CHAPTER 59
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS
AND STATE REAL PROPERTY

Table of Contents

Sec. 4b-4. (Formerly Sec. 4-26f). Restrictions on employees of the Properties Review Board and leasing employees of the Department of Public Works. Financial statements of personnel.
Sec. 4b-23. (Formerly Sec. 4-26b). State facility plan. Implementation. Responsibilities of Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management, Commissioner of Public Works and Properties Review Board. Regulations.

PART I
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS
AND STATE PROPERTIES REVIEW BOARD

      Sec. 4b-4. (Formerly Sec. 4-26f). Restrictions on employees of the Properties Review Board and leasing employees of the Department of Public Works. Financial statements of personnel. (a) No employee of the Properties Review Board shall hold another state or municipal position, nor shall any such employee or any nonclerical employee in the unit in the Department of Public Works which is responsible for acquiring, leasing and selling real property on behalf of the state, be directly involved in any enterprise which does business with the state or be directly or indirectly involved in any enterprise concerned with real estate acquisition or development. Each member and employee of the State Properties Review Board shall file, with the board and with the Office of State Ethics, and each such employee of the department shall file, with the department and with the Office of State Ethics, a financial statement indicating all sources of business income of such person in excess of one thousand dollars, and the name of any business with which he is associated, which shall have the same meaning as defined in section 1-79. Such statement shall be a public record. Financial statements for the preceding calendar year shall be filed with the commission on or before April fifteenth of each year if the employee or member held such a position during the preceding calendar year.

      (b) The provisions of sections 1-82, 1-82a and 1-88 shall apply to any alleged violation of this section.

      (P.A. 75-425, S. 6, 57; P.A. 87-570, S. 4, 5; 87-589, S. 75, 87; P.A. 88-109; P.A. 05-183, S. 31.)

      History: P.A. 87-570 applied restrictions to "any person employed by the department of administrative services as a leasing agent or as an immediate supervisor of a leasing agent", required such employees to file with department and state ethics commission, and required state properties review board members and employees to file with state ethics commission instead of secretary of the state's office; P.A. 87-589 made technical change, substituting public works department for administrative services department; P.A. 88-109 deleted the references to leasing agents and substituted nonclerical employee, added requirements concerning the financial statement and added Subsec. (b) re violations of the section; Sec. 4-26f transferred to Sec. 4b-4 in 1989; P.A. 05-183 amended Subsec. (a) to replace "State Ethics Commission" with "Office of State Ethics", effective July 1, 2005.

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PART III
PURCHASE, SALE AND LEASING
OF STATE REAL PROPERTY AND ALLOCATION OF SPACE

      Sec. 4b-23. (Formerly Sec. 4-26b). State facility plan. Implementation. Responsibilities of Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management, Commissioner of Public Works and Properties Review Board. Regulations. (a) As used in this section, "facility" means buildings and real property owned or leased by the state. The Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management shall establish guidelines which further define such term. All agencies and departments of the state shall notify the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management of their facility needs including, but not limited to, the types of such facilities and the municipalities or general location for the facilities. Each agency and department shall continue long-range planning for facility needs, establish a plan for its long-range facility needs and submit such plan and related facility project requests to the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management, and a copy thereof to the Commissioner of Public Works, on or before September first of each even-numbered year. Each such request shall be accompanied by a capital development impact statement, as required by section 4-66b, and a colocation statement, as required by section 4b-31, if the secretary so requires. Each agency and department shall base its long-term planning for facility needs on a program plan. The secretary shall establish a content guide and schedule for such plans. Each agency and department shall prepare its program plan in accordance with such guide and file it with the secretary pursuant to such schedule. Facility plans shall include, but not be limited to: Identification of (1) long-term and short-term facility needs, (2) opportunities for the substitution of state-owned space for leased space, (3) facilities proposed for demolition or abandonment which have potential for other uses and (4) space modifications or relocations that could result in cost or energy savings. Each agency or department program plan and facility plan and its facility project requests shall cover a period of at least five years. The secretary shall provide agencies and departments with instructions for preparing program plans, long-term facility plans and facility project requests and shall provide appropriate programmatic planning assistance. The Commissioner of Public Works shall assist agencies and departments with long-term facilities planning and the preparation of cost estimates for such plans and requests. The Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management shall review such plans and prepare an integrated state facility plan which meets the aggregate facility needs of the state. The secretary shall review the cost effective retrofit measures recommended to him by the Commissioner of Public Works under subsection (b) of section 16a-38a and include in the plan those measures which would best attain the energy performance standards established under subdivision (1) of subsection (b) of section 16a-38.

