CHAPTER 439
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DEPARTMENT
AND STATE POLICY

Table of Contents

Sec. 22a-6b. Imposition of civil penalties by the commissioner.
Sec. 22a-16. Action for declaratory and equitable relief against unreasonable pollution.
Sec. 22a-16a. Supplemental environmental projects or financial contributions in lieu of penalty for environmental violations.
Sec. 22a-19. Administrative proceedings.
Sec. 22a-27h. Conservation Fund. Maintenance, repair and improvement account.

PART II
GENERAL PROVISIONS

      Sec. 22a-6b. Imposition of civil penalties by the commissioner. (a) The Commissioner of Environmental Protection shall adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to establish a schedule setting forth the amounts, or the ranges of amounts, or a method for calculating the amount of the civil penalties which may become due under this section. Such schedule or method may be amended from time to time in the same manner as for adoption provided any such regulations which become effective after July 1, 1993, shall only apply to violations which occur after said date. The civil penalties established for each violation shall be of such amount as to insure immediate and continued compliance with applicable laws, regulations, orders and permits. Such civil penalties shall not exceed the following amounts:

      (1) For failure to file any registration, other than a registration for a general permit, for failure to file any plan, report or record, or any application for a permit, for failure to obtain any certification, for failure to display any registration, permit or order, or file any other information required pursuant to any provision of section 14-100b or 14-164c, subdivision (3) of subsection (b) of section 15-121, section 15-171, 15-172, 15-175, 22a-5, 22a-6, 22a-7, 22a-32, 22a-39 or 22a-42a, 22a-45a, chapter 441, sections 22a-134 to 22a-134d, inclusive, subsection (b) of section 22a-134p, section 22a-171, 22a-174, 22a-175, 22a-177, 22a-178, 22a-181, 22a-183, 22a-184, 22a-208, 22a-208a, 22a-209, 22a-213, 22a-220, 22a-231, 22a-336, 22a-342, 22a-345, 22a-346, 22a-347, 22a-349a, 22a-354p, 22a-358, 22a-359, 22a-361, 22a-362, 22a-368, 22a-401 to 22a-405, inclusive, 22a-411, 22a-416, 22a-417, 22a-424 to 22a-433, inclusive, 22a-447, 22a-449, 22a-450, 22a-451, 22a-454, 22a-458, 22a-461, 22a-462 or 22a-471, or any regulation, order or permit adopted or issued thereunder by the commissioner, and for other violations of similar character as set forth in such schedule or schedules, no more than one thousand dollars for said violation and in addition no more than one hundred dollars for each day during which such violation continues;

      (2) For deposit, placement, removal, disposal, discharge or emission of any material or substance or electromagnetic radiation or the causing of, engaging in or maintaining of any condition or activity in violation of any provision of section 14-100b or 14-164c, subdivision (3) of subsection (b) of section 15-121, section 15-171, 15-172, 15-175, 22a-5, 22a-6, 22a-7, 22a-32, 22a-39 or 22a-42a, 22a-45a, chapter 441, sections 22a-134 to 22a-134d, inclusive, section 22a-69 or 22a-74, subsection (b) of section 22a-134p, section 22a-162, 22a-171, 22a-174, 22a-175, 22a-177, 22a-178, 22a-181, 22a-183, 22a-184, 22a-190, 22a-208, 22a-208a, 22a-209, 22a-213, 22a-220, 22a-336, 22a-342, 22a-345, 22a-346, 22a-347, 22a-349a, 22a-354p, 22a-358, 22a-359, 22a-361, 22a-362, 22a-368, 22a-401 to 22a-405, inclusive, 22a-411, 22a-416, 22a-417, 22a-424 to 22a-433, inclusive, 22a-447, 22a-449, 22a-450, 22a-451, 22a-454, 22a-458, 22a-461, 22a-462 or 22a-471, or any regulation, order or permit adopted thereunder by the commissioner, and for other violations of similar character as set forth in such schedule or schedules, no more than twenty-five thousand dollars for said violation for each day during which such violation continues;

      (3) For violation of the terms of any final order of the commissioner, except final orders under subsection (d) of this section and emergency orders and cease and desist orders as set forth in subdivision (4) of this subsection, for violation of the terms of any permit issued by the commissioner, and for other violations of similar character as set forth in such schedule or schedules, no more than twenty-five thousand dollars for said violation for each day during which such violation continues;

