CHAPTER 166
TEACHERS AND SUPERINTENDENTS

Table of Contents

Sec. 10-145b. Teaching certificates.
Sec. 10-145h. Requirements for certification as a bilingual education teacher.
Sec. 10-151. Employment of teachers. Definitions. Notice and hearing on failure to renew or termination of contract. Appeal.

PART I
TEACHERS

      Sec. 10-145b. Teaching certificates. (a) The State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue an initial educator certificate to any person who has graduated (1) from a four-year baccalaureate program of teacher education as approved by said state board, or (2) from a four-year baccalaureate program approved by said state board or from a college or university accredited by the board of governors or regionally accredited, provided such person has taken such teacher training equivalents as the State Board of Education shall require and, unless such equivalents are taken at institutions outside of this state, as the board of governors shall accredit. In addition, on and after July 1, 1993, each applicant shall have completed a subject area major as defined by the State Board of Education. Each such initial educator certificate shall be valid for three years, except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, and may be extended by the Commissioner of Education for an additional year for good cause upon the request of the superintendent in whose school district such person is employed or upon the request of the assessment team reviewing such person's performance.

      (b) During the period of employment in a public school, a person holding an initial educator certificate shall (1) be under the supervision of the superintendent of schools or of a principal, administrator or supervisor designated by such superintendent who shall regularly observe, guide and evaluate the performance of assigned duties by such holder of an initial certificate, and (2) participate in a beginning educator program if there is such a program for such person's certification endorsement area.

      (c) (1) The State Board of Education, upon request of a local or regional board of education, shall issue a temporary ninety-day certificate to any applicant in the certification endorsement areas of elementary education, middle grades education, secondary academic subjects, special subjects or fields, special education and administration and supervision when the following conditions are met:

      (A) The employing agent of a board of education makes a written request for the issuance of such certificate and attests to the existence of a special plan for supervision of temporary ninety-day certificate holders;

      (B) The applicant meets the following requirements, except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (C) of this subdivision:

      (i) Holds a bachelor's degree from an institution of higher education accredited by the Board of Governors of Higher Education or regionally accredited with a major either in or closely related to the certification endorsement area in which the requesting board of education is placing the applicant or, in the case of secondary or special subject or field endorsement area, possesses at least the minimum total number of semester hours of credit required for the content area;

      (ii) Has met the requirements pursuant to subsection (b) of section 10-145f;

      (iii) Presents a written application on such forms as the Commissioner of Education shall prescribe;

      (iv) Has successfully completed a program of classroom management and instructional methodology approved by the State Board of Education and, within available appropriations, provided under contract with an institution of higher education designated by the Department of Higher Education;

      (v) Possesses an undergraduate college overall grade point average of at least "B" or, if the applicant has completed at least twenty-four hours of graduate credit, possesses a graduate grade point average of at least "B"; and

      (vi) Presents supporting evidence of appropriate experience working with children; and

      (C) The Commissioner of Education may waive the requirements of subparagraphs (B)(v) or (B)(vi), or both, of this subdivision upon a showing of good cause.

      (2) A person serving under a temporary ninety-day certificate shall participate in a beginning support and assessment program pursuant to section 10-220a which is specifically designed by the state Department of Education for holders of temporary ninety-day certificates.

      (3) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section to the contrary, on and after July 1, 1989, the State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue an initial educator certificate, which shall be valid for three years, to any person who has taught successfully while holding a temporary ninety-day certificate and meets the requirements pursuant to regulations adopted pursuant to section 10-145d.

      (d) On and after July 1, 1986, and prior to July 1, 1989, a person who has graduated (1) from a four-year baccalaureate program of teacher education as approved by the state board, or (2) from a four-year baccalaureate program approved by the state board or from a college or university accredited by the Board of Governors of Higher Education or regionally accredited, provided such person has taken such teacher training equivalents as the State Board of Education shall require and, unless such equivalents are taken at institutions outside of this state, as the Board of Governors of Higher Education shall accredit, shall be issued upon proper application a provisional teaching certificate by the state board which shall be valid for up to ten years.

      (e) In order to be eligible to obtain a provisional teaching certificate, a provisional educator certificate or an initial educator certificate, each person shall be required to complete a course of study in special education comprised of not fewer than thirty-six hours, which shall include an understanding of the growth and development of exceptional children, including handicapped and gifted and talented children and children who may require special education, and methods for identifying, planning for and working effectively with special needs children in a regular classroom. Notwithstanding the provisions of this subsection to the contrary, each applicant for such certificates who has met all requirements for certification except the completion of the course in special education shall be entitled to a certificate (1) for a period not to exceed one year, provided the applicant completed a teacher preparation program either in the state prior to July 1, 1987, or outside the state, or completed the necessary combination of professional experience or coursework as required by the State Board of Education or (2) for a period not to exceed two years if the applicant applies for certification in an area for which a bachelor's degree is not required.