      (b) On or before December first of each even-numbered year, the Commissioner of Public Works shall provide the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management with a review of the plans and requests submitted pursuant to subsection (a) of this section for consistency with realistic cost factors, space requirements, space standards, implementation schedules, priority needs, objectives of the Commissioner of Public Works in carrying out his responsibilities under section 4b-30 and the need for the maintenance, improvement and replacement of state facilities.

      (c) The Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management shall present a proposed state facility plan to the Properties Review Board on or before February fifteenth of each odd-numbered year. Such plan shall be known as the recommended state facility plan and shall include all leases and capital projects and a statement of the degree to which it promotes the colocation goals addressed in subsection (e) of section 4b-31. The secretary shall establish guidelines defining "capital projects". The Properties Review Board shall submit its recommendations to the secretary on or before March first of each odd-numbered year. The Properties Review Board recommendations shall address the goals described in subsection (e) of section 4b-31. The secretary shall present the recommended state facility plan to the General Assembly on or before March fifteenth of each odd-numbered year.

      (d) Upon the approval by the General Assembly of the operating and capital budget appropriations, the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management shall update and modify the recommended state facility plan, which shall then be known as the state facility plan. The state facility plan shall be used as an advisory document for the leasing of property for use by state agencies and departments and for related capital projects.

      (e) Implementation of the state facility plan shall be the responsibility of the Commissioner of Public Works. He shall conduct a study of each proposed facility in the plan to determine: (1) The method of choice for satisfying each such facility need, (2) the geographical areas best suited to such need, (3) the feasibility and cost of such acquisition using a life-cycle cost analysis as established by subdivision (2) of subsection (b) of section 16a-38, (4) the degree to which the plan promotes the goals addressed in subsection (e) of section 4b-31 and (5) any other relevant factors. Said commissioner shall review and approve each facility plan implementation action and shall submit to the Properties Review Board a list of each such action approved and the method and plan by which it shall be accomplished. Said commissioner shall endeavor to locate human services agencies in the same buildings as municipal and private agencies that provide human services. The results of said commissioner's study along with all supportive materials shall be immediately sent to the Properties Review Board. The board shall meet to review the decision of the commissioner and may request the commissioner or any member of his department, and the head of the requesting agency or any of his employees to appear for the purpose of supplying pertinent information. Said board shall call a meeting within two weeks of the receipt of the commissioner's decision, and may meet as often as necessary, to review said decision. The board, within ninety days after the receipt of the decision of the Commissioner of Public Works, shall either accept, reject or request modification of such decision, except that when more time is required, the board may have a ninety-day extension of time, provided the board shall advise the Commissioner of Public Works in writing as to the reasons for such extension of time. If such decision is disapproved by the board, it shall so inform the commissioner along with its reasons therefor, and the commissioner shall inform the head of the requesting agency and the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management that its request has been rejected. If such decision is approved by the board it shall inform the commissioner of such approval and the commissioner shall immediately communicate his decision to the head or acting head of such governmental unit and to the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management and shall set forth the procedures to be taken to accomplish the results of such decision. The decision to make public such decision shall rest solely with the commissioner both as to time and manner of disclosure, but in no event shall such period exceed one year. The commissioner shall, when he deems it to be in the public interest, authorize the disclosure of such information; however, in the absence of such authorization, any unauthorized disclosure shall be subject to the criminal provisions of section 4b-27. All decisions made by the commissioner under the provisions of this section shall require review by the board. Except as otherwise hereinafter provided, the approval or disapproval of the Properties Review Board shall be binding on the commissioner and the requesting agency with regard to the acquisition of any real estate by lease or otherwise, notwithstanding any other statute or special act to the contrary. A majority vote of the board shall be required to accept or reject a decision of the commissioner.