      (4) For violation of any emergency order or cease and desist order of the commissioner, and for other violations of similar character as set forth in such schedule or schedules, no more than twenty-five thousand dollars for said violation for each day during which such violation continues;

      (5) For failure to make an immediate report required pursuant to subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of section 22a-135, or a report required by the department pursuant to subsection (b) of section 22a-135, no more than twenty-five thousand dollars per violation per day;

      (6) For violation of any provision of the state's hazardous waste program, no more than twenty-five thousand dollars per violation per day;

      (7) For wilful violation of any condition imposed pursuant to section 26-313 which leads to the destruction of, or harm to, any rare, threatened or endangered species, no more than ten thousand dollars per violation per day;

      (8) For violation of any provision of sections 22a-608 to 22a-611, inclusive, no more than the amount established by Section 325 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act of 1986 (42 USC 11001 et seq.) for a violation of Section 302, 304 or 311 to 313, inclusive, of said act.

      (b) In adopting regulations regarding any schedule or methods prescribed by this section, the commissioner shall consider:

      (1) The amount or ranges of amounts of assessment necessary to insure immediate and continued compliance;

      (2) The character and degree of impact of the violation on the natural resources of the state, especially any rare or unique natural phenomena;

      (3) The conduct of the person incurring the civil penalty in taking all feasible steps or procedures necessary or appropriate to comply or to correct the violation;

      (4) Any prior violations by such person of statutes, regulations, orders or permits administered, adopted or issued by the commissioner;

      (5) The economic and financial conditions of such person;

      (6) The economic benefit which such person derived as a result of the violation;

      (7) The character and degree of injury to, or interference with, public health, safety or welfare which is caused or threatened to be caused by such violation;

      (8) The character and degree of injury or impairment to, or interference with, reasonable use of property which is caused or threatened to be caused by such violation;

      (9) The character and degree of injury or impairment to, or interference with, the public trust in the air, water, land and other natural resources of the state;

      (10) To the extent consistent with applicable law, any other factors the commissioner deems appropriate, including voluntary measures taken by such person to prevent pollution or enhance or preserve natural resources;

      (11) In the case of violation of the provisions of subdivision (3) of subsection (a) of section 22a-135, the apparent seriousness of the release, occurrence, incident or other circumstance at the time it first became known to the licensee or any employee of such licensee, the extent of the delay from the time such licensee or employee had or in the exercise of reasonable care should have had knowledge of such release, occurrence, incident or circumstance until its reporting by the licensee in accordance with this subsection, subsection (a) of this section and sections 16-19g and 22a-135, and the conduct of the licensee in taking all necessary steps to prevent future violations of the provisions of said subdivision.

      (c) If the commissioner has reason to believe that a violation has occurred for which a civil penalty is authorized by this section, he may send to the violator, by certified mail, return receipt requested, or personal service, a notice which shall include:

      (1) A reference to the sections of the statute, regulation, order or permit involved;

      (2) A short and plain statement of the matters asserted or charged;

      (3) A statement of the amount of the civil penalty or penalties or the method for calculating the penalty or penalties to be imposed upon finding after hearing that a violation has occurred or upon a default; and

      (4) A statement of the party's right to a hearing.

      (d) The person to whom the notice is addressed shall have thirty days from the date of receipt of the notice in which to deliver to the commissioner written application for a hearing. If a hearing is requested then, after a hearing and upon a finding that a violation has occurred, the commissioner may issue a final order assessing a civil penalty under this section which is not greater than the penalty stated in the notice. The commissioner may amend a notice of assessment at any time before such notice becomes final, provided the person to whom the notice is addressed shall have thirty days from the date of receipt of such amendment in which to deliver to the commissioner a written application for a hearing on such amendment, and provided further the commissioner may amend a notice of assessment after a hearing has begun only with the permission of the hearing officer. If such a hearing is not so requested, or if such a request is later withdrawn, then the notice shall, on the first day after the expiration of such twenty-day period or on the first day after the withdrawal of such request for hearing, whichever is later, become a final order of the commissioner and the matters asserted or charged in the notice shall be deemed admitted unless modified by consent order, which shall be a final order. Any civil penalty may be mitigated by the commissioner upon such terms and conditions as he in his discretion deems proper or necessary upon consideration of the factors set forth in subsection (b) hereof.

