CHAPTER 208
CORPORATION BUSINESS TAX

Table of Contents

Sec. 12-213. Definitions.
Sec. 12-214. Imposition of tax. Surcharge.
Sec. 12-217t. Tax credit for personal property taxes paid on electronic data processing equipment.
Sec. 12-217z. Business Tax Credit and Tax Policy Review Committee.
Sec. 12-219. Additional tax in the amount by which alternative computations exceed tax under section 12-214. Minimum tax. Surcharge.
Sec. 12-233. Examination of returns by commissioner. Deadlines for mailing deficiency assessments. Penalties for deficiencies. Payment by taxpayer.

PART I
IMPOSITION AND PAYMENT OF TAX

      Sec. 12-213. Definitions. (a) When used in this part, unless the context otherwise requires:

      (1) "Taxpayer" and "company" mean any corporation, foreign municipal electric utility, as defined in section 12-59, electric distribution company, as defined in section 16-1, electric supplier, as defined in section 16-1, generation entity or affiliate, as defined in section 16-1, joint stock company or association or any fiduciary thereof and any dissolved corporation which continues to conduct business but does not include a passive investment company or municipal utility, as defined in chapter 212 and chapter 212a;

      (2) "Dissolved corporation" means any company which has terminated its corporate existence by resolution, expiration, decree or forfeiture;

      (3) "Commissioner of Revenue Services" or "commissioner" means the Commissioner of Revenue Services;

      (4) "Tax year" means the calendar year in which the tax is payable;

      (5) "Income year" means the calendar year upon the basis of which net income is computed under this part, unless a fiscal year other than the calendar year has been established for federal income tax purposes, in which case it means the fiscal year so established or a period of less than twelve months ending as of the date on which liability under this chapter ceases to accrue by reason of dissolution, forfeiture, withdrawal, merger or consolidation;

      (6) "Fiscal year" means the income year ending on the last day of any month other than December or an annual period which varies from fifty-two to fifty-three weeks elected by the taxpayer in accordance with the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;

      (7) "Paid" means "paid or accrued" or "paid or incurred", construed according to the method of accounting upon the basis of which net income is computed under this part;

      (8) "Received" means "received" or "accrued", construed according to the method of accounting upon the basis of which net income is computed under this part;

      (9) (A) "Gross income" means gross income, as defined in the Internal Revenue Code, and, in addition, means any interest or exempt interest dividends, as defined in Section 852(b)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code, received by the taxpayer or losses of other calendar or fiscal years, retroactive to include all calendar or fiscal years beginning after January 1, 1935, incurred by the taxpayer which are excluded from gross income for purposes of assessing the federal corporation net income tax, and in addition, notwithstanding any other provision of law, means interest or exempt interest dividends, as defined in said Section 852(b)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code, accrued on or after the application date, as defined in section 12-242ff, with respect to any obligation issued by or on behalf of the state, its agencies, authorities, commissions and other instrumentalities, or by or on behalf of its political subdivisions and their agencies, authorities, commissions and other instrumentalities;

      (B) "Gross income" shall not include the amount which for federal income tax purposes is treated as a dividend received by a domestic United States corporation from a foreign corporation on account of foreign taxes deemed paid by such domestic corporation, when such domestic corporation elects the foreign tax credit for federal income tax purposes;

      (C) "Gross income" shall not include any amount which for federal income tax purposes is treated as a dividend received directly or indirectly by a taxpayer from a passive investment company;

      (10) "Net income" means net earnings received during the income year and available for contributors of capital, whether they are creditors or stockholders, computed by subtracting from gross income the deductions allowed by the terms of section 12-217, except that in the case of a domestic insurance company which is a life insurance company "net income" means life insurance company taxable income (A) increased by any amount or amounts which have been deducted in the computation of gain or loss from operations in respect of (i) the life insurance company's share of tax-exempt interest, (ii) operations loss carry-backs and capital loss carry-backs and (iii) operations loss carry-overs and capital loss carry-overs arising in any taxable year commencing prior to January 1, 1973, and (B) reduced by any amount or amounts which have been deducted as operations loss carry-backs or capital loss carry-backs in the computation of gain or loss from operations for any taxable year commencing on or after January 1, 1973, but only to the extent that such amount or amounts, would, for federal tax purposes, have been deductible in the taxable year as operations loss carry-overs or capital loss carry-overs if they had not been deducted in a previous taxable year as carry-backs and provided no expense related to income, the taxation of which by the state of Connecticut is prohibited by the law or Constitution of the United States, as applied, or by the law or Constitution of this state, as applied, shall be deducted under this chapter and provided further no item may, directly or indirectly be excluded or deducted more than once;

      (11) "Life insurance company" has the same meaning as it has under the Internal Revenue Code;

      (12) "Life insurance company taxable income" has the same meaning as it has under the Internal Revenue Code;

      (13) "Life insurance company's share" has the same meaning as it has under the Internal Revenue Code;

      (14) "Operations loss carry-over", with respect to a life insurance company, has the same meaning as it has under the Internal Revenue Code;

      (15) "Operations loss carry-back", with respect to a life insurance company, has the same meaning as it has under the Internal Revenue Code;

      (16) "Capital loss carry-over", with respect to a life insurance company, has the same meaning as it has under the Internal Revenue Code;

      (17) "Capital loss carry-back", with respect to a life insurance company, has the same meaning as it has under the Internal Revenue Code;

      (18) "Gain or loss from operations", with respect to a life insurance company, has the same meaning as it has under the Internal Revenue Code;

      (19) "Fiduciary" means any receiver, liquidator, referee, trustee, assignee or other fiduciary or officer or agent appointed by any court or by any other authority, except the Banking Commissioner acting as receiver or liquidator under the authority of the provisions of sections 36a-210 and 36a-218 to 36a-239, inclusive;

      (20) (A) "Carrying on or doing business" means and includes each and every act, power or privilege exercised or enjoyed in this state, as an incident to, or by virtue of, the powers and privileges acquired by the nature of any organization whether the form of existence is corporate, associate, joint stock company or fiduciary, and includes the direct or indirect engaging in, transacting or conducting of activity in this state by an electric supplier, as defined in section 16-1, or generation entity or affiliate, as defined in section 16-1, for the purpose of establishing or maintaining a market for the sale of electricity or of electric generation services, as defined in section 16-1, to end use customers located in this state through the use of the transmission or distribution facilities of an electric distribution company, as defined in section 16-1, or, until unbundled in accordance with section 16-244e, electric company, as defined in section 16-1;

      (B) A company that has contracted with a commercial printer for printing and distribution of printed material shall not be deemed to be carrying on or doing business in this state because of (i) the ownership or leasing by that company of tangible or intangible personal property located at the premises of the commercial printer in this state, (ii) the sale by that company of property of any kind produced or processed at and shipped or distributed from the premises of the commercial printer in this state, (iii) the activities of that company's employees or agents at the premises of the commercial printer in this state, which activities relate to quality control, distribution or printing services performed by the printer, or (iv) the activities of any kind performed by the commercial printer in this state for or on behalf of that company;

      (C) A company that participates in a trade show or shows at the convention center, as defined in subdivision (3) of section 32-600, shall not be deemed to be carrying on or doing business in this state, regardless of whether the company has employees or other staff present at such trade shows, provided such company's activity at such trade shows is limited to displaying goods or promoting services, no sales are made, any orders received are sent outside this state for acceptance or rejection and are filled from outside this state, and provided further that such participation is not more than fourteen days, or part thereof, in the aggregate during the company's income year for federal income tax purposes;

