CHAPTER 558
WAGES

Table of Contents

Sec. 31-58. Definitions.
Sec. 31-72. Civil action to collect wage claim, fringe benefit claim or arbitration award.

PART I
MINIMUM WAGES

      Sec. 31-58. Definitions. As used in this part:

      (a) "Commissioner" means the Labor Commissioner;

      (b) "Wage board" means a board created as provided in section 31-61;

      (c) "Fair wage" means a wage fairly and reasonably commensurate with the value of a particular service or class of service rendered, and, in establishing a minimum fair wage for such service or class of service under this part, the commissioner and the wage board, without being bound by any technical rules of evidence or procedure, (1) may take into account all relevant circumstances affecting the value of the services rendered, including hours and conditions of employment affecting the health, safety and general well-being of the workers, and (2) may be guided by such considerations as would guide a court in a suit for the reasonable value of services rendered where services are rendered at the request of an employer without contract as to the amount of the wage to be paid and (3) may consider the wages, including overtime or premium rates, paid in the state for work of like or comparable character by employers who voluntarily maintain minimum fair wage standards;

      (d) "Department" means the Labor Department;

      (e) "Employer" means any owner or any person, partnership, corporation, limited liability company or association of persons acting directly as, or in behalf of, or in the interest of an employer in relation to employees, including the state and any political subdivision thereof;

      (f) "Employee" means any individual employed or permitted to work by an employer but shall not include any individual employed in camps or resorts which are open no more than six months of the year or in domestic service in or about a private home, except any individual in domestic service employment as defined in the regulations of the federal Fair Labor Standards Act, or an individual employed in a bona fide executive, administrative or professional capacity as defined in the regulations of the Labor Commissioner or an individual employed by the federal government, or any individual engaged in the activities of an educational, charitable, religious, scientific, historical, literary or nonprofit organization where the employer-employee relationship does not, in fact, exist or where the services rendered to such organizations are on a voluntary basis, or any individual employed as a head resident or resident assistant by a college or university, or any individual engaged in baby sitting, or an outside salesman as defined in the regulations of the federal Fair Labor Standards Act; or any individual employed by a nonprofit theater, provided such theater does not operate for more than seven months in any calendar year;

      (g) A resort is defined as an establishment under one management whose principal function it is to offer lodging by the day, week, month or season, or part thereof, to vacationers or those in search of recreation;

      (h) "Employ" means to employ or suffer to work;

      (i) "Wage" means compensation due to an employee by reason of his employment;

      (j) "Minimum fair wage" in any industry or occupation in this state means a wage of not less than six dollars and seventy cents per hour, and effective January 1, 2003, not less than six dollars and ninety cents per hour, and effective January 1, 2004, not less than seven dollars and ten cents per hour, and effective January 1, 2006, not less than seven dollars and forty cents per hour, and effective January 1, 2007, not less than seven dollars and sixty-five cents per hour, or one-half of one per cent rounded to the nearest whole cent more than the highest federal minimum wage, whichever is greater, except as may otherwise be established in accordance with the provisions of this part. All wage orders in effect on October 1, 1971, wherein a lower minimum fair wage has been established, are amended to provide for the payment of the minimum fair wage herein established except as hereinafter provided. Whenever the highest federal minimum wage is increased, the minimum fair wage established under this part shall be increased to the amount of said federal minimum wage plus one-half of one per cent more than said federal rate, rounded to the nearest whole cent, effective on the same date as the increase in the highest federal minimum wage, and shall apply to all wage orders and administrative regulations then in force. The rates for learners, beginners, and persons under the age of eighteen years shall be not less than eighty-five per cent of the minimum fair wage for the first two hundred hours of such employment and equal to the minimum fair wage thereafter, except institutional training programs specifically exempted by the commissioner.

      (1949 Rev., S. 3786; 1951, S. 2025d; 1957, P.A. 435, S. 1, 2; 1959, P.A. 683, S. 1; 1961, P.A. 519, S. 1, 2; 1963, P.A. 357; 1967, P.A. 484, S. 1; 492, S. 1; 565, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 535; 1971, P.A. 45, S. 1; 85, S. 1; 615, S. 1, 2; 616, S. 1; 1972, P.A. 116, S. 1; P.A. 73-82, S. 3, 4; P.A. 77-154; 77-329; P.A. 78-358, S. 3, 6; P.A. 79-41; P.A. 83-537, S. 1; P.A. 87-366, S. 1; P.A. 93-144, S. 2; P.A. 95-79, S. 114, 189; P.A. 98-44; P.A. 00-144, S. 1; P.A. 02-33, S. 1; P.A. 05-32, S. 1.)

