ARTICLE 3
NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS

Table of Contents

Sec. 42a-3-103. Definitions.
Sec. 42a-3-104. Negotiable instrument.
Sec. 42a-3-118. Statute of limitations.

PART 1
GENERAL PROVISIONS AND DEFINITIONS

      Sec. 42a-3-103. Definitions. (a) In this article:

      (1) "Acceptor" means a drawee who has accepted a draft.

      (2) "Drawee" means a person ordered in a draft to make payment.

      (3) "Drawer" means a person who signs or is identified in a draft as a person ordering payment.

      (4) "Maker" means a person who signs or is identified in a note as a person undertaking to pay.

      (5) "Order" means a written instruction to pay money signed by the person giving the instruction. The instruction may be addressed to any person, including the person giving the instruction, or to one or more persons jointly or in the alternative but not in succession. An authorization to pay is not an order unless the person authorized to pay is also instructed to pay.

      (6) "Ordinary care" in the case of a person engaged in business means observance of reasonable commercial standards, prevailing in the area in which the person is located, with respect to the business in which the person is engaged. In the case of a bank that takes an instrument for processing for collection or payment by automated means, reasonable commercial standards do not require the bank to examine the instrument if the failure to examine does not violate the bank's prescribed procedures and the bank's procedures do not vary unreasonably from general banking usage not disapproved by this article or article 4.

      (7) "Party" means a party to an instrument.

      (8) "Promise" means a written undertaking to pay money signed by the person undertaking to pay. An acknowledgment of an obligation by the obligor is not a promise unless the obligor also undertakes to pay the obligation.

      (9) "Prove" with respect to a fact means to meet the burden of establishing the fact.

      (10) "Remitter" means a person who purchases an instrument from its issuer if the instrument is payable to an identified person other than the purchaser.

      (b) Other definitions applying to this article and the sections in which they appear are:

      "Acceptance". Section 42a-3-409.
      "Accommodated party". Section 42a-3-419.
      "Accommodation party". Section 42a-3-419.
      "Alteration". Section 42a-3-407.
      "Anomalous endorsement". Section 42a-3-205.
      "Blank endorsement". Section 42a-3-205.
      "Cashier's check". Section 42a-3-104.
      "Certificate of deposit". Section 42a-3-104.
      "Certified check". Section 42a-3-409.
      "Check". Section 42a-3-104.
      "Consideration". Section 42a-3-303.
      "Draft". Section 42a-3-104.
      "Endorsement". Section 42a-3-204.
      "Endorser". Section 42a-3-204.
      "Holder in due course". Section 42a-3-302.
      "Incomplete instrument". Section 42a-3-115.
      "Instrument". Section 42a-3-104.
      "Issue". Section 42a-3-105.
      "Issuer". Section 42a-3-105.
      "Negotiable instrument". Section 42a-3-104.
      "Negotiation". Section 42a-3-201.
      "Note". Section 42a-3-104.
      "Payable at a definite time". Section 42a-3-108.
      "Payable on demand". Section 42a-3-108.
      "Payable to bearer". Section 42a-3-109.
      "Payable to order". Section 42a-3-109.
      "Payment". Section 42a-3-602.
      "Person entitled to enforce". Section 42a-3-301.
      "Presentment". Section 42a-3-501.
      "Reacquisition". Section 42a-3-207.
      "Special endorsement". Section 42a-3-205.
      "Teller's check". Section 42a-3-104.
      "Transfer of instrument". Section 42a-3-203.
      "Traveler's check". Section 42a-3-104.
      "Value". Section 42a-3-303.

      (c) The following definitions in other articles apply to this article:

      "Bank". Section 42a-4-105.
      "Banking day". Section 42a-4-104.
      "Clearing house". Section 42a-4-104.
      "Collecting bank". Section 42a-4-105.
      "Depositary bank". Section 42a-4-105.
      "Documentary draft". Section 42a-4-104.
      "Intermediary bank". Section 42a-4-105.
      "Item". Section 42a-4-104.
      "Payor bank". Section 42a-4-105.
      "Suspends payments". Section 42a-4-104.

      (d) In addition, article 1 contains general definitions and principles of construction and interpretation applicable throughout this article.

      (1959, P.A. 133, S. 3-103; P.A. 91-304, S. 3; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11, S. 15, 70; P.A. 05-109, S. 29.)

      History: P.A. 91-304 entirely replaced former provisions re scope of article with provisions re definitions; May Sp. Sess. P.A. 92-11 amended Subsec. (a) to make a technical change in the definition of "prove"; P.A. 05-109 amended Subsec. (a) by deleting definition of "good faith" and making technical changes to conform to revisions made to article 1 by the same act.

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      Sec. 42a-3-104. Negotiable instrument.

      Note was a negotiable instrument in accordance with this section. 91 CA 268.

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      Sec. 42a-3-118. Statute of limitations.

      Subsec. (a):

      If debtor defaults on an obligation payable in installments by failing to make installment payment and lender does not demand payment, lender's cause of action does not automatically accrue as of date of the default, thereby beginning statutory limitation period. 86 CA 403.

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