      (21) "Alternative energy system" means design systems, equipment or materials which utilize as their energy source solar, wind, water or biomass energy in providing space heating or cooling, water heating or generation of electricity, but shall not include wood-burning stoves;

      (22) "S corporation" means any corporation which is an S corporation for federal income tax purposes and includes any subsidiary of such S corporation that is a qualified subchapter S subsidiary, as defined in Section 1361(b)(3)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code, all of whose assets, liabilities and items of income, deduction and credit are treated under the Internal Revenue Code, and shall be treated under this chapter, as assets, liabilities and such items, as the case may be, of such S corporation;

      (23) "Internal Revenue Code" means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended, effective and in force on the last day of the income year;

      (24) "Partnership" means a partnership, as defined in the Internal Revenue Code, and includes a limited liability company that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes;

      (25) "Partner" means a partner, as defined in the Internal Revenue Code, and includes a member of a limited liability company that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes;

      (26) "Investment partnership" means a limited partnership that meets the gross income requirement of Section 851(b)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code, except that income and gains from commodities that are not described in Section 1221(1) of the Internal Revenue Code or from futures, forwards and options with respect to such commodities shall be included in income which qualifies to meet such gross income requirement, provided such commodities are of a kind customarily dealt with in an organized commodity exchange and the transaction is of a kind customarily consummated at such place, as required by Section 864(b)(2)(B)(iii) of the Internal Revenue Code. To the extent that such a partnership has income and gains from commodities that are not described in Section 1221(1) of the Internal Revenue Code or from futures, forwards and options with respect to such commodities, such income and gains must be derived by a partnership which is not a dealer in commodities and is trading for its own account as described in Section 864(b)(2)(B)(ii) of the Internal Revenue Code. The term "investment partnership" does not include a dealer, within the meaning of Section 1236 of the Internal Revenue Code, in stocks or securities;

      (27) "Passive investment company" means any corporation which is a related person to a financial service company, as defined in section 12-218b, or to an insurance company, as defined in section 12-218b, and (A) employs not less than five full-time equivalent employees in the state; (B) maintains an office in the state; and (C) confines its activities to the purchase, receipt, maintenance, management and sale of its intangible investments, and the collection and distribution of the income from such investments, including, but not limited to, interest and gains from the sale, transfer or assignment of such investments or from the foreclosure upon or sale, transfer or assignment of the collateral securing such investments. For purposes of this subdivision, "intangible investments" shall be limited to loans secured by real property, as defined in section 12-218b, including a line of credit which is a loan secured by real property and which permits future advances by the passive investment company; the collateral or an interest in the collateral that secured such loans if the sale of such collateral or interest is actively marketed by or on behalf of the passive investment company; and any short-term investment of cash held by the passive investment company which cash is reasonably necessary for the operations of such passive investment company.

      (b) As used in sections 12-214, 12-218 and 12-219a:

      (1) "Limited partner" means a limited partner of a limited partnership that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes and includes a member of a limited liability company that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes and that is managed by managers, if such member is not a member-manager of such company;

      (2) "General partner" means a partner of a general partnership, a general partner of a limited partnership that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes and a partner of a limited liability partnership and includes a member of a limited liability company that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes if such company is managed by managers and such member is a member-manager of such company, or if such company is not managed by managers;

      (3) "Member-manager" means a member of a limited liability company that is treated as a partnership for federal income tax purposes, which member is, alone or together with others, vested with the management of the business, property and affairs of the limited liability company;

      (4) "Proportionate part" means, with respect to a partner of a partnership, the percentage that the partnership used to determine such partner's distributive share of the ordinary income or loss of the partnership in an income year;

      (5) "Derived from or connected with sources within this state" has the same meaning as it has under chapter 229 and the regulations adopted thereunder;

      (6) "Distributive share" means, with respect to a partner of a partnership, such partner's distributive share of ordinary income or loss as determined for federal income tax purposes in an income year.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1896; 1949, 1951, 1953, S. 1088d, 1105d; 1957, P.A. 560, S. 1; 1961, P.A. 376, S. 1; 428, S. 1; 1967, P.A. 741, S. 1; June, 1969, P.A. 1, S. 12; P.A. 73-350, S. 5, 27; 73-442, S. 3; P.A. 77-614, S. 139, 161, 610; P.A. 80-406, S. 3, 5; 80-482, S. 18, 348; 80-483, S. 53, 186; P.A. 82-400, S. 1, 3; P.A. 87-9, S. 2, 3; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 98, 168; P.A. 95-2, S. 3, 37; P.A. 96-104, S. 1, 4; 96-139, S. 2, 13; 96-180, S. 25, 166; 96-197, S. 2, 11; P.A. 97-295, S. 3, 25; P.A. 98-28, S. 114, 115, 117; 98-110, S. 12, 27; 98-244, S. 5, 35; 98-262, S. 14, 22; P.A. 00-174, S. 21, 83; P.A. 03-84, S. 12; P.A. 05-260, S. 2.)

      History: 1961 acts added definition of "dissolved corporation," last alternative to definition of income year, and reference to state bank and trust companies and national banks in definition of interest paid; 1967 act excluded from consideration as gross income amount which for federal income tax purposes is treated as a dividend received by domestic corporation from foreign corporation on account of foreign taxes paid by domestic corporation when foreign tax credit elected; 1969 act excluded municipal utilities under chapters 212 and 212a from consideration as taxpayer or company; P.A. 73-350 added exception in definition of "net income" and defined terms for purposes of the exception, effective May 9, 1973, and applicable to income years beginning on or after January 1, 1973; P.A. 73-442 included foreign municipal electric utilities in definition of "taxpayer" and "company"; P.A. 77-614 substituted commissioner of revenue services for tax commissioner and banking commissioner within the department of business regulation for bank commissioner and made banking department a division within the department of business regulation, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 80-406 defined "alternative energy system"; P.A. 80-482 deleted reference to abolished department of business regulation; P.A. 80-483 deleted reference to building and loan associations in definition of "interest paid"; P.A. 82-400 amended the definition of gross income to provide that with respect to a corporation engaged primarily in farming, gross income for purposes of the state corporation business tax does not include net gain from the sale of cattle raised on a farm owned by the corporation in this state, effective June 7, 1982 and applicable to income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1981; (Revisor's note: Pursuant to P.A. 87-9, "banking commissioner" was changed editorially by the Revisors to "commissioner of banking"); June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3 added the definition of "S corporation", effective August 22, 1991, and applicable to income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1991; P.A. 95-2 redefined "gross income" to include exempt interest dividends under Sec. 852(b)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code, effective March 8, 1995; P.A. 96-104 redefined "carrying on or doing business" to add exception re companies contracting with commercial printers and made technical changes, effective July 1, 1996, and applicable to taxable years commencing on or after January 1, 1996; P.A. 96-139 redefined "net income" to specify that no expense related to income which is not taxable shall be deducted and that no item may be excluded or deducted more than once, made technical changes and deleted definition of "interest paid", effective May 29, 1996; P.A. 96-180 conformed Subdiv. and Subpara indicators to customary statutory usage, effective June 3, 1996; P.A. 96-197 designated existing section as Subsec. (a), revising Subdiv. and Subpara. indicators to conform with customary statutory usage and adding definitions of "internal revenue code", "partnership", "partner" and "investment partnership" and added new Subsec. (b), effective June 3, 1996, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1996; P.A. 97-295 amended Subdiv. (9) of Subsec. (a) to delete exclusion for sale of homegrown cattle from Subpara. (B), effective July 8, 1997, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1998; P.A. 98-28 amended Subsec. (a)(1) by adding electric distribution companies, electric suppliers and generation entities or affiliates and amended Subsec. (a)(20) by splitting language into Subparas. (A) and (B) and redesignating clauses accordingly, and by adding provision in Subpara. (A) re the direct or indirect engaging in, transacting or conducting of activity for the purpose of the sale of electricity or electric generation services, effective April 29, 1998; P.A. 98-110 amended Subsec. (a) to add Subdiv. (27) defining "passive investment company" and made technical changes, effective May 19, 1998, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1999 (Revisor's note: In Subsec. (a)(1) the Revisors changed the verb following "Taxpayer" and "company" from "means" to "mean"); P.A. 98-244 amended definition of "S corporation" to include any qualified subchapter S subsidiary in the definition, effective June 8, 1998, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1998; P.A. 98-262 revised effective date of P.A. 97-295, but without affecting this section; P.A. 00-174 made a technical change in Subsec. (a)(20)(A), effective May 26, 2000; P.A. 03-84 changed "Commissioner of Banking" to "Banking Commissioner" in Subsec. (a)(19), effective June 3, 2003; P.A. 05-260 amended Subdiv. (20) by adding Subpara. (C) re participation in trade shows at the convention center, effective July 13, 2005, and applicable to taxable years commencing on or after January 1, 2005.