      (f) During the period of employment, a person holding a provisional teaching certificate pursuant to subsection (d) of this section shall be under the direct supervision of the superintendent of schools or of a principal, administrator or supervisor designated by such superintendent who shall regularly observe, guide and evaluate the performance of assigned duties by such holder of a provisional teaching certificate as well as cooperate with and counsel such holder in accordance with the provisions of sections 10-145a to 10-145d, inclusive, and 10-146b.

      (g) On and after July 1, 1989, the State Board of Education, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue a provisional educator certificate to any person who (1) has successfully completed a beginning educator program and one school year of successful teaching as attested to by the superintendent, or the superintendent's designee, in whose local or regional school district such person was employed, (2) has completed at least three years of successful teaching in a public or nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education or appropriate governing body in another state within ten years prior to application for such provisional educator certificate, as attested to by the superintendent, or the superintendent's designee, in whose school district such person was employed, or by the supervising agent of the nonpublic school in which such person was employed, and has met preparation and eligibility requirements for an initial educator certificate, (3) has taught successfully in public schools in this state for the 1988-1989 school year under a temporary emergency permit and has met the preparation and eligibility requirements for an initial educator certificate, or (4) has successfully taught with a provisional teaching certificate for the year immediately preceding an application for a provisional educator certificate as an employee of a local or regional board of education or facility approved for special education by the State Board of Education.

      (h) Prior to July 1, 1989, to qualify for a standard certificate, a person who holds or has held a provisional teaching certificate pursuant to subsection (d) of this section shall have completed thirty credit hours of course work beyond the baccalaureate degree. Such course work need not necessarily lead to a master's degree and may include graduate or undergraduate courses. It shall consist of (1) a planned program at an institution of higher education accredited by the board of governors or regionally accredited or (2) an individual program which is mutually determined or approved by the teacher and the supervisory agent of the local or regional board of education or by the supervisory agent of a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education and which is designed to increase the ability of the teacher to improve student learning. Such an individual program may include course work taken at one or more institutions for higher education approved by the board of governors and may include in-service programs sponsored by local or regional boards of education or nonpublic schools approved by the State Board of Education. Such in-service programs shall have been approved by the joint subcommittee of the Board of Governors of Higher Education and the State Board of Education established pursuant to section 10-155b of the revision of 1958, revised to January 1, 1983.

      (i) Unless otherwise provided in regulations adopted under section 10-145d, in not less than three years nor more than ten years after the issuance of a provisional teaching certificate pursuant to subsection (d) of this section and upon the statement of the employing board of education or nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education that the person who holds or has held a provisional certificate has a record of competency in the discharge of his or her duties during such provisional period, the state board, upon receipt of a proper application, shall issue to a person who holds or has held a provisional certificate, a standard teaching certificate prior to July 1, 1989, and a professional educator certificate on or after said date. A signed recommendation from the superintendent of schools for the local or regional board of education or by the superintendent of a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education shall be evidence of competency. Such recommendation shall state that the person who holds or has held a provisional teaching certificate has successfully completed at least three school years of satisfactory teaching for one or more local or regional boards of education or approved nonpublic schools. Each applicant for a certificate pursuant to this subsection shall provide to the Department of Education, in such manner and form as prescribed by the commissioner, evidence that the applicant has successfully completed coursework pursuant to subsection (h) or (j) of this section, as appropriate. Any person holding a standard or permanent certificate on July 1, 1989, shall be eligible to receive upon application a professional educator certificate to replace said standard or permanent certificate. On and after July 1, 1989, standard and permanent certificates shall no longer be valid.

      (j) On or after July 1, 1989, to qualify for a professional educator certificate, a person who holds or has held a provisional educator certificate under subsection (g) of this section shall have completed thirty credit hours of course work beyond the baccalaureate degree. It is not necessary that such course work be taken for a master's degree and such work may include graduate or undergraduate courses. Such course work shall consist of (1) a planned program at an institution of higher education accredited by the board of governors or regionally accredited and shall be related directly to the subject areas or grade levels for which the person holds endorsement or shall be in an area or areas related to the person's ability to provide instruction effectively or to meet locally determined goals and objectives or (2) an individual program which is mutually determined or approved by the teacher and the supervisory agent of the local or regional board of education or by the supervisory agent of a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education. Such program shall be designed to increase the ability of the teacher to improve student learning.