      (e) All hearings under this section shall be conducted pursuant to sections 4-176e to 4-184, inclusive. The final order of the commissioner assessing a civil penalty shall be subject to appeal as set forth in section 4-183, except that any such appeal shall be taken to the superior court for the judicial district of New Britain and shall have precedence in the order of trial as provided in section 52-191. Such final order shall not be subject to appeal under any other provision of the general statutes. No challenge to any notice of assessment or final order of the commissioner assessing a civil penalty shall be allowed as to any issue which could have been raised by an appeal of an earlier order, notice, permit, denial or other final decision by the commissioner. Any civil penalty authorized by this section shall become due and payable (1) at the time of receipt of a final order in the case of a civil penalty assessed in such order after a hearing, (2) on the first day after the expiration of the period in which a hearing may be requested if no hearing is requested, or (3) on the first day after any withdrawal of a request for hearing.

      (f) Any person acting within the terms and conditions of a final order or permit issued to him by the commissioner shall not be subject to a civil penalty, under this section, for such actions.

      (g) A civil penalty assessed in a final order of the commissioner under this section may be enforced in the same manner as a judgment of the Superior Court. Such final order shall be served in person or by certified mail, return receipt requested. Any notice of violation or final order against a private corporation shall be served upon at least one of the individuals enumerated in section 52-57. After entry, a transcript of such final order may be filed by the commissioner, without requiring the payment of costs as a condition precedent to such filing, in the office of the clerk of the superior court in any one or more of the following judicial districts: Any judicial district in which the respondent resides, any judicial district in which the respondent has a place of business, any judicial district in which the respondent owns real property and any judicial district in which any real property which is a subject of the proceedings is located; or, if the respondent is not a resident of the state of Connecticut, in the judicial district of Hartford. Upon such filing, such clerk or clerks shall docket such order in the same manner and with the same effect as a judgment entered in the superior court within the judicial district. Upon such docketing, such order may be enforced as a judgment of such court.

      (h) The provisions of this section, sections 22a-2, 22a-6, 22a-6a, 22a-7, sections 22a-428, subsection (d) of section 22a-430, sections 22a-431, 22a-432, 22a-433, 22a-437 and subsections (b) and (c) of section 22a-459 are in addition to and in no way derogate from any other enforcement provisions contained in any statute administered by the commissioner. The powers, duties and remedies provided in such other statutes, and the existence of or exercise of any powers, duties or remedies hereunder or thereunder shall not prevent the commissioner from exercising any other powers, duties or remedies provided herein, therein, at law or in equity.

      (i) No penalty shall be assessed pursuant to this section which exceeds two hundred thousand dollars or such other amount as may be provided by federal law.

      (P.A. 73-665, S. 2, 17; P.A. 78-96, S. 2; 78-280, S. 2, 6, 127; P.A. 80-351, S. 2, 3, 5; P.A. 81-443, S. 1, 7; 81-472, S. 55, 159; P.A. 83-108, S. 4; 83-587, S. 40, 41, 96; P.A. 84-54, S. 2, 3; 84-283, S. 2; 84-383, S. 4, 5; P.A. 86-239, S. 3, 14; 86-332, S. 18, 20; 86-403, S. 50, 132; P.A. 87-125, S. 2; 87-338, S. 1, 11; 87-438, S. 4; 87-475, S. 6, 7; P.A. 88-230, S. 1, 12; 88-317, S. 85, 107; 88-364, S. 80, 123; P.A. 89-209, S. 5; 89-212, S. 10; P.A. 90-98, S. 1, 2; 90-173, S. 9; P.A. 93-142, S. 4, 7, 8; 93-428, S. 33, 39; P.A. 95-218, S. 4, 24; 95-220, S. 4-6; P.A. 96-145, S. 11; P.A. 99-215, S. 24, 29; P.A. 05-288, S. 93.)