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      Sec. 12-214. Imposition of tax. Surcharge. (a)(1) Every mutual savings bank, savings and loan association and every company engaged in the business of carrying passengers for hire over the highways of this state in common carrier motor vehicles doing business in this state, and every other company carrying on, or having the right to carry on, business in this state, including a dissolved corporation which continues to conduct business, except those companies described in subdivision (2) of this subsection, shall pay, annually, a tax or excise upon its franchise for the privilege of carrying on or doing business, owning or leasing property within the state in a corporate capacity or as an unincorporated association taxable as a corporation for federal income tax purposes or maintaining an office within the state, such tax to be measured by the entire net income as herein defined received by such corporation or association from business transacted within the state during the income year and to be assessed for each income year commencing prior to January 1, 1995, at the rate of eleven and one-half per cent, for income years commencing on or after January 1, 1995, and prior to January 1, 1996, at the rate of eleven and one-quarter per cent, for income years commencing on or after January 1, 1996, and prior to January 1, 1997, at the rate of ten and three-fourths per cent, for income years commencing on or after January 1, 1997, and prior to January 1, 1998, at the rate of ten and one-half per cent, for income years commencing on or after January 1, 1998, and prior to January 1, 1999, at the rate of nine and one-half per cent, for income years commencing on or after January 1, 1999, and prior to January 1, 2000, at the rate of eight and one-half per cent, and for income years commencing on or after January 1, 2000, at the rate of seven and one-half per cent. The exemption of companies described in subparagraphs (G) and (H) of subdivision (2) of this subsection shall not be allowed with respect to any income year of any such company commencing on or after January 1, 1998, and any such company claiming such exemption for any income years commencing on or after January 1, 1985, but prior to January 1, 1998, shall be required to file a corporation business tax return in accordance with section 12-222 for each such income year.

      (2) The following companies shall be exempt from the tax imposed under this chapter: (A) Insurance companies incorporated or organized under the laws of any other state or foreign government and for income years commencing on or after January 1, 1999, domestic insurance companies; (B) companies exempt by the federal corporation net income tax law, and any company which qualifies as a domestic international sales corporation (DISC), as defined in Section 992 of the Internal Revenue Code and as to which a valid election under subsection (b) of said Section 992 to be treated as a DISC is effective, but excluding companies, other than any company which so qualifies as, and so elects to be treated as, a DISC, which elect not to be subject to such tax under any provision of said Internal Revenue Code other than said subsection (b) of Section 992; (C) companies subject to gross earnings taxes under chapter 210; (D) companies all of whose properties in this state are operated by companies subject to gross earnings taxes under chapter 210; (E) cooperative housing corporations, as defined for federal income tax purposes; (F) any organization or association of two or more persons established and operated for the exclusive purpose of promoting the success or defeat of any candidate for public office or of any political party or question or constitutional amendment to be voted upon at any state or national election or for any other political purpose; (G) any company which is not owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by any other company, the gross annual revenues of which in the most recently completed year did not exceed one hundred million dollars and which engaged in the research, design, manufacture, sale or installation of alternative energy systems or motor vehicles powered in whole or in part by electricity, natural gas or solar energy including their parts and components, provided at least seventy-five per cent of the gross annual revenues of such company are derived from such research, design, manufacture, sale or installation; (H) any company which engages in the research, design, manufacture or sale in Connecticut of aero-derived gas turbine systems in advanced industrial applications, which applications are developed after October 1, 1992, which are limited to simple-cycle systems, humid air, steam or water injection, recuperation or intercooling technologies, including their parts and components, to the extent that such company's net income is directly attributable to such purposes; (I) any non-United States corporation, which shall be any foreign corporation, as defined in Section 7701(a)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code, whose sole activity in this state during the income year consists of the trading in stocks, securities or commodities for such corporation's own account, as defined in Section 864(b)(2)(A)(ii) of said Internal Revenue Code; and (J) for income years commencing on or after January 1, 2001, S corporations.

      (3) (A) A company is carrying on or doing business in this state if it is a general partner of a partnership that does business, owns or leases property or maintains an office in this state. (B) A company is carrying on or doing business in this state if it is a limited partner of a limited partnership, other than an investment partnership, that does business, owns or leases property or maintains an office in this state. (C) A company that is not otherwise carrying on or doing business in this state, either directly or by virtue of being a partner in a partnership described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of this subdivision is not carrying on or doing business in this state solely by virtue of being a limited partner of one or more investment partnerships.

      (b) (1) With respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1989, and prior to January 1, 1992, any company subject to the tax imposed in accordance with subsection (a) of this section shall pay, for each such income year, an additional tax in an amount equal to twenty per cent of the tax calculated under said subsection (a) for such income year, without reduction of the tax so calculated by the amount of any credit against such tax. The additional amount of tax determined under this subsection for any income year shall constitute a part of the tax imposed by the provisions of said subsection (a) and shall become due and be paid, collected and enforced as provided in this chapter.

      (2) With respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1992, and prior to January 1, 1993, any company subject to the tax imposed in accordance with subsection (a) of this section shall pay, for each such income year, an additional tax in an amount equal to ten per cent of the tax calculated under said subsection (a) for such income year, without reduction of the tax so calculated by the amount of any credit against such tax. The additional amount of tax determined under this subsection for any income year shall constitute a part of the tax imposed by the provisions of said subsection (a) and shall become due and be paid, collected and enforced as provided in this chapter.

      (3) With respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2003, and prior to January 1, 2004, any company subject to the tax imposed in accordance with subsection (a) of this section shall pay, for each such income year, an additional tax in an amount equal to twenty per cent of the tax calculated under said subsection (a) for such income year, without reduction of the tax so calculated by the amount of any credit against such tax. The additional amount of tax determined under this subsection for any income year shall constitute a part of the tax imposed by the provisions of said subsection (a) and shall become due and be paid, collected and enforced as provided in this chapter.