      (k) (1) Unless otherwise provided in regulations adopted under section 10-145d, in not less than three years or more than eight years after the issuance of a provisional educator certificate pursuant to subsection (g) of this section and upon the statement of the superintendent in whose school district such certificate holder was employed, or the supervisory agent of a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education, in whose school such certificate holder was employed, that the provisional educator certificate holder and such superintendent or supervisory agent have mutually determined or approved an individual program pursuant to subdivision (2) of subsection (j) of this section and upon the statement of such superintendent or supervisory agent that such certificate holder has a record of competency in the discharge of such certificate holder's duties during such provisional period, the state board upon receipt of a proper application shall issue such certificate holder a professional educator certificate. A signed recommendation from the superintendent of schools, or the superintendent's designee, for the local or regional board of education or from the supervisory agent of a nonpublic school approved by the State Board of Education shall be evidence of competency. Such recommendation shall state that the person who holds or has held a provisional educator certificate has successfully completed at least three school years of satisfactory teaching for one or more local or regional boards of education or such nonpublic schools. Each applicant for a certificate pursuant to this subsection shall provide to the Department of Education, in such manner and form as prescribed by the commissioner, evidence that the applicant has successfully completed coursework pursuant to subsection (h) or (j) of this section, as appropriate.

      (2) Upon receipt of a proper application, the State Board of Education shall issue to a teacher from another state, territory or possession of the United States or the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico who (A) is nationally board certified by an organization deemed appropriate by the Commissioner of Education to issue such certifications, and (B) has taught in another state, territory or possession of the United States or the District of Columbia or the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a minimum of three years in the preceding ten years (i) a provisional educator certificate with the appropriate endorsement, or (ii) if such teacher has completed thirty credit hours of coursework beyond the baccalaureate degree, in accordance with subdivision (1) of subsection (j) of this section, a professional educator certificate with the appropriate endorsement, subject to the provisions of subsection (m) of this section relating to denial of applications for certification.

      (l) (1) For certified employees of local and regional boards of education, except as provided in this subdivision, each professional educator certificate shall be valid for five years and continued every five years thereafter upon the successful completion of professional development activities which shall consist of not less than ninety hours of continuing education, as determined by the local or regional board of education in accordance with this section, or documented completion of a national board certification assessment in the appropriate endorsement area, during each successive five-year period. (A) Such continuing education completed by certified employees with an early childhood nursery through grade three or an elementary endorsement who hold a position requiring such an endorsement shall include at least fifteen hours of training in the teaching of reading and reading readiness and assessment of reading performance, including methods of teaching language skills necessary for reading, reading comprehension skills, phonics and the structure of the English language during each five-year period. (B) Such continuing education requirement completed by certified employees with elementary, middle grades or secondary academic endorsements who hold a position requiring such an endorsement shall include at least fifteen hours of training in the use of computers in the classroom during each five-year period unless such employees are able to demonstrate technology competency, in a manner determined by their local or regional board of education, based on state-wide standards for teacher competency in the use of technology for instructional purposes adopted pursuant to section 4d-85. (C) Such continuing education completed by (i) the superintendent of schools, and (ii) employees employed in positions requiring an intermediate administrator or supervisory certificate, or the equivalent thereof, and whose administrative or supervisory duties equal at least fifty per cent of their assigned time, shall include at least fifteen hours of training in the evaluation of teachers pursuant to section 10-151b during each five-year period. (D) In the case of certified employees with a bilingual education endorsement who hold positions requiring such an endorsement (i) in an elementary school and who do not hold an endorsement in elementary education, such continuing education taken on or after July 1, 1999, shall only count toward the ninety-hour requirement if it is in language arts, reading and mathematics, and (ii) in a middle or secondary school and who do not hold an endorsement in the subject area they teach, such continuing education taken on or after July 1, 1999, shall only count toward the ninety-hour requirement if it is in such subject area or areas. During each five-year period in which a professional educator certificate is valid, a holder of such certificate who has not completed the ninety hours of continuing education required pursuant to this subdivision, and who has not been employed while holding such certificate by a local or regional board of education for all or part of the five-year period, shall, upon application, be reissued such certificate for five years minus any period of time such holder was employed while holding such certificate by a local or regional board of education, provided there shall be only one such reissuance during each five-year period in which such certificate is valid. A certified employee of a local or regional board of education who is a member of the General Assembly and who has not completed the ninety hours of continuing education required pursuant to this subdivision for continuation of a certificate, upon application, shall be reissued a professional educator certificate for a period of time equal to six months for each year the employee served in the General Assembly during the previous five years. Continuing education hours completed during the previous five years shall be applied toward such ninety-hour requirement which shall be completed during the reissuance period in order for such employee to be eligible to have a certificate continued. The cost of the professional development activities required under this subsection for certified employees of local or regional boards of education shall be shared by the state and local or regional boards of education, except for those activities identified by the State Board of Education as the responsibility of the certificate holder. Each local and regional board of education shall make available, annually, at no cost to its certified employees not fewer than eighteen hours of professional development activities for continuing education credit. Such activities may be made available by a board of education directly, through a regional educational service center or cooperative arrangement with another board of education or through arrangements with any continuing education provider approved by the State Board of Education. Local and regional boards of education shall grant continuing education credit for professional development activities which the certified employees of the board of education are required to attend, professional development activities offered in accordance with the plan developed pursuant to subsection (b) of section 10-220a, or professional development activities which the board may approve for any individual certified employee. Each board of education shall determine the specific professional development activities to be made available with the advice and assistance of the teachers employed by such board, including representatives of the exclusive bargaining unit for such teachers pursuant to section 10-153b. The time and location for the provision of such activities shall be in accordance with either an agreement between the board of education and the exclusive bargaining unit pursuant to said section 10-153b or, in the absence of such agreement or to the extent such agreement does not provide for the time and location of all such activities, in accordance with a determination by the board of education.