      History: P.A. 78-96 added references to Sec. 22a-32 in Subdivs. (1) and (2) of Subsec. (a); P.A. 78-280 substituted "judicial district" for "county" and "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" for "Hartford county"; P.A. 80-351 added Subdiv. (5) in Subsec. (a) and Subdiv. (8) in Subsec. (c); P.A. 81-443 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdiv. (6) authorizing the commissioner to impose a civil penalty for violation by the state's hazardous waste program; P.A. 81-472 made technical changes; P.A. 83-108 amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (a) to include failure to obtain certification under penalty imposed and updated section and chapter references in Subdivs. (1) and (2) of said subsection; P.A. 83-587 deleted references to Secs. 25-8a and 25-8c in Subsec. (a) and deleted reference to Sec. 25-54qq in Subsec. (i); P.A. 84-54 amended Subsec. (a) by adding references in Subdiv. (6) to Secs. 22a-69 and 22a-74; P.A. 84-283 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdiv. (7) authorizing a civil penalty for violation of any condition imposed under Sec. 24-2a leading to the destruction of or harm to any rare, threatened or endangered species; P.A. 84-383 amended Subsec. (a) by adding references to Sec. 22a-161 in Subdiv. (2) and by making actions involving electromagnetic radiation subject to civil penalties of said Subdiv; P.A. 86-239 amended Subdivs. (1) and (2) of Subsec. (a) by deleting reference to Sec. 22a-418 and adding reference to Sec. 22a-471; P.A. 86-332 amended Subsec. (a) by adding reference in Subdiv. (1) to Sec. 22a-231 and reference in Subdiv. (2) to 22a-190; P.A. 86-403 added reference to Sec. 22a-208a in Subsec. (a); P.A. 87-125 amended Subdivs. (1) and (2) of Subsec. (a) by deleting references to Sec. 22a-455 for consistency with other statutory changes; P.A. 87-338 amended Subdivs. (1) and (2) of Subsec. (a) to add Sec. 22a-42a and amended Subsec. (i) to delete reference to Sec. 22a-182; P.A. 87-438 amended Subsec. (i) by deleting the reference to Sec. 22a-389 for statutory consistency; P.A. 87-475 amended Subdiv. (6) of Subsec. (a) by deleting reference to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 USC 6901 et seq.); P.A. 88-230 replaced "judicial district of Hartford-New Britain" with "judicial district of Hartford", effective September 1, 1991; P.A. 88-317 amended reference to Secs. 4-177 to 4-184 in Subsec. (f) to include new sections added to Ch. 54, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to all agency proceedings commencing on or after that date; P.A. 88-364 amended Subsec. (i) to delete an obsolete reference; P.A. 89-209 amended Subsec. (a) by adding references to Sec. 22a-134p; P.A. 89-212 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdiv. (8) establishing penalty amount for violations of Secs. 22a-607 to 22a-610, inclusive; P.A. 90-98 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1991, to September 1, 1993; P.A. 90-173 amended Subsec. (a) to require the schedule or schedules to be adopted "in accordance with chapter 54" rather than "after public hearings pursuant to section 22a-6" and amended Subdivs. (1) and (2) of Subsec. (a) to add reference to Secs. 15-171, 15-172 and 15-175; P.A. 93-142 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1993, to September 1, 1996, effective June 14, 1993; P.A. 93-428 amended Subsec. (a) to authorize the commissioner to adopt regulatory methods of assessing administrative civil penalties, to adopt civil penalties for violations of Secs. 22a-45a, 22a-134 to 22a-134d, inclusive, 22a-349a and 22a-411, to delete certain limiting provisions re the calculation of the amounts of civil penalties, to delete caps on certain penalties and to expand financial liability for certain violations, amended Subsec. (b) to add certain considerations for establishing civil penalties, rewrote former Subsec. (c) and relettered former Subsecs. (d) to (i), inclusive, amended Subsec. (d) to provide for amended notices of assessment and added a new Subsec. (j) re cap on civil penalties assessed under this section, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 95-218 amended Subsec. (a) to add violations re aquifer protection and erection of structures or dredging in waters of the state to the list for which penalties may be assessed under this section; P.A. 95-220 changed the effective date of P.A. 88-230 from September 1, 1996, to September 1, 1998, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 96-145 deleted references to repealed Secs. 22a-383, 22a-384, 22a-385 and 22a-387 in Subsec. (a); P.A. 99-215 replaced "judicial district of Hartford" with "judicial district of New Britain" in Subsec. (e), effective June 29, 1999; P.A. 05-288 made technical changes in Subsec. (e), effective July 13, 2005.

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      Sec. 22a-16. Action for declaratory and equitable relief against unreasonable pollution.

      Trial court properly determined airport defendants should not be required to restore land to its original condition and properly determined amount of monetary penalties. 275 C. 105. Commissioner of Environmental Protection had standing to make claim that clear-cutting of trees by airport defendant constituted unreasonable pollution. Id., 161.

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      Sec. 22a-16a. Supplemental environmental projects or financial contributions in lieu of penalty for environmental violations.