      (4) With respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2004, and prior to January 1, 2005, any company subject to the tax imposed in accordance with subsection (a) of this section shall pay, for each such income year, an additional tax in an amount equal to twenty-five per cent of the tax calculated under said subsection (a) for such income year, without reduction of the tax so calculated by the amount of any credit against such tax, except that any company that pays the minimum tax of two hundred fifty dollars under section 12-219 or 12-223c for such income year shall not be subject to the additional tax imposed by this subdivision. The additional amount of tax determined under this subdivision for any income year shall constitute a part of the tax imposed by the provisions of said subsection (a) and shall become due and be paid, collected and enforced as provided in this chapter.

      (5) With respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2006, and prior to January 1, 2007, any company subject to the tax imposed in accordance with subsection (a) of this section shall pay, except when the tax so calculated is equal to two hundred fifty dollars, for each such income year, an additional tax in an amount equal to twenty per cent of the tax calculated under said subsection (a) for such income year, without reduction of the tax so calculated by the amount of any credit against such tax. The additional amount of tax determined under this subsection for any income year shall constitute a part of the tax imposed by the provisions of said subsection (a) and shall become due and be paid, collected and enforced as provided in this chapter.

      (6) With respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2007, and prior to January 1, 2008, any company subject to the tax imposed in accordance with subsection (a) of this section shall pay, except when the tax so calculated is equal to two hundred fifty dollars, for each such income year, an additional tax in an amount equal to fifteen per cent of the tax calculated under said subsection (a) for such income year, without reduction of the tax so calculated by the amount of any credit against such tax. The additional amount of tax determined under this subsection for any income year shall constitute a part of the tax imposed by the provisions of said subsection (a) and shall become due and be paid, collected and enforced as provided in this chapter.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1897; 1951, 1953, June, 1955, S. 1089d; 1957, P.A. 515, S. 1; 649, S. 1; 1959, P.A. 394, S. 1; 510; 1961, P.A. 604, S. 2; February, 1965, P.A. 147; 461, S. 7; 1969, P.A. 674; June, 1969, P.A. 1, S. 13; 1971, P.A. 683, S. 1; June, 1971, P.A. 5, S. 111; 1972, P.A. 271, S. 1; 285, S. 6; P.A. 73-350, S. 6, 27; 73-442, S. 4; P.A. 75-101, S. 1, 2; 75-213, S. 1, 53; P.A. 77-476, S. 1, 3; 77-499, S. 1, 2; P.A. 80-406, S. 4, 5; 80-483, S. 54, 186; P.A. 81-472, S. 15, 159; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1, S. 1, 15; P.A. 85-431, S. 1, 2; 85-474, S. 1, 2; P.A. 88-222, S. 1, 2; P.A. 89-16, S. 1, 31; 89-211, S. 22; 89-251, S. 20, 203; P.A. 90-28, S. 1; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 99, 168; P.A. 92-152, S. 1; P.A. 93-74, S. 5, 67; 93-199, S. 4, 6; P.A. 94-4, S. 1, 2; May 25 Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1, S. 45, 130; P.A. 95-160, S. 32, 69; P.A. 96-139, S. 12, 13; 96-197, S. 3, 11; P.A. 98-110, S. 13, 27; 98-244, S. 6, 35; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 106, 121; P.A. 03-2, S. 32; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 87; P.A. 05-251, S. 62.)

      History: 1959 acts changed technical language of statute, added exclusion in subsection (2) for companies which elect not to be subject to such tax, applied 3 3/4 per cent rate to net income received in each year as opposed to only those years between 1953 and 1958; 1961 act added reference to chapter 212a, changed tax rate to 5 per cent and changed technical language of statute; 1965 acts added Subdiv. (5) excepting nonprofit cooperative ownership housing corporations when residence is restricted to corporation members and corporation ownership is restricted to residents from payment of tax and restricted five per cent tax rates to years beginning before January 1, 1966, and increased rates for years thereafter to five and one-quarter per cent; 1969 acts specified stock and nonstock corporations in Subdiv. (5) and added Subdiv. (6) excepting cooperative housing corporations where there is no taxable income to corporation from payment of tax, added new Subdivs. (4) and (5) detailing companies formerly mentioned by chapter reference only in Subdiv. (3) and renumbering remaining Subdivs. accordingly, specified companies "not subject to the tax imposed by this part" in Subdiv. (6), formerly (4), changed tax rates in Subdiv. (7), formerly (5), to five and one-quarter per cent for years beginning after January 1, 1971, and, in the case of companies other than telephone companies, made five and one-fourth per cent rate applicable to years before January 1, 1969, and set rate for period between that date and January 1, 1971, at eight per cent; 1971 acts deleted proviso that minimum tax shall not be less than minimum tax under Sec. 12-219, substituted "additional" for "minimum" re tax under Sec. 12-219, deleted Subdiv. (5), renumbering following Subdivs. accordingly, and changed references to 1971 to 1973; 1972 acts included DISC companies in Subdiv. (2), changed tax rates in Subdiv. (7) to eight per cent without exception and deleted provisions concerning tax on telephone companies; P.A. 73-350 rewrote Subdiv. (1) to apply to insurance companies for years before January 1, 1973, and to insurance companies incorporated or organized under laws of other state or foreign company on or after that date, deleted Subdiv. (4) renumbering subsequent Subdivs. accordingly and added proviso that tax rate as of January 1, 1974, applicable to companies subject to tax under provisions of section will be two per cent, effective May 9, 1973, and applicable to income years beginning on or after January 1, 1973; P.A. 73-442 included foreign municipal electric utilities under provisions of section and specifically excluded such utilities in Subdiv. (2) of exception; P.A. 75-101 added new Subdiv. (7) exempting organizations promoting success or defeat of political candidates, parties, questions, constitutional amendments etc. from payment of tax, effective May 12, 1975, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1973; P.A. 75-213 changed eight per cent rate to ten per cent for income years beginning on or after January 1, 1975; P.A. 77-476 deleted references to foreign municipal electric utilities; P.A. 77-499 required payment for owning or leasing property in state in corporate capacity or as unincorporated association taxable for federal income tax purposes or for maintaining an office in state; P.A. 80-406 added Subdiv. (8) exempting certain companies engaged in research, design, manufacture, sale or installation of alternative energy systems from payment of tax until July 1, 1985; P.A. 80-483 deleted reference to building and loan associations; P.A. 81-472 made technical changes; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 83-1 increased the rate of tax from ten per cent to eleven and one-half per cent, effective July 1, 1983, and applicable to income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1983; P.A. 85-431 added provision allowing for retroactive exemption to date of incorporation for certain nonprofit corporations; P.A. 85-474 provided that exemption under Subdiv. (8) for alternative energy system companies shall not be allowed with respect to any income year commencing on or after January 1, 1988, instead of after July 1, 1985; P.A. 88-222 expanded the corporate tax exemption of Subdiv. (8) to include any company which is not owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by any other company and extended the exemption until January 1, 1993, effective May 28, 1988, and applicable to income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1988; P.A. 89-16 added Subsec. (b) imposing an additional tax as a percentage of the tax under Subsec. (a), effective March 23, 1989, and applicable to income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1989; P.A. 89-211 clarified reference to the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; P.A. 89-251 amended Subsec. (b) by increasing the additional tax imposed under Sec. 1 of P.A. 89-16 from fifteen to twenty per cent of the tax calculated under Subsec. (a), effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1989; P.A. 90-28 made technical changes in the list of corporations in Subsec. (a) not subject to tax; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3 amended Subsec. (b) to provide that the twenty per cent additional tax would be applicable with respect to income years commencing prior to January 1, 1992, and to impose a ten per cent additional tax applicable with respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1992, and prior to January 1, 1993, effective August 22, 1991, and applicable to income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1991; P.A. 92-152 amended Subsec. (a) by adding a new Subdiv. (8) exempting corporation engaged in the research, design, manufacture or sale of aero-derived gas turbine systems and extended the exemptions for Subdivs. (7) and (8) until January 1, 1998; P.A. 93-74 added provisions reducing tax rates commencing on and after January 1, 1995, effective May 19, 1993, and applicable to taxable years commencing on and after January 1, 1995; P.A. 93-199 expanded exemption in Subdiv. (7) to include companies engaged in research, design, manufacture, sale or installation of motor vehicles powered by electricity, natural gas or solar energy, effective July 1, 1993, and applicable to taxable years commencing on or after January 1, 1993; P.A. 94-4 in Subdiv. (5) of Subsec. (a) eliminated provision requiring cooperative housing corporations to have no taxable income, effective April 7, 1994, and applicable for income years commencing on or after January 1, 1990; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-1 amended Subsec. (a) to conform section with revisions made in Sec. 5 of P.A. 93-74, effective April 7, 1994; P.A. 95-160 amended Subsec. (a) to decrease tax rate from eleven per cent to ten and three-fourths per cent for the income years commencing on or after January 1, 1996, and prior to January 1, 1997, nine and one-half per cent for the income years commencing on or after January 1, 1998, and prior to January 1, 1999, eight and one-half per cent for the income years commencing on or after January 1, 1999, and prior to January 1, 2000, and seven and one-half per cent for income years commencing on or after January 1, 2000, effective June 1, 1995; P.A. 96-139 amended effective date of P.A. 95-160 to clarify applicability to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1996; P.A. 96-197 amended Subsec. (a) to reorganize provisions and added Subdiv. (3) re general partners of a partnership and made other technical changes, effective June 3, 1996, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1996; P.A. 98-110 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to exempt domestic insurance companies and make technical changes, effective May 19, 1998, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1999; P.A. 98-244 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to exempt S corporations from the minimum tax under Sec. 12-219 for income years commencing on or after January 1, 2001, and to exempt foreign-sourced income of non-United-States corporations from the corporation business tax, effective June 8, 1998, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1998; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 amended Subsec. (a)(2) to add commodities, effective June 24, 1998; P.A. 03-2 amended Subsec. (b) to add Subdiv. (3) re surcharge for the 2003 income year, effective February 28, 2003, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 amended Subsec. (b) to include in surcharge provided under Subdiv. (3) amounts calculated under Sec. 91 of P.A. 03-1 of the June 30 special session and to add Subdiv. (4) re surcharge for the 2004 income year, effective August 16, 2003, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2003; P.A. 05-251 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting references to Sec. 91 of June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 in Subdivs. (3) and (4) and by adding Subdivs. (5) and (6) re surcharge for 2006 and 2007 income years, respectively, effective June 30, 2005, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 12-217t. Tax credit for personal property taxes paid on electronic data processing equipment.

