec. (c) establishing cost-of-living adjustments for compensation received by totally incapacitated employees on and after October 1, 1997; P.A. 98-104 increased the annual cost-of-living adjustment on workers' compensation benefits paid to employees totally and permanently disabled by a work-related injury prior to October 1, 1990, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 05-199 made technical changes and amended Subsecs. (b) and (c) to require claims for payment of retroactive benefits under subsections to be made to Second Injury Fund not more than two years after payment by employer or insurer, effective July 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 31-307b. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Benefits after relapse from recovery. Recurrent injuries. If any employee who receives compensation under section 31-307 returns to work after recovery from his injury and subsequently suffers total or partial incapacity caused by a relapse from the recovery from, or a recurrence of, the injury, the employee shall be paid a weekly compensation equal to seventy-five per cent of his average weekly earnings as of the date of the original injury or at the time of his relapse or at the time of the recurrence of the injury, whichever is the greater sum, calculated pursuant to section 31-310, after such earnings have been reduced by any deduction for federal or state taxes, or both, and for the federal Insurance Contributions Act made from such employee's total wages received during the period of calculation of the employee's average weekly wage pursuant to said section 31-310, but not more than (1) the maximum compensation rate set pursuant to section 31-309 if the employee suffers total incapacity, or (2) one hundred per cent, raised to the next even dollar, of the average weekly earnings of production and related workers in manufacturing in the state, as determined in accordance with the provisions of section 31-309, if the employee suffers partial incapacity, for the year in which the employee suffered the relapse or recurrent injury and the minimum rate under this chapter for that year, and provided (A) the compensation shall not continue longer than the period of total or partial incapacity following the relapse or recurrent injury and (B) no employee eligible for compensation for specific injuries set forth in section 31-308 shall receive compensation under this section. The employee shall also be entitled to receive the cost-of-living adjustment provided in accordance with the provisions of section 31-307a commencing on October first following the relapse or recurrent injury which disables him. If the injury occurred originally prior to October 1, 1969, the difference between the employee's original weekly compensation rate and the rate required by this section and the cost-of-living adjustment, if any, thereafter due shall be paid initially by the employer or his insurance carrier who shall be reimbursed for such payment from the Second Injury Fund as provided by section 31-354 upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require. In no event shall the employee receive more than the prevailing maximum compensation.

      (1967, P.A. 842, S. 28; 1969, P.A. 696, S. 6; P.A. 79-376, S. 74; P.A. 91-32, S. 25, 41; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-12, S. 51; P.A. 93-228, S. 18, 35.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2006, this section, as amended by section 6 of public act 05-199, is to read as follows:

      "Sec. 31-307b. Benefits after relapse from recovery. Recurrent injuries. If any employee who receives compensation under section 31-307 returns to work after recovery from his or her injury and subsequently suffers total or partial incapacity caused by a relapse from the recovery from, or a recurrence of, the injury, the employee shall be paid a weekly compensation equal to seventy-five per cent of his or her average weekly earnings as of the date of the original injury or at the time of his or her relapse or at the time of the recurrence of the injury, whichever is the greater sum, calculated pursuant to section 31-310, after such earnings have been reduced by any deduction for federal or state taxes, or both, and for the federal Insurance Contributions Act made from such employee's total wages received during the period of calculation of the employee's average weekly wage pursuant to said section 31-310, but not more than (1) the maximum compensation rate set pursuant to section 31-309 if the employee suffers total incapacity, or (2) one hundred per cent, raised to the next even dollar, of the average weekly earnings of production and related workers in manufacturing in the state, as determined in accordance with the provisions of section 31-309, if the employee suffers partial incapacity, for the year in which the employee suffered the relapse or recurrent injury and the minimum rate under this chapter for that year, and provided (A) the compensation shall not continue longer than the period of total or partial incapacity following the relapse or recurrent injury and (B) no employee eligible for compensation for specific injuries set forth in section 31-308 shall receive compensation under this section. The employee shall also be entitled to receive the cost-of-living adjustment provided in accordance with the provisions of section 31-307a commencing on October first following the relapse or recurrent injury which disables him or her. If the injury occurred originally prior to October 1, 1969, the difference between the employee's original weekly compensation rate and the rate required by this section and the cost-of-living adjustment, if any, thereafter due shall be paid initially by the employer or the employer's insurance carrier who shall be reimbursed for such payment from the Second Injury Fund as provided by section 31-354 upon presentation of any vouchers and information that the Treasurer shall require. No claim for payment of retroactive benefits may be made to the Second Injury Fund more than two years after the date on which the employer or its insurance carrier paid such benefits in accordance with this section. In no event shall the employee receive more than the prevailing maximum compensation."

      (1967, P.A. 842, S. 28; 1969, P.A. 696, S. 6; P.A. 79-376, S. 74; P.A. 91-32, S. 25, 41; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-12, S. 51; P.A. 93-228, S. 18, 35; P.A. 05-199, S. 6.)