      (2) Each local and regional board of education shall attest to the state Department of Education, in such form and at such time as the commissioner shall prescribe, that professional development activities for which continuing education credit is granted by the board: (A) Are planned in response to identified needs, (B) are provided by qualified instructional personnel, as appropriate, (C) have the requirements for participation in the activity shared with participants before the commencement of the activity, (D) are evaluated in terms of its effectiveness and its contribution to the attainment of school or district-wide goals, and (E) are documented in accordance with procedures established by the State Board of Education. At the end of each five-year period each professional educator shall attest to the state Department of Education, in such form and at such time as the commissioner shall prescribe, that the professional educator has successfully completed ninety hours of continuing education.

      (3) In the event that the state Department of Education notifies the local or regional board of education that the provisions of subdivision (2) of this subsection have not been met and that specific corrective action is necessary, the local or regional board of education shall take such corrective action immediately. The department shall not invalidate continuing education credit awarded prior to such notice.

      (m) (1) The State Board of Education may revoke any certificate, authorization or permit issued pursuant to sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, for any of the following reasons: (A) The holder of the certificate, authorization or permit obtained such certificate, authorization or permit through fraud or misrepresentation of a material fact; (B) the holder has persistently neglected to perform the duties for which the certificate, authorization or permit was granted; (C) the holder is professionally unfit to perform the duties for which the certificate, authorization or permit was granted; (D) the holder is convicted in a court of law of a crime involving moral turpitude or of any other crime of such nature that in the opinion of the board continued holding of a certificate, authorization or permit by the person would impair the standing of certificates, authorizations or permits issued by the board; or (E) other due and sufficient cause. The State Board of Education shall revoke any certificate, authorization or permit issued pursuant to said sections if the holder is found to have intentionally disclosed specific questions or answers to students or otherwise improperly breached the security of any administration of a state-wide examination pursuant to section 10-14n. In any revocation proceeding pursuant to this section, the State Board of Education shall have the burden of establishing the reason for such revocation by a preponderance of the evidence. Revocation shall be in accordance with procedures established by the State Board of Education pursuant to chapter 54.

      (2) When the Commissioner of Education is notified, pursuant to section 10-149a or 17a-101i that a person holding a certificate, authorization or permit issued by the State Board of Education under the provisions of sections 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, has been convicted of (A) a capital felony, pursuant to section 53a-54b, (B) arson murder, pursuant to section 53a-54d, (C) a class A felony, (D) a class B felony, except a violation of section 53a-122, 53a-252 or 53a-291, (E) a crime involving an act of child abuse or neglect as described in section 46b-120, or (F) a violation of section 53-21, 53-37a, 53a-60b, 53a-60c, 53a-71, 53a-72a, 53a-72b, 53a-73a, 53a-88, 53a-99, 53a-103a, 53a-181c, 53a-191, 53a-196, 53a-196c, 53a-216, 53a-217b or 21a-278 or subsection (a) of section 21a-277, any certificate, permit or authorization issued by the State Board of Education and held by such person shall be deemed revoked and the commissioner shall notify such person of such revocation, provided such person may request reconsideration pursuant to regulations adopted by the State Board of Education, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54.

      (3) The State Board of Education may deny an application for a certificate, authorization or permit for any of the following reasons: (A) The applicant seeks to obtain a certificate, authorization or permit through fraud or misrepresentation of a material fact; (B) the applicant has been convicted in a court of law of a crime involving moral turpitude or of any other crime of such nature that in the opinion of the board issuance of a certificate, authorization or permit would impair the standing of certificates, authorizations or permits issued by the board; or (C) other due and sufficient cause. Any applicant denied a certificate, authorization or permit shall be notified in writing of the reasons for denial. Any applicant denied a certificate, authorization or permit may request a review of such denial by the State Board of Education.