      Text indicates that legislature intended to grant eligibility for tax credit to taxpayer who has paid personal property taxes on electronic data processing equipment and who can use the tax against any tax liability arising from corporation business tax or other specific chapters of tax code. 273 C. 240.

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      Sec. 12-217z. Business Tax Credit and Tax Policy Review Committee. (a) There is established a Business Tax Credit and Tax Policy Review Committee which shall be comprised of the following members: (1) The chairpersons and ranking members of the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to finance, revenue and bonding, or their designees; (2) one member appointed by each of the following: The Governor, the president pro tempore of the Senate, the speaker of the House of Representatives, the majority leader of the Senate, the majority leader of the House of Representatives, the minority leader of the House of Representatives and the minority leader of the Senate; and (3) the Commissioners of Revenue Services and Economic and Community Development and the Labor Commissioner, or their designees.

      (b) All appointments to the committee shall be made no later than August 15, 2005. Any vacancy shall be filled by the appointing authority.

      (c) The chairpersons of the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to finance, revenue and bonding shall be the chairpersons of the Business Tax Credit and Tax Policy Review Committee. The Business Tax Credit and Tax Policy Review Committee shall meet not less than twice a year, and at such other times as the chairpersons deem necessary.

      (d) The committee shall study and evaluate all the existing credits against the corporation business tax, evaluate changes or modifications made to such tax, and consider further changes in policy regarding the taxation of businesses. The study shall include, but is not limited to, consideration of the following with respect to each credit or policy: (1) Has the credit or policy provided a benefit to the state in terms of (A) measurable economic development, (B) new investments in the state, (C) new jobs or retention of existing jobs, or measurable benefits for the workforce in the state; (2) is there sufficient justification to continue the credit or policy as it currently exists or is it obsolete; (3) could the credit or policy be more efficiently administered as part of a broad-based credit or policy; and (4) does the credit or policy add unnecessary complexity in the application, administration and approval process for the corporation business tax. The committee shall also engage in an analysis of the history, rationale and estimated revenue loss as a result of each tax credit or policy change, and shall recommend revisions necessary to change the tax by eliminating or changing any redundant, obsolete or unnecessary tax credit or any credit or tax policy that is not providing a measurable benefit sufficient to justify any revenue loss to the state.

      (e) Upon the request of the chairs of the committee, the Commissioner of Revenue Services shall provide information to the committee concerning (1) exemptions or credits against the corporation business tax, (2) the implementation and operation of legislative changes in tax policy, and (3) other tax-related issues. Such information shall not include the names or addresses of any taxpayers, but may include, for each recipient of a tax credit, or business implementing a change in tax policy, a description of the business activities, the amount of income apportioned to this state and the taxes paid on such income, the exemption or credit taken and the amount of such exemption or credit, and such other information as may be available to the Department of Revenue Services and relevant to the committee's area of inquiry.

      (f) The Business Tax Credit and Tax Policy Review Committee shall report its findings and recommendations to the joint standing committee of the General Assembly having cognizance of matters relating to finance, revenue and bonding no later than January 1, 2006, and annually thereafter, in accordance with section 11-4a.

      (P.A. 97-295, S. 4, 25; P.A. 98-262, S. 14, 22; P.A. 05-251, S. 64.)

      History: P.A. 97-295, Sec. 4 effective July 8, 1997, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1998; P.A. 98-262 revised effective date of P.A. 97-295, but without affecting this section; P.A. 05-251 changed name from Corporation Business Tax Credit Review Committee to Business Tax Credit and Tax Policy Review Committee, amended Subsec. (a) by adding Labor Commissioner, inserted new Subsecs. (b) and (c) re chairpersons and meeting times, redesignated existing Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (d) and amended same to add consideration of tax policy to committee duties, added Subsec. (e) re information from Commissioner of Revenue Services, redesignated existing Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (f) and amended same to require annual reports from the committee, and made conforming changes throughout, effective July 1, 2005.