      History: 1969 act deleted reference to Sec. 31-306(b), deleted reference to "maximum" recovery from injury and set forth provisions re payments for cost-of-living adjustments; P.A. 79-376 added references to recurrent injuries; P.A. 91-32 made technical changes; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-12 changed the weekly compensation allowed under this section from sixty-six and two-thirds per cent of average weekly earnings to eighty per cent of average weekly earnings reduced by deductions for federal taxes and FICA, and provided for maximum compensation in the case of total and partial incapacity; P.A. 93-228 decreased weekly compensation benefits for relapse or recurrence of previous injury from eighty to seventy-five per cent of employee's average weekly earnings and required that state taxes be deducted in calculating such earnings, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 05-199 made technical changes and required claims for payment of retroactive benefits under section to be made to Second Injury Fund not more than two years after payment by employer or insurer, effective July 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 31-310. *(See end of section for amended version of subsection (a) and effective date.) Determination of average weekly wage of injured worker. Concurrent employment. Payments from Second Injury Fund. Publication of wage tables. *(a) For the purposes of this chapter, the average weekly wage shall be ascertained by dividing the total wages received by the injured employee from the employer in whose service he is injured during the fifty-two calendar weeks immediately preceding the week during which he was injured, by the number of calendar weeks during which, or any portion of which, the employee was actually employed by the employer, but, in making the computation, absence for seven consecutive calendar days, although not in the same calendar week, shall be considered as absence for a calendar week. When the employment commenced otherwise than at the beginning of a calendar week, that calendar week and wages earned during that week shall be excluded in making the computation. When the period of employment immediately preceding the injury is computed to be less than a net period of two calendar weeks, the employee's weekly wage shall be considered to be equivalent to the average weekly wage prevailing in the same or similar employment in the same locality at the date of the injury except that, when the employer has agreed to pay a certain hourly wage to the employee, the hourly wage so agreed upon shall be the hourly wage for the injured employee and his average weekly wage shall be computed by multiplying the hourly wage by the regular number of hours that is permitted each week in accordance with the agreement. For the purpose of determining the amount of compensation to be paid in the case of a minor under the age of eighteen who has sustained an injury entitling him to compensation for total or partial incapacity for a period of fifty-two or more weeks, or to specific indemnity for any injury under the provisions of section 31-308, the commissioner may add fifty per cent to his average weekly wage, except in the case of a minor under the age of sixteen, the commissioner may add one hundred per cent to his average weekly wage. When the injured employee is a trainee or apprentice receiving a subsistence allowance from the United States because of war service, the allowance shall be added to his actual earnings in determining the average weekly wage. Where the injured employee has worked for more than one employer as of the date of the injury and the average weekly wage received from the employer in whose employ he was injured, as determined under the provisions of this section, are insufficient for him to obtain the maximum weekly compensation rate from the employer under section 31-309, prevailing as of the date of the injury, his average weekly wages shall be calculated upon the basis of wages earned from all such employers in the period of concurrent employment not in excess of fifty-two weeks prior to the date of the injury, but the employer in whose employ the injury occurred shall be liable for all medical and hospital costs and a portion of the compensation rate equal to seventy-five per cent of the average weekly wage paid by him to the injured employee, after such earnings have been reduced by any deduction for federal or state taxes, or both, and for the federal Insurance Contribution Act made from such employee's total wages received from such employer during the period of calculation of such average weekly wage, but not less than an amount equal to the minimum compensation rate prevailing as of the date of the injury. The remaining portion of the applicable compensation rate shall be paid from the Second Injury Fund upon submission to the Treasurer by the employer or the employer's insurer of such vouchers and information as the Treasurer may require. In cases which involve concurrent employment and in which there is a claim against a third party, the injured employee or the employer in whose employ the injury was sustained or the employer's insurer shall advise the custodian of the Second Injury Fund if there is a third party claim, and the employee, employer or employer's insurer shall pursue its subrogation rights as provided for in section 31-293 and shall include in its claim all compensation paid by the Second Injury Fund and shall reimburse the Second Injury Fund for all payments made for compensation in the event of a recovery against the third party.

      (b) Each August fifteenth, the chairman of the Workers' Compensation Commission, in consultation with the advisory board, shall publish tables of the average weekly wage and seventy-five per cent of the average weekly wage after being reduced by any deduction for federal or state taxes, or both, and for the federal Insurance Contributions Act, to be effective the following October first, except that not later than June thirtieth, the chairman, in consultation with the advisory board, shall publish tables of the average weekly wage and seventy-five per cent of the average weekly wage after being reduced by any deduction for federal or state taxes, or both, and for the federal Insurance Contributions Act, to be effective during the period July 1, 1993, to October 1, 1993. Such tables shall be conclusive for the purpose of determining seventy-five per cent of the average weekly earnings of an injured employee after such earnings have been reduced by any deduction for federal or state taxes, or both, and for the federal Insurance Contributions Act made from such employee's total wages received during the period of calculation of the employee's average weekly wage for purposes of sections 31-306, 31-307 and 31-308.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7432; 1949, S. 3045d; 1958 Rev., S. 31-163; 1961, P.A. 491, S. 33; 1967, P.A. 842, S. 17; 1969, P.A. 696, S. 11; 1971, P.A. 350, S. 1; P.A. 79-376, S. 77; P.A. 91-32, S. 28, 41; 91-339, S. 30, 55; P.A. 93-228, S. 22, 35; P.A. 95-277, S. 2, 19.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2006, subsection (a) of this section, as amended by section 7 of public act 05-199, is to read as follows:

      "(a) For the purposes of this chapter, the average weekly wage shall be ascertained by dividing the total wages received by the injured employee from the employer in whose service the employee is injured during the fifty-two calendar weeks immediately preceding the week during which the employee was injured, by the number of calendar weeks during which, or any portion of which, the employee was actually employed by the employer, but, in making the computation, absence for seven consecutive calendar days, although not in the same calendar week, shall be considered as absence for a calendar week. When the employment commenced otherwise than at the beginning of a calendar week, that calendar week and wages earned during that week shall be excluded in making the computation. When the period of employment immediately preceding the injury is computed to be less than a net period of two calendar weeks, the employee's weekly wage shall be considered to be equivalent to the average weekly wage prevailing in the same or similar employment in the same locality at the date of the injury except that, when the employer has agreed to pay a certain hourly wage to the employee, the hourly wage so agreed upon shall be the hourly wage for the injured employee and the employee's average weekly wage shall be computed by multiplying the hourly wage by the regular number of hours that is permitted each week in accordance with the agreement. For the purpose of determining the amount of compensation to be paid in the case of a minor under the age of eighteen who has sustained an injury entitling the employee to compensation for total or partial incapacity for a period of fifty-two or more weeks, or to specific indemnity for any injury under the provisions of section 31-308, the commissioner may add fifty per cent to the employee's average weekly wage, except in the case of a minor under the age of sixteen, the commissioner may add one hundred per cent to the minor's average weekly wage. When the injured employee is a trainee or apprentice receiving a subsistence allowance from the United States because of war service, the allowance shall be added to the injured employee's actual earnings in determining the average weekly wage. Where the injured employee has worked for more than one employer as of the date of the injury and the average weekly wage received from the employer in whose employ the injured employee was injured, as determined under the provisions of this section, are insufficient to obtain the maximum weekly compensation rate from the employer under section 31-309, prevailing as of the date of the injury, the injured employee's average weekly wages shall be calculated upon the basis of wages earned from all such employers in the period of concurrent employment not in excess of fifty-two weeks prior to the date of the injury, but the employer in whose employ the injury occurred shall be liable for all medical and hospital costs and a portion of the compensation rate equal to seventy-five per cent of the average weekly wage paid by the employer to the injured employee, after such earnings have been reduced by any deduction for federal or state taxes, or both, and for the federal Insurance Contribution Act made from such employee's total wages received from such employer during the period of calculation of such average weekly wage, but not less than an amount equal to the minimum compensation rate prevailing as of the date of the injury. The remaining portion of the applicable compensation rate shall be paid from the Second Injury Fund upon submission to the Treasurer by the employer or the employer's insurer of such vouchers and information as the Treasurer may require. For purposes of this subsection, the Second Injury Fund shall not be deemed an employer or an insurer for any claim brought on behalf of an insolvent insurer and shall be exempt from liability, unless such claim is brought not later than thirty days after a determination of such insurer's bankruptcy. No claim for payment of retroactive benefits may be made to the Second Injury Fund more than two years from the date on which the employer or its insurer paid such benefits in accordance with this subsection. In cases which involve concurrent employment and in which there is a claim against a third party, the injured employee or the employer in whose employ the injury was sustained or the employer's insurer shall advise the custodian of the Second Injury Fund if there is a third party claim, and the employee, employer or employer's insurer shall pursue its subrogation rights as provided for in section 31-293 and shall include in its claim all compensation paid by the Second Injury Fund and shall reimburse the Second Injury Fund for all payments made for compensation in the event of a recovery against the third party."