      (n) Within thirty days after receipt of notification, any initial educator certificate holder who is not granted a provisional educator certificate, or any provisional certificate holder who is not granted a standard certificate, or any provisional educator or provisional teaching certificate holder who is not granted a professional educator certificate, or any professional educator certificate holder who is not granted a continuation, under the provisions of sections 10-145a to 10-145d, inclusive, and 10-146b, may appeal to the State Board of Education for reconsideration. Said board shall review the records of the appropriate certification period, hold a hearing within sixty days if such hearing is requested in writing and render a written decision within thirty days. Any teacher aggrieved by the decision of said board may appeal therefrom in accordance with the provisions of section 4-183 and such appeal shall be privileged with respect to assignment thereof.

      (o) For the purposes of this section "supervisory agent" means the superintendent of schools or the principal, administrator or supervisor designated by such superintendent to provide direct supervision to a provisional certificate holder.

      (p) Upon application to the State Board of Education for the issuance of any certificate in accordance with this section and section 10-145d there shall be paid to the board by or on behalf of the applicant a nonreturnable fee of one hundred dollars in the case of an applicant for an initial educator certificate, two hundred dollars in the case of an applicant for a provisional educator certificate and three hundred dollars in the case of an applicant for a professional educator certificate, except that applicants for certificates for teaching adult education programs mandated under subdivision (1) of subsection (a) of section 10-69 shall pay a fee of fifty dollars; persons eligible for a certificate or endorsement for which the fee is less than that applied for shall receive an appropriate refund; persons not eligible for any certificate shall receive a refund of the application fee minus fifty dollars; and persons holding standard or permanent certificates on July 1, 1989, who apply for professional certificates to replace the standard or permanent certificates, shall not be required to pay such a fee. Upon application to the State Board of Education for the issuance of a subject area endorsement there shall be paid to the board by or on behalf of such applicant a nonreturnable fee of fifty dollars. With each request for a duplicate copy of any such certificate or endorsement there shall be paid to the board a nonreturnable fee of twenty-five dollars.

      (P.A. 74-331, S. 2, 7; P.A. 76-373, S. 1, 2; 76-436, S. 470, 681; P.A. 77-573, S. 24, 30; 77-603, S. 8, 125; P.A. 78-218, S. 97, 212; P.A. 82-218, S. 37, 46; P.A. 83-134, S. 1, 2; 83-587, S. 13, 96; P.A. 84-241, S. 2, 5; 84-298, S. 1, 2; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1, S. 23, 58; P.A. 87-499, S. 7, 34; P.A. 88-273, S. 2, 9; 88-360, S. 14-18, 63; P.A. 89-137, S. 2-5, 11, 12, 14; 89-251, S. 67, 203; P.A. 90-230, S. 78, 101; 90-325, S. 1, 14, 15; P.A. 91-208, S. 1, 11; 91-288, S. 1; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6, S. 1, 2, 117; P.A. 93-70, S. 1, 2; 93-353, S. 15-18, 52; P.A. 94-221, S. 20; P.A. 95-58, S. 1, 4; 95-259, S. 14, 32; P.A. 96-244, S. 11, 12, 63; 96-246, S. 15; P.A. 98-243, S. 15, 25; 98-252, S. 37, 44, 80; P.A. 99-211, S. 9, 10; P.A. 00-220, S. 7, 43; P.A. 01-173, S. 15, 53, 67; P.A. 02-106, S. 5, 6, 8; P.A. 03-76, S. 44; P.A. 04-138, S. 1; P.A. 05-288, S. 49.)