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      Sec. 12-219. Additional tax in the amount by which alternative computations exceed tax under section 12-214. Minimum tax. Surcharge. (a)(1) Each company subject to the provisions of this part shall pay for the privilege of carrying on or doing business within the state, the larger of the tax, if any, imposed by section 12-214 and the tax calculated under this subsection. The tax calculated under this section shall be a tax of three and one-tenth mills per dollar for each income year of the amount derived (A) by adding (i) the average value of the issued and outstanding capital stock, including treasury stock at par or face value, fractional shares, scrip certificates convertible into shares of stock and amounts received on subscriptions to capital stock, computed on the balances at the beginning and end of the taxable year or period, the average value of surplus and undivided profit computed on the balances at the beginning and end of the taxable year or period, and (ii) the average value of all surplus reserves computed on the balances at the beginning and end of the taxable year or period, (B) by subtracting from the sum so calculated (i) the average value of any deficit carried on the balance sheet computed on the balances at the beginning and end of the taxable year or period, and (ii) the average value of any holdings of stock of private corporations including treasury stock shown on the balance sheet computed on the balances at the beginning and end of the taxable year or period, and (C) by apportioning the remainder so derived between this and other states under the provisions of section 12-219a, provided in no event shall the tax so calculated exceed one million dollars or be less than two hundred fifty dollars.

      (2) For purposes of this subsection, in the case of a new domestic company, the balances at the beginning of its first fiscal year or period shall be the balances immediately after its organization or immediately after it commences business operations, whichever is earlier; and in the case of a foreign company, the balances at the beginning of its first fiscal year or period in which it becomes liable for the filing of a return in this state shall be the balances as established at the beginning of the fiscal year or period for tax purposes. In the case of a domestic company dissolving or limiting its existence, the balances at the end of the fiscal year or period shall be the balances immediately prior to the final distribution of all its assets; and in the case of a foreign company filing a certificate of withdrawal, the balances at the end of the fiscal year or period shall be the balances immediately prior to the withdrawal of all of its assets. When a taxpayer has carried on or had the right to carry on business within the state for eleven months or less of the income year, the tax calculated under this subsection shall be reduced in proportion to the fractional part of the year during which business was carried on by such taxpayer. The tax calculated under this subsection shall, in no case, be less than two hundred fifty dollars for each income year. The taxpayer shall report the items set forth in this subsection at the amounts at which such items appear upon its books; provided, when, in the opinion of the Commissioner of Revenue Services, the books of the taxpayer do not disclose a reasonable valuation of such items, the commissioner may require any additional information which may be necessary for a reasonable determination of the tax calculated under this subsection and shall, on the basis of the best information available, calculate such tax and notify the taxpayer thereof.

      (3) No tax credit allowed against the tax imposed by this chapter shall reduce a company's tax calculated under this subsection to an amount less than two hundred fifty dollars.

      (b) (1) With respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1989, and prior to January 1, 1992, the additional tax imposed on any company and calculated in accordance with subsection (a) of this section shall, for each such income year, except when the tax so calculated is equal to two hundred fifty dollars, be increased by adding thereto an amount equal to twenty per cent of the additional tax so calculated for such income year, without reduction of the additional tax so calculated by the amount of any credit against such tax. The increased amount of tax payable by any company under this section, as determined in accordance with this subsection, shall become due and be paid, collected and enforced as provided in this chapter.

      (2) With respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1992, and prior to January 1, 1993, the additional tax imposed on any company and calculated in accordance with subsection (a) of this section shall, for each such income year, except when the tax so calculated is equal to two hundred fifty dollars, be increased by adding thereto an amount equal to ten per cent of the additional tax so calculated for such income year, without reduction of the tax so calculated by the amount of any credit against such tax. The increased amount of tax payable by any company under this section, as determined in accordance with this subsection, shall become due and be paid, collected and enforced as provided in this chapter.

      (3) With respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2003, and prior to January 1, 2004, the additional tax imposed on any company and calculated in accordance with subsection (a) of this section shall, for each such income year, be increased by adding thereto an amount equal to twenty per cent of the additional tax so calculated for such income year, without reduction of the tax so calculated by the amount of any credit against such tax. The increased amount of tax payable by any company under this section, as determined in accordance with this subsection, shall become due and be paid, collected and enforced as provided in this chapter.

      (4) With respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2004, and prior to January 1, 2005, the additional tax imposed on any company and calculated in accordance with subsection (a) of this section shall, for each such income year, be increased by adding thereto an amount equal to twenty-five per cent of the additional tax so calculated for such income year, without reduction of the tax so calculated by the amount of any credit against such tax, except that any company that pays the minimum tax of two hundred fifty dollars under this section or section 12-223c for such income year shall not be subject to such additional tax. The increased amount of tax payable by any company under this subdivision, as determined in accordance with this subsection, shall become due and be paid, collected and enforced as provided in this chapter.

      (5) With respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2006, and prior to January 1, 2007, the additional tax imposed on any company and calculated in accordance with subsection (a) of this section shall, for each such income year, except when the tax so calculated is equal to two hundred fifty dollars, be increased by adding thereto an amount equal to twenty per cent of the additional tax so calculated for such income year, without reduction of the tax so calculated by the amount of any credit against such tax. The increased amount of tax payable by any company under this section, as determined in accordance with this subsection, shall become due and be paid, collected and enforced as provided in this chapter.

      (6) With respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2007, and prior to January 1, 2008, the additional tax imposed on any company and calculated in accordance with subsection (a) of this section shall, for each such income year, except when the tax so calculated is equal to two hundred fifty dollars, be increased by adding thereto an amount equal to fifteen per cent of the additional tax so calculated for such income year, without reduction of the tax so calculated by the amount of any credit against such tax. The increased amount of tax payable by any company under this section, as determined in accordance with this subsection, shall become due and be paid, collected and enforced as provided in this chapter.

      (c) The tax imposed by this section shall be assessed and collected and be first applicable at the time or times herein provided for the tax measured by net income. This section shall not apply to insurance companies, real estate investment trusts, regulated investment companies, interlocal risk management agencies formed pursuant to chapter 113a or, except as otherwise provided by subsection (d) of this section, financial service companies, as defined in section 12-218b.

      (d) Each financial service company, as defined in section 12-218b, shall pay for the privilege of carrying on or doing business within the state, the larger of the tax, if any, imposed by section 12-214 and the tax calculated under this subsection. For each such financial service company, the tax calculated under this subsection shall be two hundred fifty dollars for each income year. No tax credit allowed against the tax imposed by this chapter shall reduce a financial service company's tax calculated under this subsection to an amount less than two hundred fifty dollars.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1900; 1951, 1953, June, 1955, S. 1096d; 1957, P.A. 560, S. 2; 649, S. 2; 1959, P.A. 394, S. 2; 1961, P.A. 428, S. 3; 604, S. 3; 1963, P.A. 141; February, 1965, P.A. 461, S. 8; June, 1969, P.A. 1, S. 15; 1971, P.A. 683, S. 2; June, 1971, P.A. 5, S. 112; 1972, P.A. 126, S. 1; 285, S. 7; P.A. 73-350, S. 11, 27; P.A. 75-213, S. 2, 53; P.A. 77-614, S. 139, 610; P.A. 78-121, S. 106, 113; P. A. 80-483, S. 56, 186; P.A. 81-66, S. 2, 5; 81-255, S. 22, 37; 81-411, S. 8, 42; Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4, S. 30, 32; P.A. 82-325, S. 3, 7; P.A. 84-546, S. 32, 33, 173; P.A. 85-159, S. 2, 19; 85-469, S. 4, 6; P.A. 86-124, S. 1, 2; 86-132; 86-403, S. 131, 132; P.A. 89-16, S. 2, 31; 89-251, S. 21, 203; P.A. 90-174, S. 1, 3; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3, S. 101, 168; P.A. 93-74, S. 8, 59, 67; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 7, 85; P.A. 95-160, S. 64, 69; P.A. 96-197, S. 6, 11; P.A. 98-110, S. 19, 27; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1, S. 57; P.A. 03-2, S. 34; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1, S. 88; P.A. 05-251, S. 63.)