      (1949 Rev., S. 7432; 1949, S. 3045d; 1958 Rev., S. 31-163; 1961, P.A. 491, S. 33; 1967, P.A. 842, S. 17; 1969, P.A. 696, S. 11; 1971, P.A. 350, S. 1; P.A. 79-376, S. 77; P.A. 91-32, S. 28, 41; 91-339, S. 30, 55; P.A. 93-228, S. 22, 35; P.A. 95-277, S. 2, 19; P.A. 05-199, S. 7.)

      History: 1961 act entirely replaced previous provisions; 1967 act added provisions re calculation of and liability for compensation payments when injured employee worked for more than one employer; 1969 act expanded provisions added in 1967 to specify applicability to cases where wages at time of injury would not enable injured employee to receive maximum benefits, to change basis of calculation in such cases, to require that injured person receive at least minimum prevailing rate from employer and dependency allowance if he is totally incapacitated; 1971 act added provisions re third party claims; P.A. 79-376 substituted "worker" for "workman" and rephrased reference to Sec. 31-308; P.A. 91-32 made technical changes; P.A. 91-339 designated existing section as Subsec. (a), deleted provisions re dependency allowance, added provisions re submission of vouchers and information to the treasurer and added Subsec. (b) re average weekly wage tables; P.A. 93-228 amended Subsec. (a) to change the basis of calculation for an employee's average weekly wage from twenty-six to fifty-two weeks and amended Subsec. (b) to require the chairman of the workers' compensation commission to publish tables of seventy-five, rather than eighty, per cent of the average weekly wage less deductions for state and federal taxes and for the federal Insurance Contributions Act, effective July 1, 1993, except that Subsec. (b) effective June 30, 1993; P.A. 95-277 amended Subsec. (a) to change portion of wages paid by the employer in whose employ the injury incurred from a "pro-rata" share to a portion equal to "seventy-five per cent of the average weekly wage paid by him to the injured employee" after such earnings has been reduced by the applicable federal and state taxes and the federal Insurance Contribution Act and made technical corrections for clarity by substituting "insurer" for "insurance carrier", effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 05-199 amended Subsec. (a) to make technical changes, to provide that Second Injury Fund not be deemed an employer or insurer and be exempt from liability for claim brought by insolvent insurer unless claim brought not later then thirty days after determination of bankruptcy, and to require claims for payment of retroactive benefits under subsection to be made to Second Injury Fund not more than two years after payment by employer or insurer, effective July 1, 2006.

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PART E
SECOND INJURY FUND

      Sec. 31-349g. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Method of assessing all employers for the liabilities of the Second Injury Fund. Regulations. (a) On or before January 1, 1996, the State Treasurer, in consultation with the Insurance Commissioner, shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, regarding the method of assessing all employers for the liabilities of the Second Injury Fund. The liabilities shall be allocated between self-insured employers and insured employers based on paid losses for the preceding calendar year. The method of assessing self-insured employers shall be based on paid losses. The method of assessment for insured employers shall be a surcharge based on premium. In adopting regulations under this section, the State Treasurer shall consider their effect upon (1) the cost of doing business in this state, (2) the overall cost of the workers' compensation system, (3) the effect of the regulations on insurers, insureds and self-insured employers, and (4) the financial condition and liabilities of the fund.

      (b) An employer mutual association organized prior to June 6, 1996, with a membership composed exclusively of health care providers and whose premium base is derived entirely from health care organizations may make payments without penalty or interest over a five-year period for any outstanding assessment due from the association for the period commencing January 1, 1996, and ending December 31, 2004.

      (c) For purposes of this section:

      (1) "Insured employer" includes any member of a workers' compensation pool administered by an interlocal risk management agency, and on and after January 1, 2005, an employer mutual association organized prior to June 6, 1996, with a membership composed exclusively of health care providers and whose premium base is derived entirely from health care organizations.

      (2) For the period commencing October 1, 2004, and ending December 31, 2004, "self-insured employer" includes an employer mutual association organized prior to June 6, 1996, with a membership composed exclusively of health care providers and whose premium base is derived entirely from health care organizations.

      (P.A. 95-277, S. 14, 19; P.A. 96-242, S. 5, 10; P.A. 04-229, S. 1.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2006, this section, as amended by section 8 of public act 05-199, is to read as follows:

      "Sec. 31-349g. Method of assessing all employers for liabilities of Second Injury Fund. Reporting. Audits. Insurance companies deemed collection agents. (a) For purposes of this section:

      (1) "Insured employer" means an employer who insures its risks incurred under this chapter with an insurance company authorized to issue workers' compensation policies in this state by the Insurance Department, and includes any member of a workers' compensation pool administered by an interlocal risk management agency, and on and after January 1, 2005, an employer mutual association organized prior to June 6, 1996, with a membership composed exclusively of health care providers and whose premium base is derived entirely from health care organizations.

      (2) "Self-insured employer" means an employer who is approved to self-insure its liabilities under this chapter by the chairman of the Workers' Compensation Commission. For the period commencing October 1, 2004, and ending December 31, 2004, "self-insured employer" includes an employer mutual association organized prior to June 6, 1996, with a membership composed exclusively of health care providers and whose premium base is derived entirely from health care organizations.

      (3) "Paid losses" means the total indemnity, medical and any other expenses, prior to any credits or deductions being taken, paid on or after January 1, 2006, by or on behalf of an employer to or on behalf of an injured employee. Paid losses includes all legal expenses paid for the benefit of an injured worker in accordance with this chapter and any loss payments within deductible limits on workers' compensation policies.

      (4) "Second Injury Fund surcharge base" means direct written premium on policies prior to application of any deductible policy premium credits.

      (5) "Direct written premium" includes all endorsements, retrospective adjustments, audits and minimum premium and shall be determined without regard to when or whether the premium on the policy is paid.

      (6) "Second Injury Fund surcharge" for insurance companies, interlocal risk management agencies and self-insurance groups means the rate set by the custodian multiplied by the Second Injury Fund surcharge base.