      History: P.A. 76-373 added Subsec. (g) re fees for teaching certificates; P.A. 76-436 amended Subsec. (e) to replace court of common pleas with superior court and to specify county or judicial district of residence, effective July 1, 1978; P.A. 77-573 substituted board of higher education for commission for higher education; P.A. 77-603 amended appeal provisions in Subsec. (e) to provide that appeals be in accordance with Sec. 4-183; P.A. 78-218 substituted "local" for "town" and "board of education" for "school district" throughout section, made reasons for revocation new Subsec. (e), removing them from Subsec. (d), and relettered former Subsecs. (e) to (g) accordingly; P.A. 82-218 replaced board of higher education with board of governors pursuant to reorganization of higher education system, effective March 1, 1983; P.A. 83-134 amended Subsec. (e) to clarify authority of board to revoke provisional certification; P.A. 83-587 made a technical amendment to Subsec. (c), replacing board of higher education with board of governors; P.A. 84-241 added "of higher education" to board of governors' title; P.A. 84-298 inserted new Subsec. (b) which requires candidates for certification to satisfactorily complete a course in special education and requires state board of education to report to the education committee upon the adoption of certification regulations requiring completion of a special education course and relettered subsequent Subsecs. accordingly; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 86-1 made provisions for initial educator, temporary ninety-day, provisional educator and professional educator certificates; made standard and permanent certificates invalid after July 1, 1988; deleted description of what may be included in an individual program for a standard certificate and requirement re final years prior to eligibility for a standard certificate, and made other technical changes; P.A. 87-499 in Subsec. (a) delayed, from July 1, 1990, to July 1, 1992, the requirement that applicants for initial educator certificates have completed a subject area major; in Subsec. (c) provided that the requirements re temporary ninety-day certificates and the issuance of initial educator certificates to the holders of such temporary certificates be in regulation rather than in the subsection that the temporary certificates not be issued until July 1, 1988; in Subsec. (e) clarified that the completion of a special education course is a prerequisite to obtaining provisional teaching and initial educator certificates; in Subsec. (g) added to the requirements for a provisional educator certificate that the person have met the requirements for an initial educator certificate and that the person may have taught for at least one year in the state; in Subsec. (h) described what may be included in an individual program; in Subsecs. (i) and (k) provided that other requirements may be provided in regulation; in Subsec (k) added that the person may have taught in a nonpublic school; in Subsec. (p) provided exceptions to the fee requirement; changed "holder" to "person who holds or has held" and made technical changes; P.A. 88-273 in Subsecs. (a), (c), (g), (i) and (j) substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988, as the date after which initial, provisional and professional educator certificates are issued; in Subsecs. (d), (h) and (i) substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988, as the date before which provisional and standard teaching certificates are issued; in Subsec. (a) substituted July 1, 1993, for July 1, 1992, as the date after which applicants for initial educator certificates shall have completed a subject area major; in Subsec. (c) added Subdiv. descriptions and in new subdivision substituted a description of the conditions which must be met for the issuance of a temporary ninety-day certificate for the provision that such a certificate be issued pursuant to regulations and added new Subdiv. (2) re participation in a beginning support and assessment program; in Subsec. (l) added Subdiv. designations and provided that continuing education units or their equivalent be determined by local or regional boards of education rather than defined by the state board of education and that commencing July 1, 1989, local and regional boards of education make not fewer than eighteen hours of professional development activities available at no cost and in accordance with the subsection; and in Subsec. (p) substituted July 1, 1989, for July 1, 1988; P.A. 88-360 in Subsec. (e) made the requirements of the Subsec. apply to eligibility for a provisional educator certificate, specified that the required course be a course of study comprised of not fewer than thirty-six hours and provided exceptions to the requirements of the subsection, in Subdiv. (3) of Subsec. (g) substituted having taught "for the 1988-1989 school year under a temporary emergency permit" for having taught "for a period of at least one year", in Subsec. (m) added provisions for the denial of an application for certification, made Subsec. (p) apply upon applications for the issuance of any certificate in accordance with Sec. 10-145d and added Subsec. (q) re the reissuance of provisional teaching and provisional educator certificates; P.A. 89-137 in Subsec. (a) provided an exception to the requirement that initial educator certificates be valid for one year of employment, in Subdiv. (3) of Subsec. (c) provided that an initial educator certificate issued to a person who has taught while holding a temporary ninety-day certificate be valid for one and one-half years and be nonrenewable, in Subdiv. (2) of Subsec. (e) made applicants who have not completed the course in special education and who held temporary ninety-day certificates within one year of application for provisional educator or initial educator certificates eligible for certificates for periods not to exceed two years, in Subsec. (i) provided that the statement of a record of competency may be from an approved nonpublic school and that evidence of the completion of certain course work be provided to the department of education by the applicant rather than by the employing board of education, in Subsec. (k) provided that the statement of a record of competency may be from the superintendent of an approved nonpublic school, that there be a statement from the superintendent that the certificate holder and the superintendent have mutually determined or approved an individual program and that evidence of certain course work be provided to the department of education by the applicant rather than by the superintendent and in Subsec. (m) expanded the types of certificates which the state board of education has the authority to revoke to those issued pursuant to Secs. 10-144o to 10-149, inclusive, and made a technical change; P.A. 89-251 increased fee for a certificate from fifteen dollars to eighteen dollars and for a duplicate from five dollars to six dollars; P.A. 90-230 made a technical correction in Subsec. (k); P.A. 90-325 in Subsec. (a) provided that the board of governors of higher education not have to accredit teacher training