      History: 1959 act applied tax to each income year, added reference to deferred and unrealized profits in subdivision (B)(a)(3) and to treasury stock in subdivision (B)(b)(2); 1961 acts raised alternative tax rate from 1.9 mills to 2.5 mills, added exception to minimum tax for banking and financial corporations, and changed technical language; 1963 act added exception for small business investment companies; 1965 act set deadline for two and one-half mill rate to years beginning before January 1, 1966, and raised mill rate to two and five-eighths thereafter, set same deadline for twenty-five dollar minimum tax, raised to thirty dollars thereafter and set same deadline for two per cent tax re banking institutions, raised to two and one-tenth per cent thereafter; 1969 act for two years, January 1, 1969, to January 1, 1971, changed rates above to four mills, forty-five dollars and three and two-tenths per cent respectively; 1971 acts divided section into subsections and made basis for payments, the difference between tax imposed in Sec. 12-214 and tax calculated under Subdivs. (A) and (B) and changed ending dates for temporary increases in rates from 1971 to 1973; 1972 acts included maximum tax for income years beginning on or after January 1, 1972, for "any company, except companies subject to the gross earnings taxes under chapters 211 and 212, which, in arriving at net income ... is entitled to a deduction under section 12-217 for dividends as defined in the federal corporation income tax law" and made temporary increased tax rates the permanent rates; P.A. 73-350 made provisions applicable to years beginning on or after January 1, 1973, increased mill rate from four to four and one-quarter mills and specifically excluded regulated investment companies and real estate investment trusts, deleted par or face value of indebtedness and deferred and unrealized profits from calculation of taxable amount and set maximum and minimum charges of one hundred thousand dollars and fifty dollars, respectively, and changed provisions formerly applicable to companies, "except companies subject to the gross earnings taxes under chapters 211 and 212" applicable to regulated investment companies or real estate investment trusts, set forth process for deriving amount subject to tax and established fifty dollar minimum tax for such companies, increased figures in Subsec. (2)(B) from forty-five to fifty dollars, changed rate for computation of interest and dividends from two per cent to one-eighth of one per cent and excluded insurance companies from provisions of section; P.A. 75-213 changed mill rate for companies other than regulated investment companies and real estate investment trusts from one-quarter mill to thirty-one one-hundredths mill and for regulated investment companies and real estate investment trusts from four-tenths to five-tenths mill, effective July 1, 1975, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1975; P.A. 77-614 substituted commissioner of revenue services for tax commissioner, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 78-121 deleted reference to private banks in Subsec. (1)(A); P.A. 80-483 deleted reference to building and loan associations in Subsec. (1)(A) and (2)(B); P.A. 81-66 raised mill rate in (1)(A) from .31 mill to 3.1 mills per dollar and increased minimum tax from fifty to one hundred dollars, effective May 4, 1981, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1981; P.A. 81-255 added the alternative computation of tax under Subdiv. (B) and increased the minimum tax to two hundred fifty dollars, effective July 1, 1981, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1981; P.A. 81-411 added consideration of a loss for the income year in the alternative tax base under Subdiv. (B), and deleted provisions allowing deductions for contributions to retirement plan in determining salaries and other compensation, effective June 18, 1981, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1981; Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4 deleted Subdiv. (B) in Subsec. (1) re alternative tax (if higher than that in Subdiv. (a)) consisting of fifty per cent of corporation's net income or loss plus salaries and other compensation paid to elected or appointed corporation officers or to shareholders owning more than one per cent of stock at rate of five per cent, amending section accordingly, effective January 27, 1982, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1983; P.A. 82-325 changed effective date of Nov. Sp. Sess. P.A. 81-4, but without affecting this section; P.A. 84-546 made technical change, substituting "scrip" for "script" in Subsec. (1); P.A. 85-159 reduced minimum tax to one hundred dollars for income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1985; P.A. 85-469 revised effective date of P.A. 85-159 but without affecting this section; P.A. 86-124 revised section to conform to the style of the general statutes and amended Subpara. (C) of Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (a) to increase the maximum tax from one hundred thousand dollars to five hundred thousand dollars, effective May 8, 1986, and applicable to income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1986; P.A. 86-132 deleted provision limiting the types of regulated investment companies or real estate investment trusts to which the provisions concerning those types of companies and trusts applied; P.A. 86-403 changed effective date of P.A. 86-132 from October 1, 1986, to May 23, 1986 and applicable to income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1986; P.A. 89-16 increased the minimum tax from one hundred to two hundred fifty dollars in Subsecs. (a) and (b), and amended Subsec. (c) to impose an additional tax as a percentage of the tax calculated under Subsec. (a) or Subsec. (b), effective March 23, 1989, and applicable to income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1989; P.A. 89-251 increased the tax imposed under Subsec. (c), as amended by P.A. 89-16, as a percentage of the additional tax calculated under Subsec. (a) or Subsec. (b) from fifteen to twenty per cent of the additional tax, effective July 1, 1989, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1989; P.A. 90-174 amended Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (a) to provide for a maximum tax under said subdivision of fifty thousand dollars, effective July 1, 1990, and applicable to income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1991; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 91-3 amended (1) Subpara. (C) of Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (a) to increase the maximum tax from five hundred thousand dollars to one million dollars and (2) Subsec. (c) to provide that the twenty per cent additional tax would be applicable with respect to income years commencing prior to January 1, 1992, and to impose a ten per cent additional tax applicable with respect to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1992, and prior to January 1, 1993, effective August 22, 1991, and applicable to income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1991; P.A. 93-74 deleted Subdiv. (2) in Subsec. (a) with respect to regulated investment company or real estate investment trusts, renumbering Subdiv. (3) accordingly and amended Subsec. (d) to exclude real estate investment trusts and regulated investment trusts from provisions of section, effective May 19, 1993, and applicable to taxable years commencing on and after January 1, 1993; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 in Subsec. (d) exempted interlocal risk management agencies formed pursuant to chapter 113a, effective June 9, 1994, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1980; P.A. 95-160 revised effective date of May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 but without affecting this section; P.A. 96-197 amended Subsecs. (a) and (b) to clarify that out-of-state businesses carrying on or doing business in the state are subject to the tax on the capital base and made technical changes, effective June 3, 1996, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1996; P.A. 98-110 deleted Subsec. (b) re certain banks, trusts, investment and financing entities, relettered existing Subsecs., excluded financial service companies and made technical changes, effective May 19, 1998, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 1999; May 9 Sp. Sess. P.A. 02-1 amended Subsec. (a) by adding Subdiv. (3) re the effect of tax credits on the minimum tax, amended Subsec. (c) by adding "except as otherwise provided by subsection (d) of this section" and added Subsec. (d) re a minimum tax for financial services companies, effective July 1, 2002, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2002; P.A. 03-2 amended Subsec. (b) to add Subdiv. (3) re a surcharge for the 2003 income year, effective February 28, 2003, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-1 amended Subsec. (b) to include in surcharge provided under Subdiv. (3) amounts calculated under Sec. 91 of P.A. 03-1 of the June 30 special session and to add Subdiv. (4) re surcharge for the 2004 income year, effective August 16, 2003, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2003; P.A. 05-251 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting references to Sec. 91 of June 30 Sp. Sess. 03-1 in Subdivs. (3) and (4) and by adding Subdivs. (5) and (7) re surcharge in income years 2006 and 2007, respectively, effective June 30, 2005, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2006.