      (7) "Self-insurance group" means a not-for-profit association consisting of fifteen or more employers who are engaged in the same or similar type of business, who are members of the same bona fide trade or professional association which has been in existence for not less than five years, and who enter into agreements to pool their liabilities for workers' compensation benefits and employers' liability.

      (b) The State Treasurer, in consultation with the Insurance Commissioner, may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, regarding the method of assessing all employers for the liabilities of the Second Injury Fund. The liabilities shall be allocated between self-insured employers and insured employers based on a percentage of paid losses for the preceding calendar year for each group. No credits shall be taken against paid losses, except voided checks in connection with expenses paid under this chapter previously reported as a paid loss, recoveries from third party tortfeasors, reimbursement granted pursuant to section 31-299b and Second Injury Fund reimbursements. The method of assessment for self-insured employers shall be based on paid losses. The method of assessment for insured employers, for policies with effective dates before July 1, 2006, shall be based on the standard premium, and for policies with effective dates on or after July 1, 2006, shall be based on the Second Injury Fund surcharge base. In adopting regulations under this section, the State Treasurer shall consider their effect upon (1) the cost of doing business in this state, (2) the overall cost of the workers' compensation system, (3) the effect of the regulations on insurers, insureds and self-insured employers, and (4) the financial condition and liabilities of the fund.

      (c) An employer mutual association organized prior to June 6, 1996, with a membership composed exclusively of health care providers and whose premium base is derived entirely from health care organizations may make payments without penalty or interest over a five-year period for any outstanding assessment due from the association for the period commencing January 1, 1996, and ending December 31, 2004.

      (d) (1) For insured employers and self-insurance groups, the Second Injury Fund surcharge base shall initially be reported to the fund in the quarter of the effective date of the policy, regardless of when the policy is billed by the insurance carrier or self-insurance group or paid by the policyholder or member of a self-insurance group. All endorsements, retrospective adjustments and audits shall be reported in the quarter processed by the insurance carrier or group self-insured employer.

      (2) The custodian of the fund shall conduct an audit or periodic audits of any self-insured employer, group self-insured employer, insured employer or insurance company acting as collection agent of the Second Injury Fund relative to any information or payment required by the custodian. The employer and insurer shall provide all necessary documents and information in relation to an audit by the custodian in a manner prescribed by the Treasurer. The period of review of an audit shall be not more than three years, except that when the date of the previous audit is less than three years prior to such audit, the period of review shall be to the date of such prior audit. If the audit determines repeated errors or underreporting by an employer or an insurer acting as collection agent of the Second Injury Fund, the fund reserves the right to audit an additional two-year review period. Upon the determination of the Treasurer or the Treasurer's agents, as a result of an audit, that an employer or an insurer acting as collection agent of the Second Injury Fund has not properly reported to the Second Injury Fund and, as a result, has underpaid the assessment or surcharge, the employer or the insurer acting as collection agent of the Second Injury Fund, upon notice from the Treasurer or the Treasurer's agent, shall pay the full amount of the underpaid assessment or surcharge, along with interest and any penalty due not later than thirty days after such notice.

      (e) For purposes of collection of the Second Injury Fund surcharge from insureds and payment of such surcharge to the Second Injury Fund, insurance companies shall be deemed to be collection agents of the Second Injury Fund. The insured employer is liable for payment of the surcharge, and the insurance company shall collect such payment and remit it to the Second Injury Fund in accordance with section 31-354. Insurance companies shall be subject to the audit provisions of this section and shall be subject to the penalty and interest provisions of this section for failure to remit the surcharge to the Second Injury Fund."

      (P.A. 95-277, S. 14, 19; P.A. 96-242, S. 5, 10; P.A. 04-229, S. 1; P.A. 05-199, S. 8.)

      History: P.A. 95-277 effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-242 made technical change correcting the references to the State Treasurer and included certain employer mutual associations in the definition of "self-insured employers" after January 1, 1996, effective June 6, 1996; P.A. 04-229 designated existing provisions as Subsecs. (a) and (c), making technical and conforming changes therein, added Subsec. (b) re certain employer mutual associations organized prior to June 6, 1996, and added provision re such associations in Subsec. (c); P.A. 05-199 amended Subsec. (a) to redefine "insured employer" and "self-insured employer" and to define "paid losses", "Second Injury Fund surcharge base", "direct written premium", "Second Injury Fund surcharge" and "self-insurance group", redesignated existing provisions of Subsec. (a) as new Subsec. (b) and amended same by making adoption of regulations permissive, specifying credits to be taken against paid losses, and basing fund assessments for self-insured employers on percentage of paid losses and assessment for insured employers for policies with effective dates before July 1, 2006, on standard premium and for policies with effective dates on or after July 1, 2006, on Second Injury Fund surcharge base, redesignated existing Subsec. (b) as new Subsec. (c), deleted former Subsec. (c) re definitions, added Subsec. (d) re reporting of Second Injury Fund surcharge base, auditing of employers and insurance companies by fund custodian, and payment of interest and penalties for underpaid assessment and added Subsec. (e) re insurance companies to be deemed collection agents of fund, effective July 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 31-353. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Voluntary agreements; approval. If the Treasurer and an injured employee, or his legal representative, reach an agreement in regard to compensation payable under section 31-349, such agreement shall be submitted in writing to the commissioner for his approval and, upon approval, shall remain in effect until otherwise ordered by the commissioner. He may make payment by way of final settlement in any matter concerning the fund, subject to the approval of the commissioner, whenever it is for the best interests of the injured employee.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7493; 1949, 1951, S. 3055d; 1958 Rev., S. 31-220; 1961, P.A. 491, S. 79.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2006, this section, as amended by section 9 of public act 05-199, is to read as follows:

      "Sec. 31-353. Voluntary agreements; approval. If the Treasurer and an injured employee, or his legal representative, reach an agreement in regard to compensation payable under the provisions of this chapter, such agreement shall be submitted in writing to the commissioner for his approval and, upon approval, shall remain in effect until otherwise ordered by the commissioner. The Treasurer may make payment by way of final settlement in any matter concerning the fund, including matters under section 31-355, subject to the approval of the commissioner, whenever it is for the best interests of the injured employee."

      (1949 Rev., S. 7493; 1949, 1951, S. 3055d; 1958 Rev., S. 31-220; 1961, P.A. 491, S. 79; P.A. 05-199, S. 9.)