equivalents taken out of state, in Subdiv. (3) of Subsec. (c) deleted provisions that the one and one-half years that an initial educator certificate issued pursuant to the subdivision is valid begins on the date of issuance and that such a certificate be nonrenewable and in Subsec. (g) added Subdiv. (4) re issuance of a provisional educator certificate to a person who has taught with a provisional teaching certificate for the year immediately preceding an application for a provisional educator certificate; P.A. 91-208 in Subparagraph (B) (iv) of Subsec. (c) deleted reference to program developed through institute for effective teaching and substituted reference to program provided under contract with institution designated by higher education department; P.A. 91-288 in Subsec. (l) changed the requirement from nine continuing education units to ninety hours of continuing education, added the provisions concerning members of the general assembly, added language requiring boards of education to grant credit for activities offered in accordance with the plan developed pursuant to Sec. 10-220a or activities which the board approves for any individual certified employee, added in Subdiv. (2) evaluation of activities in terms of contribution to school goals and provision for each educator to attest to the state department of education that continuing education hours have been completed; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-6 amended Subsec. (a) to provide for a certificate of eligibility and Subsec. (p) to establish specific fees for certificate of eligibility, initial educator certificate, provisional educator certificate, professional educator certificate, and to provide exceptions for applicants for certificates for teaching adult education programs and other exceptions and provide a fee for issuance of a subject area endorsement; (Revisor's note: In 1993 obsolete references to "subsection (a) of section 10-146f" in Subsecs. (f) and (n) were deleted editorially by the Revisors since Sec. 10-146f is repealed); P.A. 93-70 amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (l) to add the provision concerning reissuance of certificate for unemployed teachers who have not completed required continuing education and made technical changes, effective May 10, 1993; P.A. 93-353 amended Subsec. (a) to remove provision tying the validity and extension of the initial educator certificate to employment in a public school and made technical changes, amended Subsec. (b) to clarify that participation in a beginning educator program is required only if there is such a program for such person's certification endorsement area, amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (c) to add the certification endorsement areas of middle grades education and administration and supervision, and to remove obsolete language and amended Subsec. (e) to delete the exception in Subdiv. (2) for applicants who hold a temporary ninety-day certificate or held such certificate within one year of application for a provisional educator or initial educator certificate, to remove a report to the general assembly on the adoption of regulations containing the provisions of Subsec. (c) and to remove obsolete language, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-221 amended Subsec. (m) to provide for the automatic revocation of certificates issued by the State Board of Education for persons convicted of crimes involving child abuse or violations of Sec. 53a-71 or 53a-73a, to require the commissioner to notify such persons of the revocation and to allow such persons to request reconsideration; P.A. 95-58 amended Subsec. (l) to add requirement for superintendents and certain administrators to complete training in the evaluation of teachers, effective July 1, 1995; P.A. 95-259 amended Subsec. (m) to require the revocation of any certificate if the holder intentionally discloses information on or breaches the security of the examination pursuant to Sec. 10-14n, effective July 6, 1995; P.A. 96-244 amended Subsec. (a) to increase the period of validity for an initial educator certificate from "one" to "two" years and amended Subsec. (c)(3) to increase the period of validity for an initial educator certificate from "one and one-half" to "two" years, effective July 1, 1996; P.A. 96-246 amended Subsec. (m) by changing reference to Subsec. (f) of Sec. 17a-101 to Sec. 17a-101i; P.A. 98-243 amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (l) to add new Subpara. (A) re requirement for training in the teaching of reading for certain certified employees and redesignated existing Subparas. (A) and (B) as Subpara. (B) (i) and (B) (ii), effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 98-252 amended Subsec. (a) to remove provision for the issuance of a certificate of eligibility, amended Subsec. (a) and Subdiv. (3) of Subsec. (c) to make the initial educator certificate valid for three years instead of two years, amended Subdiv. (1) of Subsec. (l) to add requirement for continuing education for certain employees to include at least fifteen hours of training in the use of computers in the classroom, and amended Subsec. (p) by deleting provision re certificate of eligibility, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 99-211 amended Subsec. (l)(l) to add Subpara. (D) re certified employees with bilingual education endorsements, effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 00-220 amended Subsec. (m) to require the State Board of Education in any revocation proceeding to establish the reason for the revocation by a preponderance of the evidence, effective July 1, 2000; P.A. 01-173 amended Subsec. (l)(1) to allow completion of a national board certification assessment to meet the requirement for continuing education, to expand the requirement for training in the use of computers to cover secondary school teachers and add provision re demonstration of technology competence and to make technical changes for the purposes of gender neutrality, and amended Subsec. (m) to apply the provisions to authorizations and permits, to expand the crimes for which conviction results in a person's certificate, authorization or permit being deemed revoked, to redesignate existing Subdivs. (1) to (5) as Subparas. (A) to (E) of Subdiv. (1) and to divide provisions into new Subdivs. (1) to (3), effective July 1, 2001; P.A. 02-106 amended Subsec. (g) by adding reference to superintendent's designee in Subdiv. (1), by adding provisions re attestation in Subdiv. (2) and by making a technical change and amended Subsec. (k) by adding references to supervisory agent and superintendent's designee and by making a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality, effective July 1, 2002, and amended Subsec. (m)(2) by adding reference to Sec. 10-149a; P.A. 03-76 made technical changes in Subsec. (l)(1)(C), effective June 3, 2003; P.A. 04-138 amended Subsec. (k) by designating existing provisions as Subdiv. (1) and adding Subdiv. (2) re certification of teachers who are nationally board certified, effective July 1, 2004; P.A. 05-288 made a technical change in Subsec. (k)(1), effective July 13, 2005.