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      Sec. 12-233. Examination of returns by commissioner. Deadlines for mailing deficiency assessments. Penalties for deficiencies. Payment by taxpayer. (a)(1) The commissioner shall examine the tax return filed under this chapter by a taxpayer and may make such further audit or investigation as the commissioner deems necessary, and if the commissioner determines that there is a deficiency with respect to the payment of any tax due under this chapter, the commissioner shall notify the taxpayer thereof. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the commissioner shall (A) in the case of a return on which an operating loss is not reported, not later than three years after the due date for the filing of such return or not later than three years after the date on which such return was received by such commissioner, whichever period expires later, or (B) in the case of a return on which an operating loss is reported, not later than three years after the due date or the date of receipt by the commissioner, whichever period expires later, of the return on which a carry-over of such loss is fully utilized or deemed fully utilized because such loss is not available for deduction in any subsequent income year, examine it and, in case any error is disclosed by such examination, shall mail a notice of deficiency assessment to the taxpayer. Where, within the sixty-day period ending on the day on which the time prescribed in this section for mailing a notice of deficiency assessment for any income year would otherwise expire, the commissioner receives a written document signed by such taxpayer showing that such taxpayer owes an additional amount of tax for such income year, the commissioner then shall have up to sixty days after the day such written document is received in which to mail a notice of deficiency assessment.

      (2) A notice of deficiency assessment may be mailed to the taxpayer at any time in the case of (A) failure to file a return, including any amended return required pursuant to section 12-226, or (B) a deficiency due to fraud or intent to evade the provisions of this chapter or regulations promulgated thereunder.

      (3) In the case of an omission from gross income of an amount properly includable therein that is in excess of twenty-five per cent of the amount of gross income stated in the return, a notice of deficiency assessment may be mailed to the taxpayer at any time not later than six years after the return was filed. For purposes of this subdivision, there shall not be taken into account any amount that is omitted from gross income stated in the return if such amount is disclosed in the return or in a statement attached to the return, in a manner adequate to apprise the commissioner of the nature and amount of such item.

      (4) In the case of a failure to disclose a listed transaction, as defined in Section 6707A of the Internal Revenue Code, on the taxpayer's federal income tax return, a notice of deficiency assessment may be mailed to the taxpayer at any time not later than six years after the return required under this chapter for the same income year was filed.

      (b) (1) When it appears that any part of the deficiency for which a deficiency assessment is made is due to negligence or intentional disregard of the provisions of this part or regulations promulgated thereunder, there shall be imposed a penalty equal to ten per cent of the amount of such deficiency assessment, or fifty dollars, whichever is greater. When it appears that any part of the deficiency for which a deficiency assessment is made is due to fraud or intent to evade the provisions of this part or regulations promulgated thereunder, there shall be imposed a penalty equal to twenty-five per cent of the amount of such deficiency assessment. For audits of returns commencing on or after January 1, 2006, when it appears that any part of the deficiency for which a deficiency assessment is made pursuant to section 12-233 is due to failure to disclose a listed transaction, as defined in Section 6707A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, or any subsequent corresponding internal revenue code of the United States, as from time to time amended, on the taxpayer's federal tax return, there shall be imposed a penalty equal to seventy-five per cent of the amount of such deficiency assessment.

      (2) No taxpayer shall be subject to more than one penalty under this section in relation to the same tax period.

      (3) Any decision rendered by any federal court holding that a taxpayer has filed a fraudulent return with the Director of Internal Revenue shall subject the taxpayer to the penalty imposed by this section without the necessity of further proof thereof, except when it can be shown that the return to the state so differed from the return to the federal government as to afford a reasonable presumption that the attempt to defraud did not extend to the return to the state.

      (c) Not later than thirty days after the mailing of a notice of deficiency assessment, the taxpayer shall pay to the commissioner, in cash or by check, draft or money order drawn to the order of the Commissioner of Revenue Services, any additional amount of tax shown to be due by such notice, or such taxpayer shall be paid by the State Treasurer, upon order of the Comptroller, any amount shown to be due it by the corrected return. The failure of the taxpayer to receive any timely mailed notice required by this section shall not relieve such taxpayer of the obligation to pay the tax assessed under the terms of this part or any interest or penalties thereon.

      (d) When, before the expiration of the time prescribed in this section for the examination of the return or the assessment of the tax, both the commissioner and the taxpayer have consented in writing to such examination or assessment after such time, the return may be examined and the tax may be assessed at any time prior to the expiration of the period agreed upon. The period so agreed upon may be extended by subsequent agreements in writing made before the expiration of the period previously agreed upon. The commissioner may also in such a case waive the statute of limitations against a claim for refund by such taxpayer.

      (e) For purposes of this section, a tax return filed under this chapter before the last day prescribed by law or by any regulation adopted pursuant to this chapter for the filing of such return, determined without regard to any extension of time for filing, shall be deemed to be filed on such last day.

      (1949 Rev., S. 1913; 1951, S. 1102d; 1957, P.A. 560, S. 7; P.A. 77-380, S. 1, 2; 77-614, S. 139, 610; P.A. 86-80, S. 1, 2; P.A. 88-314, S. 6, 54; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4, S. 81, 85; P.A. 95-2, S. 20, 37; P.A. 95-160, S. 64, 69; P.A. 05-116, S. 2; 05-260, S. 7.)

      History: P.A. 77-380 added provision re examination of return by commissioner in cases of returns on which an operating loss is reported and specified "timely mailed" notice, effective June 10, 1977, and applicable to income years ending after that date; P.A. 77-614 substituted commissioner of revenue services for tax commissioner, effective July 1, 1979; P.A. 86-80 in reference to the period within which the commissioner shall examine a return on which an operating loss is carried-over, added the language that the expiration of such period is determined from the date of the return on which such loss is "fully" utilized or "deemed fully utilized", effective May 6, 1986 and applicable to income years of corporations commencing on or after January 1, 1986; P.A. 88-314 deleted statement concerning the date when payment of tax is due, which is covered elsewhere in chapter 208, and added language concerning penalties when a deficiency assessment is made, effective July 1, 1988, and applicable to any tax which first becomes due and payable on or after said date, to any return or report due on or after said date, or in the case of any ongoing obligation imposed in accordance with said act, to the tax period next beginning on or after said date; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 made existing section a Subsec. (a) and added provision that commissioner may not make more than one assessment for a tax period and added a new Subsec. (b) re supplemental assessment, effective June 9, 1994; P.A. 95-2 deleted Subsec. (b) and provision in former Subsec. (a) that the commissioner may not make more than one assessment for a tax period, effective March 8, 1995; P.A. 95-160 revised effective date of May Sp. Sess. P.A. 94-4 but without affecting this section; P.A. 05-116 divided existing section into Subsecs. (a) to (d) and made conforming and technical changes throughout, amended Subsec. (a) to allow further audits and provide various deadlines for mailing deficiency notices, amended Subsec. (b) to provide a penalty for failure to disclose a listed transaction, and added Subsec. (e) re timing of filing of return, effective June 24, 2005, and applicable to income years commencing on or after January 1, 2005; P.A. 05-260 amended Subsec. (b)(1) to allow the seventy-five per cent penalty for failure to disclose listed transaction to apply to returns audited on or after January 1, 2006, effective July 13, 2005.

      See Sec. 12-30c re penalty on promoter of abusive tax shelters.

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