      (f) Within forty-five days from the date of the board's decision regarding the request of a governmental unit, the head or acting head of such unit shall notify the commissioner (1) that it accepts his decision, (2) that it rejects his decision and withdraws its request, or (3) that it does not approve such decision and requests that all or part of such decision be modified by the commissioner. When such modification is requested, the commissioner shall, within three weeks from receipt of such request, consider and act upon such request for modification and submit his decision to the Properties Review Board. If the commissioner and the board fail to agree to such modification in whole or in part, the governmental unit may, within ten days from the date of notification of such final decision, accept the commissioner's final decision, reject such decision and withdraw its request, or appeal to the Governor. Upon such appeal, the commissioner shall submit a report to the Governor stating the board's conclusions and supporting material therefor and the governmental agency shall submit a report to the Governor stating its objections to such decision and its supporting material therefor. The Governor shall, within thirty days of the receipt of such reports, make a decision which shall be binding on the parties involved. In the absence of any such appeal or withdrawal of request, the decision of the commissioner and the board shall be final and binding upon the governmental unit.

      (g) After final action is taken approving any request or modification thereof, condemnation procedures shall continue to be prosecuted in the same manner as they were on July 1, 1975, by the agency involved, where such procedures are applicable and authorized by statute.

      (h) Approval by the Properties Review Board shall not be required prior to State Bond Commission authorization of funds (1) for planning costs and other preliminary expenses for any construction or acquisition project, or (2) for any construction or acquisition project for which an architect was selected prior to July 1, 1975.

      (i) As used in this subsection, (1) "project" means any state program, except the downtown Hartford higher education center project, as defined in subsection (l) of section 4b-55, requiring consultant services if (A) the cost of such services is estimated to exceed fifty thousand dollars or, in the case of a constituent unit of the state system of higher education, the cost of such services is estimated to exceed three hundred thousand dollars, or (B) (i) the construction costs in connection with such program are estimated to exceed five hundred thousand dollars or, in the case of a constituent unit of the state system of higher education, other than The University of Connecticut, the construction costs in connection with such program are estimated to exceed two million dollars, and (ii) the cost of a consultant services contract for such program exceeds twenty thousand dollars or the cost of an amendment to a consultant services contract makes the total cost of the amendment, all previous amendments to such contract and the contract exceed twenty thousand dollars for the first time; (2) "consultant" means "consultant" as defined in section 4b-55; and (3) "consultant services" means "consultant services" as defined in section 4b-55. Any consultant selected by the commissioner, and any contracts entered into by the commissioner with any consultants for employment, on any project under the provisions of this section, shall be subject to the approval of the Properties Review Board prior to the employment of said consultant or consultants by the commissioner. The Properties Review Board shall, within thirty days, approve or disapprove the selection of or contract with any consultant made by the Commissioner of Public Works pursuant to sections 4b-1 and 4b-55 to 4b-59, inclusive. If upon the expiration of the thirty-day period a decision has not been made, the Properties Review Board shall be deemed to have approved such selection or contract.

      (j) The Properties Review Board shall, within thirty days, approve or disapprove the proposed acquisition by lease of any residential property by the Commissioner of Mental Retardation pursuant to subsection (d) of section 4b-3. If upon the expiration of such thirty-day period a decision has not been made, the Properties Review Board shall be deemed to have approved such lease.

      (k) Any agency or department of state government requiring additional facilities not included in the state facility plan may submit a request to the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management outlining the justification for its request. The agency or department shall also provide (1) in the case of a request not previously submitted to the secretary pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the reasons why it was not so submitted, and (2) in the case of a request so submitted, sufficient new information to warrant reconsideration. Such request shall include a statement of the degree to which the proposed state facility plan promotes the goals addressed in subsection (e) of section 4b-31, if the secretary so requires. Such request shall also be accompanied by a capital development impact statement as required under section 4-66b, if the secretary so requires. Subsections (b) to (d), inclusive, of this section shall not apply to the review of such requests. Any such request for additional facilities which are determined by the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management to be of emergency nature or the lack of which may seriously hinder the efficient operation of the state, may be approved by the Properties Review Board and the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management and shall be known as an approval made during the interim between state facility plans. No action may be taken by the state to lease or construct such additional facilities unless the secretary makes such a determination.