      History: 1961 act entirely replaced previous provisions; P.A. 05-199 made technical changes, effective July 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 31-354. *(See end of section for amended version of subsection (a) and effective date.) Second Injury Fund contributions. Duties and powers of State Treasurer. *(a) There shall be a fund to be known as the Second Injury Fund. Each employer, other than the state, shall, within thirty days after notice given by the State Treasurer, pay to the State Treasurer for the use of the state a sum in payment of his liability under this chapter which shall be the special assessment premium surcharge and shall be assessed in accordance with subsection (f) of section 31-349, sections 31-349g, 31-349h and 31-349i, this section, section 31-354b and sections 8 and 9 of public act 96-242**. Such sum shall be an amount sufficient to (1) pay the debt service on state revenue bond obligations authorized to be issued under and for the purposes set forth in section 31-354b including reserve and covenant coverage requirements, (2) provide for costs and expenses of operating the Second Injury Fund, and (3) pay Second Injury Fund stipulations on claims settled by the custodian or other benefits payable out of the Second Injury Fund and not funded through state revenue bond obligations and shall be determined in accordance with the regulations adopted pursuant to the provisions of section 31-349g. The custodian shall establish a factor for the annual special assessment premium surcharge that caps such surcharge for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1996, 1997 and 1998. In determining such factor the custodian shall consider the funding mechanism authorized by subsection (f) of section 31-349, sections 31-349g, 31-349h and 31-349i, this section, section 31-354b and sections 8 and 9 of public act 96-242**, recognize that an acceptable level of employer assessment is important to the vitality of the economy of the state and nevertheless shall assure provision of services to injured workers that enhances their ability to return to work and improve their quality of life. In any event, such factor shall not exceed, with respect to insured employers, a rate of fifteen per cent on the standard premiums with respect to workers' compensation and employers' liability policies and, with respect to self-insured employers, a comparable percentage limitation representing their pro rata share of any special assessment premium surcharge. Any employer who fails to pay in accordance with such regulations shall pay interest to the State Treasurer on the sum at the rate of fifteen per cent per annum from the date the sum should have been paid until the date of payment. The State Treasurer shall notify each employer of the penalty provision with the notice of assessment. Effective July 1, 1993, whenever the assessment is levied, the State Treasurer shall pay to the fund, on behalf of the state, a sum not to exceed the total amount of money expended by the fund on behalf of state employees during the period following the last assessment. The sums received shall be accounted for separately and apart from all other state moneys and the faith and credit of the state of Connecticut is pledged for their safekeeping. The State Treasurer shall be the custodian of the fund and all disbursements from the fund shall be made by him or his deputies. The moneys of the fund shall be invested by him in accordance with applicable law and section 8 of public act 96-242**. Interest, income and dividends from the investments shall be credited to the fund. Each employer, each private insurance carrier acting on behalf of any employer and each interlocal risk management agency acting on behalf of any employer shall annually, on or before April first, report to the State Treasurer, in the form prescribed by the State Treasurer, the amount of money expended by or on behalf of the employer in payments for the preceding calendar year. Each private insurance carrier and each interlocal risk management agency shall submit annually, on or before April first, to the State Treasurer, in the form prescribed by the State Treasurer, a report of the total standard earned premium collected in the preceding calendar year and a report of the projected total standard earned premium for the current calendar year. The fund shall be used to provide the benefits set forth in section 31-306 for adjustments in the compensation rate and payment of certain death benefits, in section 31-307b for adjustments where there are relapses after a return to work, in section 31-307c for totally disabled persons injured prior to October 1, 1953, in section 31-349 for disabled or handicapped employees and in section 31-355 for the payment of benefits due injured employees whose employers or insurance carriers have failed to pay the compensation, and medical expenses required by this chapter, or any other compensation payable from the fund as may be required by any provision contained in this chapter or any other statute and to reimburse employers or insurance carriers for payments made under subsection (b) of section 31-307a. The assessment required by this section is a condition of doing business in this state and failure to pay the assessment, when due, shall result in the denial of the privilege of doing business in this state or to self-insure under section 31-284. Any administrative or other costs or expenses incurred by the State Treasurer in connection with carrying out the provisions of this part, including the hiring of necessary employees, shall be paid from the fund. The State Treasurer may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, prescribing the practices, policies and procedures to be followed in the administration of the Second Injury Fund.

      (b) The State Treasurer shall establish within the Second Injury Fund three accounts to be known as the operating account, the settlement account and the finance account which accounts shall be held separate and apart from each other. The operating account shall cover the costs and expenses to the state of operating the Second Injury Fund. The settlement account shall cover actual disbursement of the settled claims whether by one-time full payments or by payments over a period of time. The finance account shall contain such funds and be operated in the manner provided in section 31-354b.

      (1949 Rev., S. 7494; 1949, 1951, S. 3056d; 1958 Rev., S. 31-221; 1959, P.A. 580, S. 12; 1961, P.A. 491, S. 80; 1967, P.A. 842, S. 21; 1969, P.A. 696, S. 15; 1971, P.A. 351, S. 1; 1972, P.A. 136, S. 1; P.A. 77-119, S. 1; 77-554, S. 2; P.A. 79-376, S. 51; P.A. 81-469, S. 6, 8; P.A. 82-472, S. 110, 183; P.A. 85-189, S. 5; P.A. 86-21; 86-25; P.A. 87-277, S, 1, 4; 87-589, S. 58, 87; P.A. 88-29, S. 1, 2; P.A. 89-68, S. 2; P.A. 90-230, S. 54, 101; 90-311, S. 2, 3; P.A. 91-32, S. 37, 38, 41; 91-339, S. 38, 55; P.A. 93-228, S. 26, 35; 93-429, S. 3, 7; P.A. 95-277, S. 15, 16, 19; P.A. 96-242, S. 6, 10.)

      **Note: Sections 8 and 9 of public act 96-242 are special in nature and therefore have not been codified but remain in full force and effect according to their terms.