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      Sec. 10-145h. Requirements for certification as a bilingual education teacher. (a) On and after July 1, 1999, the State Board of Education shall require an applicant for certification as a bilingual education teacher to demonstrate competency in English and the other language of instruction as a condition of certification. Competency in English shall be demonstrated by successful passage of the essential skills test approved by the State Board of Education. Competency in the other language shall be demonstrated on an examination, if available, of comparable difficulty as specified by the Department of Education. If such an examination is not available, competency shall be demonstrated by an appropriate alternative method as specified by the department.

      (b) On and after July 1, 2003, the State Board of Education shall require persons seeking to become (1) elementary level bilingual education teachers to be certified in elementary education and bilingual education and (2) secondary level bilingual education teachers to be certified in both the subject area they will teach and in bilingual education. Such dual certification requirement may be met by earning a bachelor's degree in one field and meeting the requirements for an endorsement in the other field.

      (c) On and after July 1, 2000, the State Board of Education shall require bilingual education teachers holding provisional educator certificates to meet the requirements of this subsection in order to qualify for a professional educator certificate to teach bilingual education. (1) Such bilingual education teachers who teach on the elementary level shall take fifteen credit hours in bilingual education and fifteen credit hours in language arts, reading and mathematics. (2) Such bilingual education teachers who teach on the middle or secondary level shall take fifteen credit hours in bilingual education and fifteen credit hours in the subject matter that they teach. Such professional educator certificate shall be valid for bilingual education and the grade level and content area of preparation.

      (d) (1) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, for the period from July 1, 2005, to July 1, 2008, the State Board of Education shall require an applicant for certification as a bilingual education teacher to demonstrate competency in English and the other language of instruction as a condition of certification. Competency in English shall be demonstrated by successful passage of the oral proficiency test in English and an essential skills test approved by the State Board of Education. Oral and written competency in the other language shall be demonstrated on an examination, if available, of comparable difficulty as specified by the Department of Education. If such an examination is not available, competency shall be demonstrated by an appropriate alternative method as specified by the department.

      (2) Notwithstanding subsection (b) of this section, for the period from July 1, 2005, to July 1, 2008, the State Board of Education shall require persons seeking to become (A) elementary level bilingual education teachers to be certified in (i) bilingual education and achieve a satisfactory evaluation on the appropriate State Board of Education approved assessment for elementary education, or (ii) elementary education and have completed six semester hours of credit in English as a second language course work as approved by the State Board of Education, and (B) secondary level bilingual education teachers to be certified in (i) bilingual education and achieve a satisfactory evaluation on the appropriate State Board of Education approved subject area assessment, or (ii) the subject area they will teach and have completed six semester hours of credit in English as a second language course work as approved by the State Board of Education. Such certificates shall be valid for subject-specific bilingual education. Certification in elementary bilingual education shall be valid for grades kindergarten to eight, inclusive, and certification in secondary subject-specific bilingual education shall be valid for grades seven to twelve, inclusive.

      (P.A. 99-211, S. 4, 10; P.A. 05-290, S. 1.)

      History: P.A. 99-211 effective July 1, 1999; P.A. 05-245 added Subsec. (d) re certification from July 1, 2005, to July 1, 2008, effective July 1, 2005.

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      Sec. 10-151. Employment of teachers. Definitions. Notice and hearing on failure to renew or termination of contract. Appeal.

      Subsec. (d):

      Subsec. requires continued employment of tenured teacher except for enumerated reasons but does not require continuation of pay during period of administrative leave. 90 CA 59.

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