      Trial court properly concluded that corporate officer was personally liable for cutting trees. 275 C. 105.

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      Sec. 22a-19. Administrative proceedings.

      Subsec. (a):

      Trial court decision striking verified pleading filed by Stratford town council as proposed intervenor in matters where Stratford zoning commission and inland wetlands and watercourse agency were named defendants reversed. Court declines to find exception to the citizen intervention provision of Connecticut Environmental Protection Act finding no legislative intent that would support a rule barring municipalities from utilizing provisions of subsec. to intervene in appeals from decisions of their land use agencies. 87 CA 537.

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      Sec. 22a-27h. Conservation Fund. Maintenance, repair and improvement account. (a) There is established a fund to be known as the "Conservation Fund" which shall be held by the Treasurer. Within the Conservation Fund, there is established and created an account to be known as the "conservation account". The Conservation Fund may include other accounts separate and apart from the conservation account. Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes to the contrary, any moneys required by law to be deposited in the Conservation Fund shall be deposited therein and credited to the conservation account. Any balance remaining in the fund at the end of any fiscal year shall be carried forward in the conservation account for the fiscal year next succeeding. The conservation account shall be used by the Department of Environmental Protection for the administration of the central office and conservation and preservation programs authorized by the general statutes.

      (b) Notwithstanding any provision of the general statutes, (1) on and after June 1, 1990, (A) the amount of any fee received by the Department of Environmental Protection which is attributable to the establishment of a new fee or the increase of an existing fee pursuant to the provisions of title 23 or 26, and (B) any fees paid to the department, pursuant to said titles, which are in excess of the total fees paid to the department pursuant to said titles for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1989, shall be deposited directly into the fund established by subsection (a) of this section and credited to the conservation account. The Commissioner of Environmental Protection shall certify to the Treasurer, with respect to each such fee received on and after June 1, 1990, the amount of such fee which shall be credited to the General Fund and the amount of such fee which shall be credited to the conservation account, and (2) on and after July 1, 2005, all fees collected by the department pursuant to title 23 for parking, admission, boat launching, camping and other recreational uses of state parks, forests, boat launches and other state facilities shall be deposited into the Conservation Fund and credited to the conservation account established by subsection (a) of this section.

      (c) There is established an account known as the maintenance, repair and improvement account. Said account shall be an account of the Conservation Fund. All moneys collected from any rent paid by any person occupying or otherwise using any property in the custody and control of the Commissioner of Environmental Protection, including houses or other buildings, shall be deposited into the account unless the commissioner enters into a written agreement, signs an instrument or issues a license which specifically states otherwise. Said account may also receive moneys from private or public sources, or from the federal government or a municipal government. Notwithstanding any other provision of the general statutes or any regulation adopted thereunder, any moneys deposited into the account shall be deposited in the Conservation Fund and credited to the maintenance, repair and improvement account. Any balance remaining in the account at the end of any fiscal year shall be carried forward in the account for the fiscal year next succeeding. The account shall be available to the Commissioner of Environmental Protection for maintaining, making improvements to, erecting structures on, or repairing any property in the custody and control of the Commissioner of Environmental Protection, including houses and other buildings. Nothing in this section shall prevent the commissioner from obtaining or using funds from sources other than the account, for maintaining, making improvements to, erecting structures on, or repairing any property in the custody and control of said commissioner, including houses and other buildings.

      (P.A. 90-231, S. 25, 28; P.A. 91-369, S. 6, 36; P.A. 94-130, S. 8; P.A. 96-143, S. 1, 4; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3, S. 7.)

      History: P.A. 91-369 amended Subsec. (b) to modify the method of deposit into the fund; P.A. 94-130 created a "conservation account" within the "Conservation Fund" and eliminated the requirement that such fund be held separate and apart from other moneys, funds and accounts and that investment earnings be credited to the assets of said fund; P.A. 96-143 added Subsec. (c) re the maintenance, repair and improvement account, effective July 1, 1996 (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (c) the word "or" was inserted editorially by the Revisors before "... from the federal government ..." in the sentence "Said account may also receive moneys from private or public sources, or from the federal government or a municipal government."); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 05-3 amended Subsec. (b) to make technical changes and require that on and after July 1, 2005, all fees collected pursuant to title 23 for certain usage of state parks, forests, boat launches and other state facilities be deposited into the Conservation Fund and credited to the conservation account, effective July 1, 2005.

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