      History: 1959 act added "owner" and "partnership" to Subsec. (e) and the proviso and authority to define executive, etc., capacity by regulation to Subsec. (f); 1961 act added to Subsec. (f) the clause re employees of industry and increased the minimum wage rate provided for by Subsec. (j); 1963 act included beginners in minimum wage provisions of Subsec. (j), specified that ninety-five cent minimum wage for learners, beginners and persons under eighteen applies for the first five hundred hours of employment, set rate at one dollar and twenty-five cents thereafter and exempted institutional training programs designated by commissioner from pay provision; 1967 acts redefined "employee" to delete reference to individuals exempt under specified Subdivs. of Fair Labor Standards Act and individuals employed in industries for which wage orders have been established as employees, redefined "minimum fair wage", revising wage amounts and reducing hours at which beginners, etc. are paid a lesser amount from five hundred to two hundred; 1969 act redefined "minimum fair wage" to add provisions pegging increases to increases in federal minimum wage; 1971 acts redefined "employee" to delete exclusion for employees of state, municipalities or political subdivisions and redefined "minimum fair wage" to increase wage amounts, to delete provision re formula for increase in gratuities allowance for restaurant employees and to add provision re fair wage for agricultural employees; 1972 act redefined "employee" to delete exclusion for individuals in manufacturing establishments subject to provisions of Fair Labor Standards Act; P.A. 73-82 redefined "employee" to specifically exclude persons employed in executive, administrative, professional or outside sales capacity; P.A. 77-154 excluded employees of nonprofit theaters which operate less than seven months a year from consideration as employees; P.A. 77-329 qualified exclusion of persons in domestic service from consideration as employees by adding exception and excluded baby-sitters; P.A. 78-358 raised minimum wage, pegged rates to "highest" federal minimum wage, changed basis of wage for beginners, etc. from one dollar and fifty cents for the first two hundred hours and one dollar and eighty-five cents thereafter to not less than eighty-five per cent of basic minimum wage for first two hundred hours and equaling basic minimum wage thereafter and deleted provision re minimum wage for agricultural employees; P.A. 79-41 redefined "employer" to include the state and its political subdivisions; P.A. 83-537 amended Subsec. (f) to exempt any individual employed as a head resident or resident assistant at a college or university from the definition of "employee"; P.A. 87-366 amended Subsec. (j) to increase the minimum fair wage to three dollars and seventy-five cents on October 1, 1987, and to four dollars and twenty-five cents on October 1, 1988; P.A. 93-144 redefined "employee" to delete specific exclusion of persons employed in a bona fide executive, administrative or professional capacity; P.A. 95-79 redefined "employer" to include a limited liability company, effective May 31, 1995; P.A. 98-44 amended Subsec. (j) to increase the minimum fair wage to five dollars and sixty-five cents on January 1, 1999, and to six dollars and fifteen cents on January 1, 2000; P.A. 00-144 amended Subsec. (j) to increase the minimum fair wage to six dollars and forty cents on January 1, 2001, and to six dollars and seventy cents on January 1, 2002; P.A. 02-33 amended Subsec. (j) by deleting prior minimum fair wage amounts and by increasing the minimum fair wage to six dollars and ninety cents on January 1, 2003, and to seven dollars and ten cents on January 1, 2004, effective July 1, 2002; P.A. 05-32 amended Subsec. (j) to increase the minimum fair wage to seven dollars and forty cents on January 1, 2006, and seven dollars and sixty-five cents on January 1, 2007.

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PART II
GENERAL PROVISIONS

      Sec. 31-72. Civil action to collect wage claim, fringe benefit claim or arbitration award.

      Double damage award under section not equivalent to punitive or exemplary damages; provision prohibiting employer from raising agreement for payment of wages between employer and employee as defense against action for unpaid wages does not bar employer from raising agreement for other purposes, such as ground for vacating arbitration award. 275 C. 72.

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