      (l) The Commissioner of Public Works shall monitor the amount of leased space being requested and the costs of all proposed and approved facility project actions and shall advise the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management and the Governor when the space to be leased or the forecast costs to complete the project exceed the square footage amount or the cost levels in the approved state facility plan by ten per cent or more. Approval of the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management, the Properties Review Board, the State Bond Commission and the Governor shall be required to continue the project.

      (m) (1) Plans to construct, renovate or modify state-owned or occupied buildings shall provide for a portion of the total planned floor area of newly constructed state buildings or buildings constructed specifically for use by the state to be served by renewable sources of energy, including solar, wind, water and biomass sources, for use in space heating and cooling, domestic hot water and other applications. For the plan due December 1, 1979, the portion to be served by renewable energy sources shall be not less than five per cent of total planned new floor area. For each succeeding state facilities plan submitted after December 1, 1979, the portion of the total planned floor area of any additional newly constructed state buildings or buildings constructed specifically for use by the state to be served by renewable energy sources shall be increased by at least five per cent per year until a goal of fifty per cent of total planned floor area of any additional newly constructed state buildings or buildings constructed specifically for use by the state is reached. For any facility served by renewable energy sources in accordance with this subsection, not less than thirty per cent of the total energy requirements of any specific energy application, including, but not limited to, space heating or cooling and providing domestic hot water, shall be provided by renewable energy sources. The installation in newly constructed state buildings or buildings constructed specifically for use by the state of systems using renewable energy sources in accordance with this subsection, shall be subject to the life-cycle cost analysis provided for in section 16a-38. (2) The state shall fulfill the obligations imposed by subdivision (1) of this section unless such action would cause an undue economic hardship to the state.

      (n) The recommended state facility plan shall include policies for:

      (1) The encouragement of the acquisition, transfer and utilization of space in suitable buildings of historic, architectural or cultural significance, unless use of such space would not prove feasible and prudent compared with available alternatives;

      (2) The encouragement of the location of commercial, cultural, educational and recreational facilities and activities within public buildings;

      (3) The provision and maintenance of space, facilities and activities to the extent practicable, which encourage public access to and stimulate public pedestrian traffic around, into and through public buildings, permitting cooperative improvements to and uses of the areas between the building and the street, so that such activities complement and supplement commercial, cultural, educational and recreational resources in the neighborhood of public buildings;

      (4) The encouragement of the public use of public buildings for cultural, educational and recreational activities;

      (5) The encouragement of the ownership or leasing of modern buildings to replace obsolete facilities, achieve cost and energy efficiencies, maximize delivery of services to the public, preserve existing infrastructure and provide a comfortable and space-efficient work environment; and

      (6) The encouragement of the establishment of child day care facilities and child development centers including provisions for (A) full-day and year-round programs for children of working parents, (B) opportunities for parents to choose among accredited public or private programs, (C) open enrollment for children in child day care and school readiness programs, and (D) incentives for the colocation and service integration of child day care programs and school readiness programs pursuant to section 4b-31.

      (o) Not later than January 1, 1988, the Commissioner of Public Works shall adopt regulations, in consultation with the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management and the State Properties Review Board, and in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, setting forth the procedures which the Department of Public Works and such office and board shall follow in carrying out their responsibilities concerning state leasing of offices, space or other facilities. Such regulations shall specify, for each step in the leasing process at which an approval is needed in order to proceed to the next step, what information shall be required, who shall provide the information and the criteria for granting the approval. Notwithstanding any other provision of the general statutes, such regulations shall provide that: (1) The Commissioner of Public Works shall (A) review all lease requests included in, and scheduled to begin during, the first year of each approved state-wide facility and capital plan and (B) provide the Secretary of the Office of Policy and Management with an estimate of the gross cost and total square footage need for each lease, (2) the secretary shall approve a gross cost and a total square footage for each such lease and transmit each decision to the requesting agency, the commissioner and the State Properties Review Board, (3) the commissioner shall submit to the secretary, for approval, only negotiated lease requests which exceed such approved cost, or which exceed such approved square footage by at least ten per cent, and (4) the secretary shall approve or disapprove any such lease request not more than ten working days after he receives the request. If the secretary fails to act on the request during such period, the request shall be deemed to have been approved and shall be forwarded to the board.