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2006, subsection (a) of this section, as amended by section 10 of public act 05-199, is to read as follows:

      "Sec. 31-354. Second Injury Fund contributions. Duties and powers of State Treasurer. (a) There shall be a fund to be known as the Second Injury Fund. Each employer, other than the state, shall, within thirty days after notice given by the State Treasurer, pay to the State Treasurer for the use of the state a sum in payment of his liability under this chapter which shall be calculated in accordance with the Second Injury Fund surcharge base, as defined in section 31-349g, and shall be assessed in accordance with subsection (f) of section 31-349, sections 31-349g, 31-349h and 31-349i, this section, section 31-354b and sections 8 and 9 of public act 96-242**. Such sum shall be an amount sufficient to (1) pay the debt service on state revenue bond obligations authorized to be issued under and for the purposes set forth in section 31-354b including reserve and covenant coverage requirements, (2) provide for costs and expenses of operating the Second Injury Fund, and (3) pay Second Injury Fund stipulations on claims settled by the custodian or other benefits payable out of the Second Injury Fund and not funded through state revenue bond obligations and shall be determined in accordance with the regulations adopted pursuant to the provisions of section 31-349g. The custodian shall establish a factor for the annual surcharge that caps such surcharge for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1996, 1997 and 1998. In determining such factor the custodian shall consider the funding mechanism authorized by subsection (f) of section 31-349, sections 31-349g, 31-349h and 31-349i, this section, section 31-354b and sections 8 and 9 of public act 96-242**, recognize that an acceptable level of employer assessment is important to the vitality of the economy of the state and nevertheless shall assure provision of services to injured workers that enhances their ability to return to work and improve their quality of life. In any event, such factor shall not exceed, with respect to insured employers, a rate of fifteen per cent on the Second Injury Fund surcharge base with respect to workers' compensation and employers' liability policies and, with respect to self-insured employers, a comparable percentage limitation representing their pro rata share of any assessment. Any employer or any insurance company acting as collection agent for the custodian of the Second Injury Fund who fails to pay in accordance with such regulations shall pay a penalty to the State Treasurer of fifteen per cent or a minimum of fifty dollars on the unpaid assessment or surcharge. Interest at the rate of six per cent per annum shall be charged on any amounts owed on assessment audits or surcharge audits. For self-insured employers interest shall accrue thirty days after notice from the Second Injury Fund of the unpaid audit assessment. For insurance companies, the interest shall accrue from the date of the notice of audit errors or deficiencies as determined by the date postmarked by the United States Postal Service. The State Treasurer shall notify each employer of the penalty or interest provision with the notice of assessment. Any partial payments made to the fund shall be first applied to any unpaid penalty, then to any unpaid interest and the remainder, if any, to the unpaid assessment or surcharge. Interest or penalties shall be applied if assessment or surcharge reports or payments are postmarked by the United States Postal Service after the designated due date. The sums received shall be accounted for separately and apart from all other state moneys and the faith and credit of the state of Connecticut is pledged for their safekeeping. The State Treasurer shall be the custodian of the fund and all disbursements from the fund shall be made by the Treasurer or the Treasurer's deputies. The moneys of the fund shall be invested by the Treasurer in accordance with applicable law and section 8 of public act 96-242**. Interest, income and dividends from the investments shall be credited to the fund. Each employer, each private insurance carrier acting on behalf of any employer and each interlocal risk management agency acting on behalf of any employer shall annually, on or before April first, report to the State Treasurer, in the form prescribed by the State Treasurer, the amount of money expended by or on behalf of the employer in payments for the preceding calendar year. Each private insurance carrier, each self-insurance group and each interlocal risk management agency shall submit annually, on or before April first, to the State Treasurer, in the form prescribed by the State Treasurer, a report of the total Second Injury Fund surcharge base collected in the preceding calendar year and a report of the projected total Second Injury Fund surcharge base for the current calendar year. The fund shall be used to provide the benefits set forth in section 31-306 for adjustments in the compensation rate and payment of certain death benefits, in section 31-307b for adjustments where there are relapses after a return to work, in section 31-307c for totally disabled persons injured prior to October 1, 1953, in section 31-349 for disabled or handicapped employees and in section 31-355 for the payment of benefits due injured employees whose employers or insurance carriers have failed to pay the compensation, and medical expenses required by this chapter, or any other compensation payable from the fund as may be required by any provision contained in this chapter or any other statute and to reimburse employers or insurance carriers for payments made under subsection (b) of section 31-307a. The assessment required by this section is a condition of doing business in this state and failure to pay the assessment, when due, shall result in the denial of the privilege of doing business in this state or to self-insure under section 31-284. Any administrative or other costs or expenses incurred by the State Treasurer in connection with carrying out the provisions of this part, including the hiring of necessary employees, shall be paid from the fund. The State Treasurer may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, prescribing the practices, policies and procedures to be followed in the administration of the Second Injury Fund."

      (1949 Rev., S. 7494; 1949, 1951, S. 3056d; 1958 Rev., S. 31-221; 1959, P.A. 580, S. 12; 1961, P.A. 491, S. 80; 1967, P.A. 842, S. 21; 1969, P.A. 696, S. 15; 1971, P.A. 351, S. 1; 1972, P.A. 136, S. 1; P.A. 77-119, S. 1; 77-554, S. 2; P.A. 79-376, S. 51; P.A. 81-469, S. 6, 8; P.A. 82-472, S. 110, 183; P.A. 85-189, S. 5; P.A. 86-21; 86-25; P.A. 87-277, S, 1, 4; 87-589, S. 58, 87; P.A. 88-29, S. 1, 2; P.A. 89-68, S. 2; P.A. 90-230, S. 54, 101; 90-311, S. 2, 3; P.A. 91-32, S. 37, 38, 41; 91-339, S. 38, 55; P.A. 93-228, S. 26, 35; 93-429, S. 3, 7; P.A. 95-277, S. 15, 16, 19; P.A. 96-242, S. 6, 10; P.A. 05-199, S. 10.)

      **Note: Sections 8 and 9 of public act 96-242 are special in nature and therefore have not been codified but remain in full force and effect according to their terms.

      History; 1959 act created second injury and compensation assurance fund and transferred assets of second injury fund to it on October 1, 1959; 1961 act entirely replaced previous provisions; 1967 act required that fund be maintained at one-hundred-thousand-dollar level rather than fifty-thousand-dollar level; 1969 act required self-insurers to pay one and one-half per cent rather than one per cent of their liability payments for preceding year, increased level at which to be maintained to two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, specified uses to which fund is to be put and required payment of assessment as a condition of doing business in state; 1971 act made provisions applicable to mutual insurance companies; 1972 act required payment of assessment within thirty days after notice by treasurer rather than "annually on or before July first", increased payments to not more than two per cent of preceding year's liability payments and replaced requirements re two-hundred-fifty-thousand-dollar level to be maintained in fund with provision allowing treasurer to make assessments to cover expenditure and maintain fund at five-hundred-thousand-dollar level; P.A. 77-119 increased assessment rate to three and one-half per cent; P.A. 77-554 specified that funds be used for adjustments in compensation rate; P.A. 79-376 replaced "workmen's compensation" with "workers' compensation"; P.A. 81-469 provided that the amount of money expended by a carrier in payment of the state's liabilities under this chapter shall be exempted when calculating the payment due under section; P.A. 82-472 made a technical correction; P.A. 85-189 provided that each employer, other than the state and certain municipalities, is liable for assessments levied by the state treasurer to fund the second injury and compensation assurance fund; P.A. 86-21 provided that assessments shall be levied by the state treasurer against employers on whose behalf the second injury fund has made payments pursuant to Sec. 31-355; P.A. 86-25 increased the maximum assessment from three and one-half to five per cent and increased the fund's minimum reserve from five hundred thousand to one million dollars; P.A. 87-277 added provision re payment from fund of costs or expenses incurred by treasurer in carrying out provisions of part E of chapter 568; P.A. 87-589 changed effective date of P.A. 87-277 from July 1, 1988, to July 1, 1987; P.A. 88-29 added an interest penalty to be imposed on any employer who fails to make payment of an assessment when due to the second injury fund under the Workers' Compensation Act; P.A. 89-68 provided that the fund shall be used to provide the benefits set forth in Subsec. (c) of Sec. 31-306; P.A. 90-230 corrected an omission; P.A. 90-311 removed the exemption from payment for municipalities participating in interlocal risk management agencies, effective July 1, 1991; P.A. 91-32 made technical changes; P.A. 91-339 added provisions re payments to the fund by the treasurer on behalf of the state and deleted reference to dependency allowance; P.A. 93-228 raised the amount of money to be contributed to the second injury fund by the state treasurer on behalf of the state from five per cent of expenditures to the total amount of expenditures, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-429 authorized the state treasurer to adopt regulations re administrative practices, policies and procedures for the second injury fund, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-277 added a requirement that each private insurance carrier and each interlocal risk management agency annually submit to the Treasurer a report of the total standard earned premium collected in the preceding calendar year, effective June 29, 1995, and replaced provisions detailing funding of Second Injury Fund by employer contributions with provision authorizing Treasurer to develop such policies re determination of employers' contributions through regulations, effective January 1, 1996; P.A. 96-242 made existing language Subsec. (a) and made technical change concerning the reference to the State Treasurer, added provisions on the special assessment premium surcharge, specified April first as annual report deadline and required report to include projected total standard earned premium and added Subsec. (b) requiring State Treasurer to establish three accounts within the Second Injury Fund, effective June 6, 1996; P.A. 05-199 amended Subsec. (a) by substituting "calculated in accordance with the Second Injury Fund surcharge base" for "the special assessment premium surcharge" and "Second Injury Fund surcharge base" for "standard premiums", subjecting insurance companies acting as collection agents for fund to penalty for failure to pay assessment, changing penalty to fifteen per cent or minimum of fifty dollars on unpaid assessment or surcharge, and interest at six per cent per annum on amounts owed on assessment or surcharge audits, to accrue thirty days after notice of unpaid audit assessment from fund for self-insured employers and from date of notice of audit errors or deficiencies for insurance companies, requiring Treasurer to notify employers of interest provision with notice of assessment, deleting requirement that State Treasurer, upon levy of assessment, pay to fund sum not to exceed total amount of money expended on behalf of state employees during period following last assessment, providing for application of partial payments, requiring each self-insurance group to submit annual report to Treasurer of projected total Second Injury Fund surcharge base for current calendar year and making technical changes, effective July 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 31-355. *(See end of section for amended version and effective date.) Hearings; awards. Payments from Second Injury Fund on employer's failure to comply with award. Civil action for reimbursement. Insolvent insurer. (a) The commissioner shall give notice to the Treasurer of all hearing of matters which may involve payment from the Second Injury Fund, and may make an award directing the Treasurer to make payment from the fund.

      (b) When an award of compensation has been made under the provisions of this chapter against an employer who fails or is unable to pay medical and surgical aid or hospital and nursing service required under this chapter or any type of compensation for disability, or both, whether for total or partial disability of a permanent or temporary nature, death benefit, funeral expense, or any adjustment in compensation required by this chapter, and whose insurer fails or is unable to pay the compensation, such compensation shall be paid from the Second Injury Fund. The commissioner, on a finding of failure or inability to pay compensation, shall give notice to the Treasurer of the award, directing the Treasurer to make payment from the fund. Whenever liability to pay compensation is contested by the Treasurer, the Treasurer shall file with the commissioner, on or before the twenty-eighth day after he has received an order of payment from the commissioner, a notice in accordance with a form prescribed by the chairman of the Workers' Compensation Commission stating that the right to compensation is contested, the name of the claimant, the name of the employer, the date of the alleged injury or death and the specific grounds on which the right to compensation is contested. A copy of the notice shall be sent to the employee. The commissioner shall hold a hearing on such contested liability at the request of the Treasurer or the employee in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. If the Treasurer fails to file the notice contesting liability within the time prescribed in this section, the Treasurer shall be conclusively presumed to have accepted the compensability of such alleged injury or death from the Second Injury Fund and shall have no right thereafter to contest the employee's right to receive compensation on any grounds or contest the extent of the employee's disability.

      (c) The employer and the insurer, if any, shall be liable to the state for any payments made out of the fund in accordance with this section or which the state has by award become obligated to make from the fund, together with cost of attorneys' fees as fixed by the court. If reimbursement is not made, or a plan for payment to the fund has not been agreed to by the Treasurer and employer, within ninety days of any payment from the fund, the Attorney General shall bring a civil action, in the superior court for the judicial district where the award was made, to recover all amounts paid by the fund pursuant to the award, plus double damages together with reasonable attorney's fees and costs as taxed by the court. Any amount paid to the Treasurer by the employer or insurer after the filing of an action, but prior to its completion, shall be subject to an interest charge of eighteen per cent per annum, calculated from the date of original payment from the fund.

      (d) Any recovery made under this section, including any recovery for costs or attorney's fees, shall be paid into the fund. Any administrative or other costs or expenses incurred by the Attorney General in connection with carrying out the purposes of this section, including the hiring of necessary employees, shall be paid from the fund. The Treasurer shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, which describe what constitutes a proper and sufficient "plan for payment to the fund" for the purposes of this section.

      (e) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) to (d), inclusive, of this section, whenever the employer's insurer has been determined to be insolvent, as defined in section 38a-838, payments required under this section shall be the obligation of the Connecticut Insurance Guaranty Association pursuant to the provisions of sections 38a-836 to 38a-853, inclusive.

      (1959, P.A. 580, S. 13; 1961, P.A. 491, S. 81; 1969, P.A. 696, S. 16; P.A. 85-349, S. 2; P.A. 86-35, S. 1; P.A. 87-277, S. 2, 4; 87-589, S. 58, 87; P.A. 91-32, S. 39, 41; 91-207, S. 1, 9; P.A. 92-31, S. 6, 7.)