      (P.A. 75-425, S. 2, 57; P.A. 76-253, S. 2, 6; P.A. 77-479, S. 1, 2, 3; 77-614, S. 82, 610; P.A. 79-239, S. 3-7; 79-450, S. 7, 8; 79-462, S. 1; 79-496, S. 3, 5; 79-558, S. 1, 2; 79-607, S. 2, 3; 79-631, S. 22, 111; P.A. 80-483, S. 173, 186; P.A. 81-376, S. 5, 11; P.A. 82-446, S. 2, 4; P.A. 84-489, S. 1, 5; P.A. 86-93, S. 1, 2; P.A. 87-496, S. 21, 110; 87-570, S. 1, 5; 87-589, S. 73, 87; P.A. 88-28, S. 6, 8; 88-343, S. 2, 32; P.A. 89-294, S. 1, 3; P.A. 91-124, S. 2; 91-174, S. 15, 16; P.A. 93-30, S. 3, 14; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 93-1, S. 5, 6, 45; P.A. 96-235, S. 10, 19; P.A. 97-247, S. 3, 27; 97-259, S. 18, 41; June 5 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-1, S. 5, 6, 20; P.A. 98-235, S. 6; P.A. 99-75, S. 1; 99-241, S. 47, 66; P.A. 00-66, S. 13; P.A. 05-288, S. 21.)

      History: P.A. 76-253 enacted deadline for property review board's decision under Subsec. (b) and made provision for deadline extension, under Subsec. (e) the act made contracts subject to property review board's approval; P.A. 77-479 deleted provision regarding bonding procedures from Subsec. (d) and added Subsec. (f); P.A. 77-614 deleted former Subsec. (a) and inserted new subsec. requiring plans to be submitted to secretary of office of policy and management, created new Subsecs. (b), (c) and (d) (former Subsecs. (b) to (d), inclusive became Subsecs. (e) to (g), inclusive, (f), ignored by act, became (h) and former (h) became (i)) and added Subsecs. (i) and (j) which actually became (j) and (k) in the process duties formerly performed by public works commissioner were divided between the secretary of the office of policy and management and the commissioner of administrative services; P.A. 79-239 added provisions regarding colocation of agencies; P.A. 79-450 grouped architects, landscape architects, professional engineers and surveyors as "design professionals" and imposed deadline for approving or disapproving selection or contract of design professional in Subsec. (i); P.A. 79-462 added Subsec. (l); P.A. 79-496 required studies under Subsec. (e) to contain life-cycle cost analysis; P.A. 79-558 changed submission date of plans from September 1 to August 1, 1978, required secretary to prepare state-wide plan and changed projections from three to five years in Subsec. (a), removed plan provision from Subsec. (b), excluded certain leases from facility and capital plan and made provision for emergency acquisitions in Subsec. (j); P.A. 79-607 required capital development impact statements under provisions of Subsecs. (a) and (j); P.A. 79-631 and P.A. 80-483 made technical changes; P.A. 81-376 added provision in Subsec. (a) requiring secretary to review retrofit measures and include in plan those best attaining energy performance standards; P.A. 82-446 amended Subsec. (i) by requiring the state properties review board to approve the selection of and contract with any design professional made by the commissioner of transportation; P.A. 84-489 added Subsec. (m) requiring inclusion of policies re cooperative use and historic preservation of state buildings; P.A. 86-93 amended Subsec. (c) to change the following dates: Presentation to properties review board from January first to December fifteenth; submission of properties review board recommendations to the secretary of the office of policy and management from February fifteenth to January fifteenth, and presentation to the general assembly from March fifteenth to the same time as the budget and amended Subsec. (k) to include the state bond commission; P.A. 87-496 replaced administrative services commissioner with public works commissioner; P.A. 87-570 amended Subsec. (j) to prohibit any action by state to lease facilities or real estate not included in plan unless secretary makes determination under Subsec. (j) and added Subsec. (n) re adoption of regulations re procedures for department, office and board to follow in carrying out their leasing responsibilities; P.A. 87-589 made technical change; P.A. 88-28 inserted a new Subsec. (j) re approval or disapproval by properties review board of leasing of residential property by mental retardation commissioner, relettering former Subsecs. (j) to (n) accordingly; P.A. 88-343 amended Subsec. (k) (formerly (j)) to remove the governor and state bond commission from the approval process; Sec. 4-26b transferred to Sec. 4b-23 in 1989; P.A. 89-294 substantially revised Subsec. (a) by defining "facility", requiring secretary of office of policy and management to establish guidelines further defining such term, requiring agencies and departments to notify said secretary of types of needed facilities and municipalities or general location for such facilities, requiring planning for facility needs to be based on program plans and said secretary to establish guidelines and schedule for such plans, established requirements for contents of facility plans, requiring said secretary and commissioner of public works to assist agencies and departments, requiring agencies and departments to submit plan and related project requests by September first instead of August first and changing name of plan, amended Subsec. (b) by specifying criteria for review of plans and requests, amended Subsec. (c) by deleting requirement that commissioner of public works also present plan to properties review board, requiring plan to include all leases and capital projects and requiring said secretary to establish guidelines defining "capital projects" and to submit plan to general assembly by March first instead of to governor, amended Subsec. (d) by requiring plan to be used as advisory document for leasing and related capital projects, amended Subsec. (k) by adding information that agency or department is required to provide in case of previously submitted or new requests and deleting provision that a request for additional facilities or real estate may be approved by commissioner of public works, amended Subsec. (l) by requiring commissioner of public works to monitor amount of leased space being requested and to advise said secretary and governor when space to be leased exceeds square footage amount or cost levels in facility plan, amended Subsec. (m) by applying Subsec. to "Plans to construct, renovate or modify state-owned or occupied buildings" instead of to annual proposed state-wide facility and capital plans beginning with plan due on December 1, 1979, and added Subdivs. (5) and (6) to Subsec. (n), setting forth additional policies to be included in plan; P.A. 91-124 in Subsec. (i) deleted the requirement that the properties review board approve action by the commissioner of transportation re capital improvements; P.A. 91-174 added Subsec. (p) concerning the leasing of real estate for the University of Connecticut Health Center; P.A. 93-30 made a technical change in Subsec. (k), effective July 1, 1993; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 93-1 amended Subsecs. (a), (b) and (c) to change submittal of facilities report from an annual report to a report due each even-numbered year and amended Subsec. (k) to delete reference to annual reports, effective July 1, 1993; (Revisor's note: In 1997 the Revisors editorially changed a reference in Subsec. (a) from "preparing programs plans, ..." to "preparing program plans, ..." thereby correcting a clerical error in June Sp. Sess. P.A. 93-1, S. 5); P.A. 96-235 amended Subsec. (i) by substituting "consultant" for "design professional", effective June 6, 1996; P.A. 97-247 deleted Subsec. (p) re approval of leases of The University of Connecticut Health Center by the Properties Review Board, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 97-259 amended Subdiv. (6) of Subsec. (n) to delete specification that the child day care facilities be for the children of state employees, added child development centers and Subparas. (A) to (D), inclusive, effective July 1, 1997; June 5 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-1 amended Subsec. (a) to require capital development impact statement and colocation statement, and amended Subsec. (k) to require statement of degree and capital impact statement, only at discretion of secretary, effective July 31, 1997; P.A. 98-235 amended Subsec. (i) by adding definitions of "project", "consultant" and "consultant services"; P.A. 99-75 amended definition of "project" in Subsec. (i)(1) by substituting "fifty thousand dollars" for "twenty-five thousand dollars" and "five hundred thousand dollars" for "two hundred fifty thousand dollars" and adding Subpara. (B)(ii) re cost of consultant services contract, including amendments, exceeding twenty thousand dollars; P.A. 99-241 amended Subsec. (i) to add exception for downtown Hartford higher education center, effective June 28, 1999; P.A. 00-66 made a technical change in Subsec. (i); P.A. 05-288 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 13, 2005.

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