      *Note: On and after July 1, 2006, this section, as amended by section 11 of public act 05-199, is to read as follows:

      "Sec. 31-355. Hearings; awards. Payments from Second Injury Fund on employer's failure to comply with award. Civil action for reimbursement. Insolvent insurer. Settlements and agreements. Failure of uninsured employer to pay. (a) The commissioner shall give notice to the Treasurer of all hearing of matters that may involve payment from the Second Injury Fund, and may make an award directing the Treasurer to make payment from the fund.

      (b) When an award of compensation has been made under the provisions of this chapter against an employer who failed, neglected, refused or is unable to pay any type of benefit coming due as a consequence of such award or any adjustment in compensation required by this chapter, and whose insurer failed, neglected, refused or is unable to pay the compensation, such compensation shall be paid from the Second Injury Fund. The commissioner, on a finding of failure or inability to pay compensation, shall give notice to the Treasurer of the award, directing the Treasurer to make payment from the fund. Whenever liability to pay compensation is contested by the Treasurer, the Treasurer shall file with the commissioner, on or before the twenty-eighth day after the Treasurer has received an order of payment from the commissioner, a notice in accordance with a form prescribed by the chairman of the Workers' Compensation Commission stating that the right to compensation is contested, the name of the claimant, the name of the employer, the date of the alleged injury or death and the specific grounds on which the right to compensation is contested. A copy of the notice shall be sent to the employee. The commissioner shall hold a hearing on such contested liability at the request of the Treasurer or the employee in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. If the Treasurer fails to file the notice contesting liability within the time prescribed in this section, the Treasurer shall be conclusively presumed to have accepted the compensability of such alleged injury or death from the Second Injury Fund and shall have no right thereafter to contest the employee's right to receive compensation on any grounds or contest the extent of the employee's disability.

      (c) The employer and the insurer, if any, shall be liable to the state for any payments made out of the fund in accordance with this section or which the Treasurer has by award become obligated to make from the fund, together with cost of attorneys' fees as fixed by the court. If reimbursement is not made, or a plan for payment to the fund has not been agreed to by the Treasurer and employer, not later than ninety days after any payment from the fund, the Attorney General shall bring a civil action, in the superior court for the judicial district where the award was made, to recover all amounts paid by the fund pursuant to the award, plus double damages together with reasonable attorney's fees and costs as taxed by the court. Any amount paid to the Treasurer by the employer or insurer after the filing of an action, but prior to its completion, shall be subject to an interest charge of eighteen per cent per annum, calculated from the date of original payment from the fund.

      (d) Any recovery made under this section, including any recovery for costs or attorney's fees, shall be paid into the fund. Any administrative or other costs or expenses incurred by the Attorney General in connection with carrying out the purposes of this section, including the hiring of necessary employees, shall be paid from the fund. The Treasurer shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, which describe what constitutes a proper and sufficient "plan for payment to the fund" for the purposes of this section.

      (e) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsections (a) to (d), inclusive, of this section, whenever the employer's insurer has been determined to be insolvent, as defined in section 38a-838, payments required under this section shall be the obligation of the Connecticut Insurance Guaranty Association pursuant to the provisions of sections 38a-836 to 38a-853, inclusive.

      (f) Notwithstanding subsection (b) of this section, the commissioner may approve a stipulated settlement for benefits between an injured worker and the Treasurer under this chapter at any time prior to or after the issuance of a finding and award against the employer if the commissioner determines that it is in the best interest of the injured workers to do so. Notice of the proposed settlement shall be sent to the employer by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the employer's last known address on file with the Secretary of the State or local postal authority. The commissioner shall hold a hearing on such proposed settlement at the request of the employer in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. If the employer does not file with the Workers' Compensation Commission a written objection to the proposed settlement not later than twenty-eight days after the date of the notice to the employer of the proposed settlement, the employer shall be deemed to have consented to the proposed settlement and may not thereafter contest the terms of the settlement in any forum. Where payment has been ordered under this subsection, the terms of such order shall have the same status and be governed by the same provisions as an award issued pursuant to subsection (b) of this section.

      (g) Nothing in this section shall preclude the Treasurer from entering into an agreement with the employer for the reimbursement of expenses, costs or benefits paid by the fund. The Treasurer, the uninsured employer, the injured worker, or the injured worker's beneficiaries, or a third party who is liable under section 31-293 may enter into a settlement agreement to finally or partially settle the rights and liabilities of any or all parties under this chapter, subject to the approval of the commissioner.

      (h) When a finding and award of compensation has been made against an uninsured employer who fails to pay it, that compensation shall be paid from the Second Injury Fund, and if there are further claims for any related, reasonable and necessary treatment, payment shall by provided to the claimant without a subsequent finding and award."

      (1959, P.A. 580, S. 13; 1961, P.A. 491, S. 81; 1969, P.A. 696, S. 16; P.A. 85-349, S. 2; P.A. 86-35, S. 1; P.A. 87-277, S. 2, 4; 87-589, S. 58, 87; P.A. 91-32, S. 39, 41; 91-207, S. 1, 9; P.A. 92-31, S. 6, 7; P.A. 05-199, S. 11.)

      History: 1961 act entirely replaced previous provisions; 1969 act specified benefits to be considered as "compensation"; P.A. 85-349 required the attorney general to bring a civil action for reimbursement of the payments made by the fund, and assessed an interest charge of eighteen per cent on delinquent payments; P.A. 86-35 provided (1) any recovery of moneys pursuant to this section shall be paid into the second injury fund, (2) outside counsel may be used for reimbursement procedures and paid for from the fund, (3) the treasurer may agree to a reimbursement payment plan in lieu of civil action, and (4) payments due from an insolvent workers' compensation insurer shall be the obligation of the Connecticut Insurance Guaranty Association; P.A. 87-277 deleted provision re payment from fund of compensation for outside counsel and substituted provision re payment from fund of costs or expenses incurred by attorney general in carrying out purposes of section; P.A. 87-589 changed effective date of P.A. 87-277 from July 1, 1988 to July 1, 1987; P.A. 91-32 made technical changes, added new Subsec. (a), divided existing Subsec. (a) into Subsecs. (b) to (d), inclusive, and redesignated existing Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (e); P.A. 91-207 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provisions re notice whenever liability to pay compensation is contested by the treasurer; P.A. 92-31 made technical changes in Subsec. (b); P.A. 05-199 made technical changes in Subsecs. (a) to (c), amended Subsec. (b) to impose liability on Second Injury Fund for employer and insurer who neglected or refused to pay award of compensation and replace references to specific unpaid benefits with "any type of benefit coming due as a consequence of such award", added Subsec. (f) re approval by commissioner of stipulated settlement between injured worker and Treasurer, added Subsec. (g) re settlement agreements and added Subsec. (h) re payment from fund of award of compensation against uninsured employer and payment of further claims without subsequent finding and award, effective July 1, 2006.

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